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1.  Consed: a graphical editor for next-generation sequencing 
Bioinformatics  2013;29(22):2936-2937.
Summary: The rapid growth of DNA sequencing throughput in recent years implies that graphical interfaces for viewing and correcting errors must now handle large numbers of reads, efficiently pinpoint regions of interest and automate as many tasks as possible. We have adapted consed to reflect this. To allow full-feature editing of large datasets while keeping memory requirements low, we developed a viewer, bamScape, that reads billion-read BAM files, identifies and displays problem areas for user review and launches the consed graphical editor on user-selected regions, allowing, in addition to longstanding consed capabilities such as assembly editing, a variety of new features including direct editing of the reference sequence, variant and error detection, display of annotation tracks and the ability to simultaneously process a group of reads. Many batch processing capabilities have been added.
Availability: The consed package is free to academic, government and non-profit users, and licensed to others for a fee by the University of Washington. The current version (26.0) is available for linux, macosx and solaris systems or as C++ source code. It includes a user’s manual (with exercises) and example datasets. http://www.phrap.org/consed/consed.html
Contact: dgordon@uw.edu
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btt515
PMCID: PMC3810858  PMID: 23995391
2.  Consistency and Standardization of Color in Medical Imaging: a Consensus Report 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2014;28(1):41-52.
This article summarizes the consensus reached at the Summit on Color in Medical Imaging held at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on May 8–9, 2013, co-sponsored by the FDA and ICC (International Color Consortium). The purpose of the meeting was to gather information on how color is currently handled by medical imaging systems to identify areas where there is a need for improvement, to define objective requirements, and to facilitate consensus development of best practices. Participants were asked to identify areas of concern and unmet needs. This summary documents the topics that were discussed at the meeting and recommendations that were made by the participants. Key areas identified where improvements in color would provide immediate tangible benefits were those of digital microscopy, telemedicine, medical photography (particularly ophthalmic and dental photography), and display calibration. Work in these and other related areas has been started within several professional groups, including the creation of the ICC Medical Imaging Working Group.
doi:10.1007/s10278-014-9721-0
PMCID: PMC4305059  PMID: 25005868
Color imaging; Medical imaging; Color calibration; Color management
3.  Expression-based segmentation of the Drosophila genome 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:812.
Background
It is generally accepted that gene order in eukaryotes is nonrandom, with adjacent genes often sharing expression patterns across tissues, and that this organization may be important for gene regulation. Here we describe a novel method, based on an explicit probability model instead of correlation analysis, for identifying coordinately expressed gene clusters (‘coexpression segments’), apply it to Drosophila melanogaster, and look for epigenetic associations using publicly available data.
Results
We find that two-thirds of Drosophila genes fall into multigenic coexpression segments, and that such segments are of two main types, housekeeping and tissue-restricted. Consistent with correlation-based studies, we find that adjacent genes within the same segment tend to be physically closer to each other than to the adjacent genes in different segments, and that tissue-restricted segments are enriched for testis-expressed genes. Our segmentation pattern correlates with Hi-C based physical interaction domains, but segments are generally much smaller than domains. Intersegment regions (including those which do not correspond to physical domain boundaries) are enriched for insulator binding sites.
Conclusions
We describe a novel approach for identifying coexpression clusters that does not require arbitrary cutoff values or heuristics, and find that coexpression of adjacent genes is widespread in the Drosophila genome. Coexpression segments appear to reflect a level of regulatory organization related to, but below that of physical interaction domains, and depending in part on insulator binding.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-812
PMCID: PMC3909303  PMID: 24256206
4.  Integrative Analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans Genome by the modENCODE Project 
Gerstein, Mark B. | Lu, Zhi John | Van Nostrand, Eric L. | Cheng, Chao | Arshinoff, Bradley I. | Liu, Tao | Yip, Kevin Y. | Robilotto, Rebecca | Rechtsteiner, Andreas | Ikegami, Kohta | Alves, Pedro | Chateigner, Aurelien | Perry, Marc | Morris, Mitzi | Auerbach, Raymond K. | Feng, Xin | Leng, Jing | Vielle, Anne | Niu, Wei | Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn | Agarwal, Ashish | Alexander, Roger P. | Barber, Galt | Brdlik, Cathleen M. | Brennan, Jennifer | Brouillet, Jeremy Jean | Carr, Adrian | Cheung, Ming-Sin | Clawson, Hiram | Contrino, Sergio | Dannenberg, Luke O. | Dernburg, Abby F. | Desai, Arshad | Dick, Lindsay | Dosé, Andréa C. | Du, Jiang | Egelhofer, Thea | Ercan, Sevinc | Euskirchen, Ghia | Ewing, Brent | Feingold, Elise A. | Gassmann, Reto | Good, Peter J. | Green, Phil | Gullier, Francois | Gutwein, Michelle | Guyer, Mark S. | Habegger, Lukas | Han, Ting | Henikoff, Jorja G. | Henz, Stefan R. | Hinrichs, Angie | Holster, Heather | Hyman, Tony | Iniguez, A. Leo | Janette, Judith | Jensen, Morten | Kato, Masaomi | Kent, W. James | Kephart, Ellen | Khivansara, Vishal | Khurana, Ekta | Kim, John K. | Kolasinska-Zwierz, Paulina | Lai, Eric C. | Latorre, Isabel | Leahey, Amber | Lewis, Suzanna | Lloyd, Paul | Lochovsky, Lucas | Lowdon, Rebecca F. | Lubling, Yaniv | Lyne, Rachel | MacCoss, Michael | Mackowiak, Sebastian D. | Mangone, Marco | McKay, Sheldon | Mecenas, Desirea | Merrihew, Gennifer | Miller, David M. | Muroyama, Andrew | Murray, John I. | Ooi, Siew-Loon | Pham, Hoang | Phippen, Taryn | Preston, Elicia A. | Rajewsky, Nikolaus | Rätsch, Gunnar | Rosenbaum, Heidi | Rozowsky, Joel | Rutherford, Kim | Ruzanov, Peter | Sarov, Mihail | Sasidharan, Rajkumar | Sboner, Andrea | Scheid, Paul | Segal, Eran | Shin, Hyunjin | Shou, Chong | Slack, Frank J. | Slightam, Cindie | Smith, Richard | Spencer, William C. | Stinson, E. O. | Taing, Scott | Takasaki, Teruaki | Vafeados, Dionne | Voronina, Ksenia | Wang, Guilin | Washington, Nicole L. | Whittle, Christina M. | Wu, Beijing | Yan, Koon-Kiu | Zeller, Georg | Zha, Zheng | Zhong, Mei | Zhou, Xingliang | Ahringer, Julie | Strome, Susan | Gunsalus, Kristin C. | Micklem, Gos | Liu, X. Shirley | Reinke, Valerie | Kim, Stuart K. | Hillier, LaDeana W. | Henikoff, Steven | Piano, Fabio | Snyder, Michael | Stein, Lincoln | Lieb, Jason D. | Waterston, Robert H.
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2010;330(6012):1775-1787.
We systematically generated large-scale data sets to improve genome annotation for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a key model organism. These data sets include transcriptome profiling across a developmental time course, genome-wide identification of transcription factor–binding sites, and maps of chromatin organization. From this, we created more complete and accurate gene models, including alternative splice forms and candidate noncoding RNAs. We constructed hierarchical networks of transcription factor–binding and microRNA interactions and discovered chromosomal locations bound by an unusually large number of transcription factors. Different patterns of chromatin composition and histone modification were revealed between chromosome arms and centers, with similarly prominent differences between autosomes and the X chromosome. Integrating data types, we built statistical models relating chromatin, transcription factor binding, and gene expression. Overall, our analyses ascribed putative functions to most of the conserved genome.
doi:10.1126/science.1196914
PMCID: PMC3142569  PMID: 21177976
5.  Widespread Genomic Signatures of Natural Selection in Hominid Evolution 
PLoS Genetics  2009;5(5):e1000471.
Selection acting on genomic functional elements can be detected by its indirect effects on population diversity at linked neutral sites. To illuminate the selective forces that shaped hominid evolution, we analyzed the genomic distributions of human polymorphisms and sequence differences among five primate species relative to the locations of conserved sequence features. Neutral sequence diversity in human and ancestral hominid populations is substantially reduced near such features, resulting in a surprisingly large genome average diversity reduction due to selection of 19–26% on the autosomes and 12–40% on the X chromosome. The overall trends are broadly consistent with “background selection” or hitchhiking in ancestral populations acting to remove deleterious variants. Average selection is much stronger on exonic (both protein-coding and untranslated) conserved features than non-exonic features. Long term selection, rather than complex speciation scenarios, explains the large intragenomic variation in human/chimpanzee divergence. Our analyses reveal a dominant role for selection in shaping genomic diversity and divergence patterns, clarify hominid evolution, and provide a baseline for investigating specific selective events.
Author Summary
Comparisons of the human and chimpanzee genomes have revealed that the frequency of sequence differences between these species varies dramatically across the genome. Previously proposed explanations for this variation include a large ancestral population, variable mutation rates, or a complex speciation scenario in which humans and chimpanzees initially separated but then rehybridyzed several million years later. We consider, here, an alternate possibility; the action of selection to remove less-fit functional variants from a population has significantly reduced the frequency of “neutral” sequence differences at nearby sites. We identified sequences that are likely to be subject to natural selection because they are highly conserved across placental mammals and showed that neutral differences among five primate species are greatly depleted near such sequences. Applying a theoretical evolutionary model, we found that selection has played a greater role in shaping hominid genome evolution than has been appreciated and provides a better explanation for patterns of sequence differences than other hypotheses.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000471
PMCID: PMC2669884  PMID: 19424416

Results 1-5 (5)