Assess a generic measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as an outcome measure in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's, GPA)
Subjects were participants in the Wegener’s Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial (WGET) or the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium Longitudinal Study (VCRC-LS). HRQOL was assessed with the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) that includes physical and mental component summary scores (PCS and MCS). Disease activity was assessed with the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener’s Granulomatosis (BVAS/WG).
Data from 180 subjects in the WGET (median follow-up = 2.3 years, mean number of visits = 10) and 237 subjects in the VCRC-LS (median follow-up = 2.0 years, mean number of visits = 8) were analyzed. One unit increase in BVAS/WG corresponded to a 1.15 unit (95%CI: 1.02; 1.29) decrease in PCS and a 0.93 (95%CI: 0.78; 1.07) decrease in MCS in the WGET and by 1.16 for PCS (95%CI: 0.94; 1.39) and 0.79 for MCS (95%CI: 0.51; 1.39) in the VCRC-LS. In both arms of the WGET study, SF-36 measures improved rapidly during the first 6 weeks of treatment followed by gradual improvement among patients achieving sustained remission (0.5 improvement in PCS per three months), but worsened slightly (0.03 decrease in PCS per three months) among patients not achieving sustained remission (p = 0.005).
HRQOL, as measured by SF-36, is reduced among patients with GPA. SF-36 measures are modestly associated with other disease outcomes and discriminate between disease states of importance in GPA.
vasculitis; health-related quality of life; outcome measures
Lersivirine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with a unique resistance profile exhibiting potent antiviral activity against wild-type HIV and several clinically relevant NNRTI-resistant strains. Lersivirine, a weak inducer of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme CYP3A4, is metabolized by CYP3A4 and UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7). Two open, randomized, two-way (study 1; study A5271008) or three-way (study 2; study A5271043) crossover phase I studies were carried out under steady-state conditions in healthy subjects. Study 1 (n = 17) investigated the effect of oral rifampin on the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of lersivirine. Study 2 (n = 18) investigated the effect of oral rifabutin on the PKs of lersivirine and the effect of lersivirine on the PKs of rifabutin and its active metabolite, 25-O-desacetyl-rifabutin. Coadministration with rifampin decreased the profile of the lersivirine area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h postdose (AUC24), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), and plasma concentration observed at 24 h postdose (C24) by 85% (90% confidence interval [CI], 83, 87), 83% (90% CI, 79, 85), and 92% (90% CI, 89, 94), respectively, versus the values for lersivirine alone. Coadministration with rifabutin decreased the lersivirine AUC24, Cmax, and C24 by 34% (90% CI, 29, 39), 25% (90% CI, 16, 33), and 58% (90% CI, 52, 64), respectively, compared with the values for lersivirine alone. Neither the rifabutin concentration profile nor overall exposure was affected following coadministration with lersivirine. Lersivirine and rifabutin reduced the 25-O-desacetyl-rifabutin AUC24 by 27% (90% CI, 21, 32) and Cmax by 27% (90% CI, 19, 34). Lersivirine should not be coadministered with rifampin, which is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, UGT2B7, and P-glycoprotein activity and thus substantially lowers lersivirine exposure. No dose adjustment of rifabutin is necessary in the presence of lersivirine; an upward dose adjustment of lersivirine may be warranted when it is coadministered with rifabutin.
Objective: While all second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are promoted for having a low risk of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), clinical observations suggest differences between the various agents. Nevertheless, this question has never been examined in a systematic review and meta-analysis of head-to-head comparisons. Methods: We searched the register of the Cochrane schizophrenia group (last search May 2007), supplemented by MEDLINE (last search July 2009) for randomized, blinded studies comparing the following SGAs in the treatment of schizophrenia or related disorders: amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone, and zotepine. At least 3 reviewers extracted the data independently. The primary outcome was “use of antiparkinson medication.” The results were combined in a meta-analysis. Results: We included 54 studies with 116 arms. Risperidone was associated with more use of antiparkinson medication than clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. Ziprasidone showed more use of antiparkinson medication than olanzapine and quetiapine and zotepine more than clozapine. There was no significant difference between amisulpride and its comparators (olanzapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone). Quetiapine showed significantly less use of antiparkinson medication than the 3 other SGAs it was compared with (olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone). Scale-derived data (Barnes Akathisia Scale and Simpson Angus Scale) were limited. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis demonstrates that there are differences between the SGAs in their ability to induce EPS that clinicians consider warrant treatment with antimuscarinic drugs. Even though the differences were relatively small, they might be important for individual patients and should be taken into account in drug choice.
antiparkinson medication; akathisia; classification of antipsychotics
The past decade has brought important advances in the understanding of rheumatoid arthritis and its management and treatment. New classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, better definitions of treatment outcome and remission, and the introduction of biologic response-modifying drugs designed to inhibit the inflammatory process have greatly altered the approach to managing this disease. More aggressive management of rheumatoid arthritis early after diagnosis and throughout the course of the disease has resulted in improvement in patient functioning and quality of life, reduction in comorbid conditions, and enhanced survival.
ACPA, anti–citrullinated protein antibody; ACR, American College of Rheumatology; BeSt, Behandel-Strategieën [trial]; CDAI, Clinical Disease Activity Index; CRP, C-reactive protein; CTLA-4:Ig, cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4:immunoglobulin fusion protein; DAS28, Disease Activity Score in 28 joints; DMARD, disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; EULAR, European League Against Rheumatism; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; MTX, methotrexate; SDAI, Simplified Disease Activity Index; SSZ, sulfasalazine; TEAR, Treatment of Early Aggressive Rheumatoid Arthritis [study]; TNF, tumor necrosis factor
Standard treatment for severe granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, previously Wegener’s granulomatosis) is daily oral cyclophosphamide (CYC), a cytotoxic agent associated with ovarian failure. In this study we assessed the rate of diminished ovarian reserve in women with GPA who received CYC versus methotrexate (MTX).
Patients in the Wegener’s Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial received either daily CYC or weekly MTX and were randomized to etanercept or placebo. For all women under 50, plasma samples taken at baseline or early in the study were evaluated against samples taken later in the study to compare levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), endocrine markers of remaining egg supply. Diminished ovarian reserve was defined as AMH<1.0ng/ml.
Of 42 women in this analysis (mean age 35), 24 had CYC exposure prior to enrollment and 28 received the drug during the study. At study entry, women with prior CYC exposure had significantly lower AMH, higher FSH, and a higher rate of early menstruation cessation. For women with normal baseline ovarian function, 6/8 who received CYC during the trial developed diminished ovarian reserve, compared to 0/4 who did not receive CYC (p<0.05). Changes in AMH correlated inversely with cumulative CYC dose (p=0.01), with a 0.74ng/ml decline in AMH for each 10g of CYC.
Daily oral CYC, even when administered for less than 6 months, causes diminished ovarian reserve, as indicated by low AMH levels. These data highlight the need for alternative treatments for GPA in women of childbearing age.
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis; fertility; cyclophosphamide; anti-Müllerian hormone; ovarian function
Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common ovarian estrogen producing tumors, leading to symptoms of excessive estrogen such as endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma. These tumors have malignant potential and often recur. The etiology of GCT is unknown. TGFα is a potent mitogen for many different cells. However, its function in GCT initiation, progression and metastasis has not been determined. The present study aims to determine whether TGFα plays a role in the growth of GCT cells. KGN cells, which are derived from an invasive GCT and have many features of normal granulosa cells, were used as the cellular model. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR results showed that the ErbB family of receptors is expressed in human GCT tissues and GCT cell lines. RT-PCR results also indicated that TGFα and EGF are expressed in the human granulosa cells and the GCT cell lines, suggesting that TGFα might regulate GCT cell function in an autocrine/paracrine manner. TGFα stimulated KGN cell DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, cell viability, cell cycle progression, and cell migration. TGFα rapidly activated EGFR/PI3K/Akt and mTOR pathways, as indicated by rapid phosphorylation of Akt, TSC2, Rictor, mTOR, P70S6K and S6 proteins following TGFα treatment. TGFα also rapidly activated the EGFR/MEK/ERK pathway, and P38 MAPK pathways, as indicated by the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR, MEK, ERK1/2, P38, and CREB after TGFα treatment. Whereas TGFα triggered a transient activation of Akt, it induced a sustained activation of ERK1/2 in KGN cells. Long-term treatment of KGN cells with TGFα resulted in a significant increase in cyclin D2 and a decrease in p27/Kip1, two critical regulators of granulosa cell proliferation and granulosa cell tumorigenesis. In conclusion, TGFα, via multiple signaling pathways, regulates KGN cell proliferation and migration and may play an important role in the growth and metastasis of GCTs.
G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) plays an important role in mediating estrogen action in many different tissues under both physiological and pathological conditions. G-1 (1-[4-(6-bromobenzo[1,3]dioxol-5yl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta [c]quinolin-8-yl]-ethanone) has been developed as a selective GPER agonist to distinguish estrogen actions mediated by GPER from those mediated by classic estrogen receptors. In the present study, we surprisingly found that G-1 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis of KGN cells (a human ovarian granulosa cell tumor cell line), actions that were not blocked by a selective GPER antagonist G15 or siRNA knockdown of GPER. G-1 also suppressed proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in GPER-negative HEK-293 cells and MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that G-1 suppresses proliferation of ovarian and breast cancer cells in a GPER-independent manner. G-1 may be a candidate for the development of drugs against ovarian and breast cancer.
GPR30/GPER; G-1; G15; ovarian cancer; breast cancer; estrogen receptors
Persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer a high burden of infections, but currently no biomarkers are available to identify individuals at greatest risk. A prospective longitudinal study was therefore conducted to determine the association between the responsiveness of ex vivo cytokine production and 6-month risk of infections. Infections were identified by billing codes and validated by medical record review. At baseline, the release of 17 cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to stimulation, or media alone, was measured using multiplexed cytokine analysis. Production of IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and GM-CSF, induced by various conditions, was significantly associated with the occurrence of infections. A multivariable prediction model based on these data provided new information on the risk of infection beyond standard assessments of disease activity, severity, and treatment. Future studies could utilize this information to devise new biomarkers for the prediction of infection in patients with RA.
Immune signature; immune response; peripheral blood mononuclear cells
The low level of response (LR) to alcohol is one of several genetically-influenced characteristics that increase the risk for heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Efforts to understand how LR operates through additional life influences have been carried out primarily in modest sized U.S.-based samples with limited statistical power, raising questions about generalizability and about the importance of components with smaller effects. This study evaluates a full LR-based model of risk in a large sample of adolescents from the U.K.
Cross-sectional structural equation models (SEM) were used for the approximate first half of the age 17 subjects assessed by the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), generating data on 1,905 adolescents (0 age 17.8 years, 44.2% males). LR was measured with the Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) Questionnaire, outcomes were based on drinking quantities and problems, and standardized questionnaires were used to evaluate peer substance use, alcohol expectancies, and using alcohol to cope with stress.
In this young and large U.K. sample, a low LR related to more adverse alcohol outcomes both directly and through partial mediation by all three additional key variables (peer substance use, expectancies, and coping). The models were similar in males and females.
These results confirm key elements of the hypothesized LR-based model in a large U.K. sample, supporting some generalizability beyond U.S. groups. They also indicate that with enough statistical power multiple elements contribute to how LR relates to alcohol outcomes, and reinforce the applicability of the model to both genders.
ALSPAC; alcohol; level of response; structural equation models; adolescents
The US Food and Drug Administration issued a black box warning for antidepressants and suicidal thoughts and behavior in children and young adults.
To determine the short-term safety of anti-depressants by standard assessments of suicidal thoughts and behavior in youth, adult, and geriatric populations and the mediating effect of changes in depressive symptoms.
All intent-to-treat person-level longitudinal data of major depressive disorder from 12 adult, 4 geriatric, and 4 youth randomized controlled trials of fluoxetine hydrochloride and 21 adult trials of venlafaxine hydrochloride.
All sponsor-conducted randomized controlled trials of fluoxetine and venlafaxine.
The suicide items from the Children’s Depression Rating Scale–Revised and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale as well as adverse event reports of suicide attempts and suicide during active treatment were analyzed in 9185 patients (fluoxetine: 2635 adults, 960 geriatric patients, 708 youths; venlafaxine: 2421 adults with immediate-release venlafaxine and 2461 adults with extended-release venlafaxine) for a total of 53 260 person-week observations.
Suicidal thoughts and behavior decreased over time for adult and geriatric patients randomized to fluoxetine or venlafaxine compared with placebo, but no differences were found for youths. In adults, reduction in suicide ideation and attempts occurred through a reduction in depressive symptoms. In all age groups, severity of depression improved with medication and was significantly related to suicide ideation or behavior.
Fluoxetine and venlafaxine decreased suicidal thoughts and behavior for adult and geriatric patients. This protective effect is mediated by decreases in depressive symptoms with treatment. For youths, no significant effects of treatment on suicidal thoughts and behavior were found, although depression responded to treatment. No evidence of increased suicide risk was observed in youths receiving active medication. To our knowledge, this is the first research synthesis of suicidal thoughts and behavior in depressed patients treated with antidepressants that examined the mediating role of depressive symptoms using complete longitudinal person-level data from a large set of published and unpublished studies.
Some meta-analyses suggest that efficacy of antidepressants for major depression is over-stated and limited to severe depression.
To determine short-term efficacy of antidepressants for treating major depression in youth, adults and geriatric populations.
Reanalysis of all intent-to-treat person-level longitudinal data during the first 6 weeks of treatment of major depressive disorder from 12 adult, 4 geriatric and 4 youth RCTs of fluoxetine and 21 adult trials of venlafaxine.
All sponsor conducted RCTs of fluoxetine and venlafaxine.
Main Outcome Measures
Children’s Depression Rating Scale (youth), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (adult and geriatric) and estimated response and remission rates at 6 weeks.
Fluoxetine – 2635 adult, 960 geriatric and 708 youth. Venlafaxine - 2421 IR and 2461 ER adult.
Patients in all age and drug groups had significantly greater improvement relative to placebo controls. Differential rate of improvement was largest for adult fluoxetine patients (35% greater than placebo). Youth had the largest treated versus control difference in response rates (24.1%) and remission rates (30.1%), with adult differences generally in the 15%–22% range. Geriatric patients had the smallest drug-placebo differences, 19% greater rate of improvement, 10% for response and 7% for remission. Venlafaxine IR produced larger effects than ER. Baseline severity could not be shown to affect symptom reduction.
This is the first research synthesis in this area to use complete longitudinal person-level data from a large set of published and unpublished studies. The results do not support previous findings that antidepressants show little benefit except for severe depression. The antidepressants fluoxetine and venlafaxine are efficacious for major depression, in all age groups although more so in youth and adults compared with geriatric patients. Baseline severity was not significantly related to degree of treatment advantage over placebo.
Previous studies have shown that microinjections of the GABA-A agonist muscimol into the median raphe nucleus (MR) result in large increases in the intake of solid foods. In the current study, we used microstructural techniques to characterize the effects of intra-MR muscimol injections on the consumption of either a 0.05 M or a 0.29 M sucrose solution. After injections of either saline or muscimol, animals consumed more of the 0.29 M than the 0.05 M solution, an effect which resulted primarily from increases in the initial rate of consumption with no change in the rate at which licking decayed across the test session. In contrast, intra-MR muscimol injections had little effect on the initial licking rate, but greatly increased meal duration, indicating that this treatment affected ingestion in a different way than did altering the sucrose concentration. Muscimol injections produced a significantly larger increase in the intake of the 0.29 M than of the 0.05 M solution. Intra-MR muscimol injections did not alter the within burst rate of licking, suggesting that they did not affect the functioning of the licking pattern generator. In contrast, these injections did increase the number of licks contained within “clusters”, that is groups of licks separated from each other by intervals of more than 0.5 sec. These findings show that inactivation of the MR produces a powerful effect on the intake of liquid diets, and that the nature of this effect is different than that produced here by changes in sucrose concentration and from those reported after pharmacological manipulations of a number of other brain systems. We additionally discuss several theoretical issues arising in the interpretation of microstructural data
Feeding; Ingestive behavior; serotonin; GABA; nucleus centralis superior; microstructure; lickometer
An association between therapeutic inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and solid malignancies was observed during the Wegener’s Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial (WGET). The present study was conducted to determine the malignancy risk beyond the exposure to study therapy.
The occurrence and type of solid malignancies were ascertained using a standardized data form. Data collected included vital status, histologic reports, and therapeutic interventions. The SEER database was used to estimate a standardized incidence rate (SIR) for solid malignancies.
The median post-trial follow-up available for 153 patients (85% of the original cohort) was 43 months. Fifty percent of these patients had received etanercept. There were no differences in demographics between etanercept and placebo groups. Thirteen new solid malignancies were detected, 8 in the etanercept and 5 in the placebo group. The risk of solid malignancies in the etanercept group was increased compared to the general population (SIR=3.92; 95% CI 1.69–7.72), but not different from that of the placebo group (SIR=2.89; 95% CI 0.94–6.73, p=0.39). All solid malignancies occurred in patients exposed to cyclophosphamide. The overall duration of disease and a history of malignancy before trial enrollment were associated with the development of malignancy during post-trial follow-up.
The incidence of solid malignancy remained increased during long-term follow-up of the WGET cohort. However, this could not be attributed solely to etanercept exposure during the trial. Anti-TNF therapy with etanercept appears to further increase the risk of malignancy observed in patients with WG treated with cytotoxic therapy and should be avoided in such patients.
Wegener’s granulomatosis; vasculitis; etanercept; malignancy; cancer
To determine the effectiveness of postgraduate training for learning extraperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (EP-RARP) and to identify any unmet training needs.
Materials and Methods
The training resources used were live surgery observations, digital video disc instruction, postgraduate courses, and literature review. Modifications to the transperitoneal (TP) setup in equipment, patient positioning, port placement, and access technique were identified. A surgeon who had previous experience with 898 TP robot-assisted radical prostatectomies (TP-RARPs) performed EP-RARP in 30 patients. We evaluated setup results, emphasizing access-related difficulties, and compared the EP cohort with a nonrandomized, concurrent TP cohort of 62 patients for short-term outcomes.
The median setup time for EP was 26 minutes (range 15–65 min) for EP compared with 14 to 17 minutes for the comparable TP setup and dropping the bladder. During EP setup and dissection, peritoneal entry occurred in 37%, incorrect port spacing in 10%, epigastric vessel injury in 10%, and other minor pitfalls in 10%. No significant differences were found between EP and TP in postsetup operative times, hospital stay, complications, surgical margin status with organ-confined disease, or lymph node dissection yield. EP had significantly higher estimated blood loss (300 vs 200 mL, P=0.001) and more symptomatic lymphoceles when extended pelvic lymph node dissection was performed (3/16 vs 0/47, P=0.001).
Using postgraduate education resources, an experienced TP-RARP surgeon successfully transitioned to EP-RARP, achieving the major objectives of safety and equivalent outcomes. We identified several minor nuances in the setup that need further refinement in future education models.
Lersivirine (UK-453,061) is a new nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor currently being developed as a treatment for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Lersivirine shows potent activity against wild-type and clinically relevant drug-resistant strains. Previous studies have demonstrated that lersivirine is metabolized by glucuronidation via UGT2B7 and by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Lersivirine is also a weak inducer of the CYP3A4 enzyme. Therefore, coadministered lersivirine could potentially affect the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist metabolized by CYP3A4, and raltegravir, an integrase inhibitor metabolized by glucuronidation. Two open-label studies assessed the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir and of maraviroc when they were coadministered with lersivirine and the pharmacokinetics of lersivirine when it was coadministered with raltegravir. Minor, clinically nonsignificant effects on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir coadministered with lersivirine were observed at steady state for raltegravir, with estimated mean changes of −15%, −29%, and +25% in the area under the concentration-time profile from time zero to the end of the dosing interval (AUCtau), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), and concentration observed 12 h postdose (C12), respectively. There were no clinically relevant effects of steady-state raltegravir on lersivirine AUCtau, Cmax, or concentration observed 24 h postdose (C24) (estimated mean changes of −2 to +5%). Coadministration of lersivirine at steady state with maraviroc resulted in no clinically relevant effects on maraviroc AUCtau, Cmax, or C12 (estimated mean changes of +3.4 to +8.6%). Lersivirine appeared to be generally well tolerated in these studies and appears to be suitable for coadministration with raltegravir or maraviroc without the need for dose modification.
To examine the impact of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) characteristics and antirheumatic medications on the risk of heart failure (HF) in RA.
A population-based incidence cohort of RA patients aged ≥18 (1987 ACR criteria first met between 1/1/1980 and 1/1/2008) without a history of HF was followed until HF onset (defined by Framingham criteria), death, or 1/1/2008. We collected data on RA characteristics, antirheumatic medications and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Cox models adjusting for age, sex and calendar year were used to analyze the data.
The study included 795 RA patients (mean age 55.3 years, 69% females, 66% rheumatoid factor [RF] positive). During the mean follow-up of 9.7 years, 92 patients developed HF. The risk of HF was associated with RF positivity (HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.0, 2.5), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at RA incidence (HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.2, 2.0), repeatedly high ESR (HR 2.1, 95%CI 1.2, 3.5), severe extra-articular manifestations (HR 3.1, 95%CI 1.9, 5.1) and corticosteroid use (HR 2.0, 95%CI 1.3, 3.2), adjusting for CV risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). Methotrexate users were half as likely to have HF as non-users (HR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3, 0.9).
Several RA characteristics and the use of corticosteroids were associated with HF adjusting for CV risk factors and CHD. Methotrexate use appeared to be protective against HF. These findings suggest an independent impact of RA on HF which may be further modified by antirheumatic treatment.
rheumatoid arthritis; heart failure; determinants
Localized prostate cancer (LPC) patients are faced with numerous treatment options, including observation or watchful waiting. The choice of treatment largely depends on their baseline health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE). By consensus, physicians recommend treatment if the patient’s HALE is ten or more years. However, the estimation of HALE is difficult. Although subjective by nature, self-rated health (SRH) is a robust predictor of mortality. We studied the usefulness of SRH in estimating HALE in patients who are considering treatment for LPC.
A total of 144 LPC patients from a large urology private practice in Norfolk, Virginia, were surveyed before they had chosen a treatment option.
HALE determined by SRH correlated well with objective health measures, and was higher than age-based life expectancy by an average of 2 years. The observed difference in life expectancy due to SRH adjustment was higher among patients with a better socioeconomic and health profile.
SRH is an easy-to-use indicator of HALE in LPC patients. A table for HALE estimation by age and SRH is provided for men aged 70-80 years. Additional research with larger samples and prospective study designs are needed before the SRH method can be used in primary care and urology settings.
Localized Prostate Cancer; Life Expectancy; Self-rated Health; Urology
Heart failure is an important cause of mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Evidence suggests that immune mechanisms contribute to myocardial injury and fibrosis, leading to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). In this study, we sought to identify a signature of LVDD in patients with RA by analyzing the responsiveness of the innate and adaptive immune systems to stimulation ex vivo.
Subjects (n=212) enrolled prospectively from a population-based cohort underwent echocardiography, and left ventricular function was classified as normal, mild LVDD, or moderate-to-severe LVDD. The release of 17 cytokines by blood mononuclear cells in response to stimulation with a panel of 7 stimuli or in media alone was analyzed using multiplexed immunoassays. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations between a multi-cytokine immune response score and LVDD after adjusting for clinical covariates.
An 11-cytokine profile effectively differentiated subjects with moderate-to-severe LVDD from those with normal LV function. An immune response score (range 0 – 100) was strongly associated with moderate-to-severe LVDD (odds ratio per 10 units: 1.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.1) after adjusting for serum IL-6, brain natriuretic peptide, and glucocorticoid use, as well as other RA characteristics and LVDD risk factors.
The major finding of this study is that aberrant systemic immune responsiveness is associated with advanced myocardial dysfunction in patients with RA. The unique information added by the immune response score on the likelihood of LVDD warrants future longitudinal studies of its value in predicting future deterioration in myocardial function.
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for heart failure and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). BNP may be useful to screen for LVDD in the general population.
We compared the effectiveness of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) as a screening tool for LVDD in RA and non-RA subjects without cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Study subjects were recruited from population-based samples with and without RA, excluding subjects with CVD. LVDD was assessed by 2D/Doppler echocardiography and categorized as none, mild, moderate/severe or indeterminate. Linear regression and proportional odds models evaluated the association between LVDD and BNP adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index.
Among 231 RA and 1730 non-RA subjects without CVD, BNP was significantly higher in subjects with moderate/severe LVDD compared to those with no or mild LVDD (p= 0.02 for RA and p<0.001 for non-RA subjects). More RA subjects had elevated BNP than non-RA subjects (16% vs. 9%, p<0.001). Positive predictive value (25% in RA and 18% in non-RA) and sensitivity (40% in RA and 26% in non-RA) were similarly low in both cohorts, but specificity was significantly lower in RA than in non-RA (89% vs. 94%, p=0.02).
While RA subjects were more likely to have elevated BNP, few RA patients with elevated BNP actually have LVDD. Also, normal BNP levels are less likely to rule out LVDD in RA than in non-RA subjects. Thus, BNP may be less effective for screening in RA subjects compared to the general population.
HCV incidence from 1996-2008 among HIV-infected men in U.S. HIV therapeutic trials was 0.51 per 100 person-years. Incident HCV occurred primarily through non-parenteral means; 75% of seroconverters reported no drug injection. At-risk HIV-infected persons should have access to HCV surveillance
Background. Outbreaks of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been reported among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men in Europe, Australia, and New York. Whether this is occurring across the United States is unknown.
Methods. We determined incidence of HCV infection during 1996–2008 among male participants of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials cohort, a long-term study of HIV-infected persons randomized into selected US-based clinical trials. We evaluated associations with self-reported injection drug use (IDU), time-varying CD4+ cell count, and HIV RNA level with use of multivariate Poisson regression. No sexual or non-IDU risk factor data was available.
Results. A total of 1830 men had an initial negative HCV antibody test result and at least 1 subsequent HCV antibody test result, contributing >7000 person-years. At the time of the initial negative HCV antibody test result, 94% of men were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 6% reported current or prior IDU. Thirty-six seroconverted, with overall incidence of .51 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval, .36–.70). Mean age at seroconversion was 46 years. Seroconversion was associated with IDU (25% of seroconverters reported IDU history vs 5% of nonseroconverters; P < .001), whereas 75% (n = 27) of seroconverters reported no IDU (incidence, 2.67 cases per 100 person-years among IDUs, .40 cases per 100 person-years among non-IDUs). Seroconversion was associated with HIV RNA level >400 copies/mL (44% at time of antibody positivity vs 21% at time of last negative antibody test result; P = .02) but not with CD4+ cell count.
Conclusions. Incident HCV infection occurs in HIV-infected men involved in US HIV therapeutic trials, primarily through nonparenteral means, despite engagement in care and HAART. HCV antibody development was not related to immune status but was associated with inadequate HIV suppression. At-risk HIV-infected persons should have access to HCV surveillance.
Understanding of the personal risks for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other rheumatic diseases remains poor, despite advances in knowledge of their pathogenesis, therapeutics, and clinical impact, in part because the personal lifetime risk of developing these diseases is unknown.
To estimate the lifetime risk of RA, as well as other inflammatory autoimmune rheumatic diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), giant cell arteritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Sjögren’s syndrome, and to provide an overall estimate of the risk for developing inflammatory autoimmune rheumatic disease over a lifetime.
Using the incidence rates obtained from our population-based studies of rheumatic diseases among residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, and mortality rates from life tables for the general population, we estimated sex-specific lifetime risk of rheumatic disease.
The lifetime risk of RA developing in US adults is 3.6% for women and 1.7% for men, and the lifetime risk of rheumatoid factor positive RA is 2.4% for women and 1.1% for men. The second most common inflammatory autoimmune rheumatic disease is PMR with a lifetime risk of 2.4% for women and 1.7% among men. The overall lifetime risk of inflammatory autoimmune rheumatic disease was 8.4% for women and 5.1% for men.
One in 12 women and 1 in 20 men will develop inflammatory autoimmune rheumatic disease during their lifetime. These results can serve as useful guides in counseling patients regarding their lifetime risk of these conditions and have important implications for disease awareness campaigns.
The genome of the Gram-positive, metal-reducing, dehalorespiring Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2 was sequenced in order to gain insights into its metabolic capacities, adaptive physiology, and regulatory machineries, and to compare with that of Desulfitobacterium hafniense Y51, the phylogenetically closest strain among the species with a sequenced genome.
The genome of Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2 is composed of a 5,279,134-bp circular chromosome with 5,042 predicted genes. Genome content and parallel physiological studies support the cell's ability to fix N2 and CO2, form spores and biofilms, reduce metals, and use a variety of electron acceptors in respiration, including halogenated organic compounds. The genome contained seven reductive dehalogenase genes and four nitrogenase gene homologs but lacked the Nar respiratory nitrate reductase system. The D. hafniense DCB-2 genome contained genes for 43 RNA polymerase sigma factors including 27 sigma-24 subunits, 59 two-component signal transduction systems, and about 730 transporter proteins. In addition, it contained genes for 53 molybdopterin-binding oxidoreductases, 19 flavoprotein paralogs of the fumarate reductase, and many other FAD/FMN-binding oxidoreductases, proving the cell's versatility in both adaptive and reductive capacities. Together with the ability to form spores, the presence of the CO2-fixing Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and the genes associated with oxygen tolerance add flexibility to the cell's options for survival under stress.
D. hafniense DCB-2's genome contains genes consistent with its abilities for dehalogenation, metal reduction, N2 and CO2 fixation, anaerobic respiration, oxygen tolerance, spore formation, and biofilm formation which make this organism a potential candidate for bioremediation at contaminated sites.
Progression of joint damage despite appropriate therapy remains a significant problem for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to identify profiles of immune response that correlate with radiographic joint damage as a first step toward the discovery of new pathogenic mechanisms of joint destruction in RA.
The study included 58 patients with RA and 15 healthy controls. The profiles of cytokine release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to stimulation for 48 hours with one of six stimuli, or in media alone, were measured. Immune response profiles identified for each stimulus were correlated with radiographic joint damage as defined by the Sharp-van der Heijde score (SHS), before and after multivariable adjustment. For profiles correlated with the SHS, the distributions of individual cytokines were evaluated in patients according to the severity of joint damage and compared to healthy controls.
The immune response profile for cytomegalovirus (CMV)/Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) stimulation was correlated with both the SHS total and erosion scores (r = 0.31, P = 0.018 and r = 0.33, P = 0.011, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, disease duration, autoantibody status, CMV/EBV serological status, current disease activity, disability and treatments, the correlation of the CMV/EBV immune response and the SHS erosion score became stronger (r = 0.43, P < 0.003). The CMV/EBV immune response correlated with CMV IgG (r = 0.44, P < 0.001), but not with EBV IgG. The most important cytokines for the CMV/EBV immune response profile were IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-17A, all of which are associated with T-cell immunity. Both the summary immune response score and the individual responses of IFN-γ and IL-13 to CMV/EBV stimulation were associated with greater joint damage.
A profile of immune response to purified CMV/EBV lysates is associated with radiographic joint damage. The correlation of this immune response to CMV serology implies possible involvement of latent CMV infection. Therefore, the findings suggest that the immune response to latent CMV infection could play a fundamental role in the progression of inflammation and structural joint damage in patients with RA.
rheumatoid arthritis; RA; immune responses; cytokines; T cells; radiographic joint damage; cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus
Pateclizumab (MLTA3698A) is a humanized mAb against lymphotoxin α (LTα), a transiently expressed cytokine on activated B and T cells (Th1, Th17), which are implicated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. This study was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, < NOTE: For clarity and per AMA/S-W Style, please restore the use of Oxford/serial commas (ie: David likes vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate ice cream) throughout. and biologic activity of single and multiple doses of intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) pateclizumab in RA patients.
The single ascending dose (SAD) phase in patients with stable RA consisted of six cohorts (4:1 active:placebo at 0.3 mg/kg IV, 1.0 mg/kg IV, 1.0 mg/kg SC, 3.0 mg/kg IV, 3.0 mg/kg SC, and 5.0 mg/kg IV; n = 5/cohort). In the multiple ascending dose (MAD) phase, patients with prespecified RA disease activity received three doses of pateclizumab or placebo (4:1) every 2 weeks (1.0 mg/kg SC, n = 10; 3.0 mg/kg SC, n = 20; or 5.0 mg/kg IV, n = 5). Safety and tolerability were assessed throughout, and clinical activity was determined after three doses (Week 6).
We observed no serious adverse events (AEs) or dose-limiting toxicities, and the majority of AEs were mild to moderate. The pharmacokinetic profiles were linear, and clearance was independent of dose. Reductions in levels of serum CXCL13 were observed, supporting the biologic activity of pateclizumab on the LTα pathway. Patients receiving pateclizumab in the 3.0 mg/kg MAD group (3.0 mg/kg SC) demonstrated ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 response rates at week 6 of 75%, 56% and 25%, respectively, compared with 57%, 29%, and 0% in the placebo group. The median Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, C-reactive protein, reduction was 28% for pateclizumab, versus 8.4% for placebo.
Pateclizumabwas generally well-tolerated in RA patients. Preliminary evidence of clinical activity was observed in active RA patients at the dose level targeted for clinical effect.
The purpose of our study was to examine whether rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with no overt cardiovascular disease (CVD) have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) than subjects without RA or CVD. We also examined whether RA disease characteristics are associated with the presence of MetS in RA patients without CVD.
Subjects from a population-based cohort of patients who fulfilled 1987 ACR criteria for RA between 1/1/1980 and 12/31/2007 were compared to non-RA subjects from the same population. All subjects with any history of CVD were excluded. Waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were measured during the study visit. Data on CVD, lipids and glucose measures were ascertained from medical records. MetS was defined using NCEP/ATP III criteria. Differences between the 2 cohorts were examined using logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex.
The study included 232 RA subjects without CVD and 1241 non-RA subjects without CVD. RA patients were significantly more likely to have an elevated waist circumference and elevated blood pressure than non-RA subjects, even though BMI was similar in both groups. Significantly more RA patients were classified as having MetS. In RA patients, MetS was associated with Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index, large joint swelling and uric acid levels, but not with C-reactive protein or RA therapies.
Among subjects without a history of CVD, RA patients are more likely to have MetS than non-RA subjects. MetS in RA patients was associated some measures of disease activity.