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1.  Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI 
Nucleic Acids Research  2015;44(Database issue):D73-D80.
The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkv1226
PMCID: PMC4702866  PMID: 26578580
3.  Achieving high-sensitivity for clinical applications using augmented exome sequencing 
Genome Medicine  2015;7(1):71.
Background
Whole exome sequencing is increasingly used for the clinical evaluation of genetic disease, yet the variation of coverage and sensitivity over medically relevant parts of the genome remains poorly understood. Several sequencing-based assays continue to provide coverage that is inadequate for clinical assessment.
Methods
Using sequence data obtained from the NA12878 reference sample and pre-defined lists of medically-relevant protein-coding and noncoding sequences, we compared the breadth and depth of coverage obtained among four commercial exome capture platforms and whole genome sequencing. In addition, we evaluated the performance of an augmented exome strategy, ACE, that extends coverage in medically relevant regions and enhances coverage in areas that are challenging to sequence. Leveraging reference call-sets, we also examined the effects of improved coverage on variant detection sensitivity.
Results
We observed coverage shortfalls with each of the conventional exome-capture and whole-genome platforms across several medically interpretable genes. These gaps included areas of the genome required for reporting recently established secondary findings (ACMG) and known disease-associated loci. The augmented exome strategy recovered many of these gaps, resulting in improved coverage in these areas. At clinically-relevant coverage levels (100 % bases covered at ≥20×), ACE improved coverage among genes in the medically interpretable genome (>90 % covered relative to 10-78 % with other platforms), the set of ACMG secondary finding genes (91 % covered relative to 4-75 % with other platforms) and a subset of variants known to be associated with human disease (99 % covered relative to 52-95 % with other platforms). Improved coverage translated into improvements in sensitivity, with ACE variant detection sensitivities (>97.5 % SNVs, >92.5 % InDels) exceeding that observed with conventional whole-exome and whole-genome platforms.
Conclusions
Clinicians should consider analytical performance when making clinical assessments, given that even a few missed variants can lead to reporting false negative results. An augmented exome strategy provides a level of coverage not achievable with other platforms, thus addressing concerns regarding the lack of sensitivity in clinically important regions. In clinical applications where comprehensive coverage of medically interpretable areas of the genome requires higher localized sequencing depth, an augmented exome approach offers both cost and performance advantages over other sequencing-based tests.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13073-015-0197-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13073-015-0197-4
PMCID: PMC4534066  PMID: 26269718
4.  Extending reference assembly models 
Genome Biology  2015;16(1):13.
The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools and updated data reporting formats are also required.
doi:10.1186/s13059-015-0587-3
PMCID: PMC4305238  PMID: 25651527
5.  Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;42(Database issue):D7-D17.
In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, PubReader, Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link, Primer-BLAST, COBALT, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, the Genetic Testing Registry, Genome and related tools, the Map Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, BioProject, BioSample, ClinVar, MedGen, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus, Probe, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool, Biosystems, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1146
PMCID: PMC3965057  PMID: 24259429
6.  ClinVar: public archive of relationships among sequence variation and human phenotype 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;42(Database issue):D980-D985.
ClinVar (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/) provides a freely available archive of reports of relationships among medically important variants and phenotypes. ClinVar accessions submissions reporting human variation, interpretations of the relationship of that variation to human health and the evidence supporting each interpretation. The database is tightly coupled with dbSNP and dbVar, which maintain information about the location of variation on human assemblies. ClinVar is also based on the phenotypic descriptions maintained in MedGen (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen). Each ClinVar record represents the submitter, the variation and the phenotype, i.e. the unit that is assigned an accession of the format SCV000000000.0. The submitter can update the submission at any time, in which case a new version is assigned. To facilitate evaluation of the medical importance of each variant, ClinVar aggregates submissions with the same variation/phenotype combination, adds value from other NCBI databases, assigns a distinct accession of the format RCV000000000.0 and reports if there are conflicting clinical interpretations. Data in ClinVar are available in multiple formats, including html, download as XML, VCF or tab-delimited subsets. Data from ClinVar are provided as annotation tracks on genomic RefSeqs and are used in tools such as Variation Reporter (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/variation/tools/reporter), which reports what is known about variation based on user-supplied locations.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1113
PMCID: PMC3965032  PMID: 24234437
7.  Online Resources for Genomic Structural Variation 
Genomic structural variation (SV) can be thought of on a continuum from a single base pair insertion/deletion (INDEL) to large megabase-scale rearrangements involving insertions, deletions, duplications, inversions or translocations of whole chromosomes or chromosome arms. These variants can occur in coding or non-coding DNA, they can be inherited or arise sporadically in the germline or somatic cells. Many of these events are segregating in the population and can be considered common alleles while others are new alleles and thus rare events. All species studied to date harbor structural variants and these may be benign, contributing to phenotypes such as sensory perception and immunity, or pathogenic resulting in genomic disorders including DiGeorge/velocardiofacial, Smith-Margenis, Williams-Beuren and Prader-Willi syndromes. As structural variants are identified, validated and their significance, origin and prevalence elucidated it is of critical importance that this data be collected and collated in a way that can be easily accessed and analyzed.
This chapter will describe current structural variation online resources (see Figure 1 and Table 1), highlight the challenges in capturing, storing and displaying SV data, and discuss how dbVar and DGVa, the genomic structural variation databases developed at NCBI and EBI respectively, were designed to address these issues.
doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-507-7_13
PMCID: PMC3804003  PMID: 22228017
CNV; INDEL; SV; dbVar; DGVa; DGV
8.  An evidence-based approach to establish the functional and clinical significance of CNVs in intellectual and developmental disabilities 
Purpose
Copy number variants (CNVs) have emerged as a major cause of human disease such as autism and intellectual disabilities. Because CNVs are common in normal individuals, determining the functional and clinical significance of rare CNVs in patients remains challenging. The adoption of whole-genome chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) as a first-tier diagnostic test for individuals with unexplained developmental disabilities provides a unique opportunity to obtain large CNV datasets generated through routine patient care.
Methods
A consortium of diagnostic laboratories was established [the International Standards for Cytogenomic Arrays (ISCA) consortium] to share CNV and phenotypic data in a central, public database. We present the largest CNV case-control study to date comprising 15,749 ISCA cases and 10,118 published controls, focusing our initial analysis on recurrent deletions and duplications involving 14 CNV regions.
Results
Compared to controls, fourteen deletions, and seven duplications were significantly overrepresented in cases, providing a clinical diagnosis as pathogenic.
Conclusion
Given the rapid expansion of clinical CMA testing, very large datasets will be available to determine the functional significance of increasingly rare CNVs. This data will provide an evidenced-based guide to clinicians across many disciplines involved in the diagnosis, management, and care of these patients and their families.
doi:10.1097/GIM.0b013e31822c79f9
PMCID: PMC3661946  PMID: 21844811
CNVs; evidence-based approach; clinical significance; ID/DD; consortium
9.  Clone DB: an integrated NCBI resource for clone-associated data 
Nucleic Acids Research  2012;41(Database issue):D1070-D1078.
The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Clone DB (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clone/) is an integrated resource providing information about and facilitating access to clones, which serve as valuable research reagents in many fields, including genome sequencing and variation analysis. Clone DB represents an expansion and replacement of the former NCBI Clone Registry and has records for genomic and cell-based libraries and clones representing more than 100 different eukaryotic taxa. Records provide details of library construction, associated sequences, map positions and information about resource distribution. Clone DB is indexed in the NCBI Entrez system and can be queried by fields that include organism, clone name, gene name and sequence identifier. Whenever possible, genomic clones are mapped to reference assemblies and their map positions provided in clone records. Clones mapping to specific genomic regions can also be searched for using the NCBI Clone Finder tool, which accepts queries based on sequence coordinates or features such as gene or transcript names. Clone DB makes reports of library, clone and placement data on its FTP site available for download. With Clone DB, users now have available to them a centralized resource that provides them with the tools they will need to make use of these important research reagents.
doi:10.1093/nar/gks1164
PMCID: PMC3531087  PMID: 23193260
10.  dbVar and DGVa: public archives for genomic structural variation 
Nucleic Acids Research  2012;41(Database issue):D936-D941.
Much has changed in the last two years at DGVa (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/dgva) and dbVar (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/dbvar). We are now processing direct submissions rather than only curating data from the literature and our joint study catalog includes data from over 100 studies in 11 organisms. Studies from human dominate with data from control and case populations, tumor samples as well as three large curated studies derived from multiple sources. During the processing of these data, we have made improvements to our data model, submission process and data representation. Additionally, we have made significant improvements in providing access to these data via web and FTP interfaces.
doi:10.1093/nar/gks1213
PMCID: PMC3531204  PMID: 23193291
11.  Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;40(Database issue):D13-D25.
In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI Website. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Primer-BLAST, COBALT, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Genome and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, BioProject, BioSample, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Probe, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), Biosystems, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkr1184
PMCID: PMC3245031  PMID: 22140104
14.  Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;39(Database issue):D38-D51.
In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Primer-BLAST, COBALT, Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Splign, ProSplign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), IBIS, Biosystems, Peptidome, OMSSA, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1172
PMCID: PMC3013733  PMID: 21097890
16.  Back to Bermuda: how is science best served? 
Genome Biology  2009;10(4):105.
Two bovine genome assemblies from the same data suggest it is time to revisit the spirit of the Bermuda and Fort Lauderdale agreements.
The independent announcements of two bovine genome assemblies from the same data suggest it is time to revisit the spirit of the Bermuda and Fort Lauderdale agreements and determine the policies for data release and distribution that will best serve both the producers of the data and the users.
doi:10.1186/gb-2009-10-4-105
PMCID: PMC2688919  PMID: 19435531
17.  Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;38(Database issue):D5-D16.
In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, Reference Sequence, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus, Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool, Biosystems, Peptidome, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp967
PMCID: PMC2808881  PMID: 19910364
18.  Lineage-Specific Biology Revealed by a Finished Genome Assembly of the Mouse 
PLoS Biology  2009;7(5):e1000112.
A finished clone-based assembly of the mouse genome reveals extensive recent sequence duplication during recent evolution and rodent-specific expansion of certain gene families. Newly assembled duplications contain protein-coding genes that are mostly involved in reproductive function.
The mouse (Mus musculus) is the premier animal model for understanding human disease and development. Here we show that a comprehensive understanding of mouse biology is only possible with the availability of a finished, high-quality genome assembly. The finished clone-based assembly of the mouse strain C57BL/6J reported here has over 175,000 fewer gaps and over 139 Mb more of novel sequence, compared with the earlier MGSCv3 draft genome assembly. In a comprehensive analysis of this revised genome sequence, we are now able to define 20,210 protein-coding genes, over a thousand more than predicted in the human genome (19,042 genes). In addition, we identified 439 long, non–protein-coding RNAs with evidence for transcribed orthologs in human. We analyzed the complex and repetitive landscape of 267 Mb of sequence that was missing or misassembled in the previously published assembly, and we provide insights into the reasons for its resistance to sequencing and assembly by whole-genome shotgun approaches. Duplicated regions within newly assembled sequence tend to be of more recent ancestry than duplicates in the published draft, correcting our initial understanding of recent evolution on the mouse lineage. These duplicates appear to be largely composed of sequence regions containing transposable elements and duplicated protein-coding genes; of these, some may be fixed in the mouse population, but at least 40% of segmentally duplicated sequences are copy number variable even among laboratory mouse strains. Mouse lineage-specific regions contain 3,767 genes drawn mainly from rapidly-changing gene families associated with reproductive functions. The finished mouse genome assembly, therefore, greatly improves our understanding of rodent-specific biology and allows the delineation of ancestral biological functions that are shared with human from derived functions that are not.
Author Summary
The availability of an accurate genome sequence provides the bedrock upon which modern biomedical research is based. Here we describe a high-quality assembly, Build 36, of the mouse genome. This assembly was put together by aligning overlapping individual clones representing parts of the genome, and it provides a more complete picture than previous assemblies, because it adds much rodent-specific sequence that was previously unavailable. The addition of these sequences provides insight into both the genomic architecture and the gene complement of the mouse. In particular, it highlights recent gene duplications and the expansion of certain gene families during rodent evolution. An improved understanding of the mouse genome and thus mouse biology will enhance the utility of the mouse as a model for human disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000112
PMCID: PMC2680341  PMID: 19468303
20.  Mouse Segmental Duplication and Copy-Number Variation 
Nature genetics  2008;40(7):909-914.
Detailed analyses of the clone-based genome assembly reveal that the recent duplication content of mouse (4.94%) is now comparable to that of human (5.5%), in contrast to previous estimates from the whole-genome shotgun sequence assembly. The architecture of mouse and human genomes differ dramatically; most mouse duplications are organized into discrete clusters of tandem duplications that are depleted for genes/transcripts and enriched for LINE and LTR retroposons. We assessed copy-number variation of the C57BL/6J duplicated regions within 15 mouse strains used for genetic association studies, sequencing, and the Mouse Phenome Project. We determined that over 60% of these basepairs are polymorphic between the strains (on average 20 Mbp of copy-number variable DNA between different mouse strains). Our data suggest that different mouse strains show comparable, if not greater, copy-number polymorphism when compared to human; however, such variation is more locally restricted. We show large and complex patterns of inter-strain copy-number variation restricted to large gene families associated with spermatogenesis, pregnancy, viviparity, pheromone signalling, and immune response.
doi:10.1038/ng.172
PMCID: PMC2574762  PMID: 18500340
21.  Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information 
Nucleic Acids Research  2008;37(Database issue):D5-D15.
In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs), Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART) and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the web applications is custom implementation of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of the resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkn741
PMCID: PMC2686545  PMID: 18940862
22.  Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;36(Database issue):D13-D21.
In addition to maintaining the GenBank(R) nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data available through NCBI's web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, My NCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link, Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genome, Genome Project and related tools, the Trace, Assembly, and Short Read Archives, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Influenza Viral Resources, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus, Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Database of Genotype and Phenotype, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. These resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkm1000
PMCID: PMC2238880  PMID: 18045790
23.  Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information 
Nucleic Acids Research  2006;35(Database issue):D5-D12.
In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through NCBI's Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, My NCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link(BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genome, Genome Project and related tools, the Trace and Assembly Archives, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs), Viral Genotyping Tools, Influenza Viral Resources, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART) and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. These resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at .
doi:10.1093/nar/gkl1031
PMCID: PMC1781113  PMID: 17170002
24.  Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information 
Nucleic Acids Research  2005;34(Database issue):D173-D180.
In addition to maintaining the GenBank(R) nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through NCBI's Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1, Human Protein Interaction Database, SAGEmap, Gene Expression Omnibus, Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized datasets. All of the resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at: .
doi:10.1093/nar/gkj158
PMCID: PMC1347520  PMID: 16381840
25.  Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information: update 
Nucleic Acids Research  2004;32(Database issue):D35-D40.
In addition to maintaining the GenBank(R) nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides data analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through NCBI’s website. NCBI resources include Entrez, PubMed, PubMed Central, LocusLink, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosome Aberration Project (CCAP), Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) database, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, SARS Coronavirus Resource, SAGEmap, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD) and the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART). Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of the resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkh073
PMCID: PMC308807  PMID: 14681353

Results 1-25 (28)