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1.  Genomic duplication resulting in increased copy number of genes encoding the sister chromatid cohesion complex conveys clinical consequences distinct from Cornelia de Lange 
Journal of medical genetics  2008;46(9):626-634.
Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem congenital anomaly disorder. Heterozygous point mutations in three genes (NIPBL, SMC3 and SMC1A), encoding components of the sister chromatid cohesion apparatus, are responsible for ∼ 50-60% of CdLS cases. Recent studies have revealed a high degree of genomic rearrangements (e.g. deletions and duplications) in the human genome, which result in gene copy number variations (CNV). CNVs have been associated with a wide range of both Mendelian and complex traits including disease phenotypes such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher, Parkinson, Alzheimer, autism and schizophrenia. Increased versus decreased copy number of the same gene can potentially cause either similar or different clinical features. We identified duplications on chromosomes 5 or X using genome wide array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH). The duplicated regions contain either the NIPBL or the SMC1A genes. Junction sequences analyses revealed the involvement of three genomic rearrangement mechanisms. The patients share some common features including mental retardation, developmental delay, sleep abnormalities, and crainofacial and limb defects. The systems affected are the same as in CdLS, but clinical manifestations are distinct from CdLS; particularly the absence of the CdLS facial gestalt. Our results confirm the notion that duplication CNV of genes can be a common mechanism for human genetic diseases. Defining the clinical consequences for a specific gene dosage alteration represents a new “reverse genomics” trend in medical genetics that is reciprocal to the traditional approach of delineation of the common clinical phenotype preceding the discovery of the genetic etiology.
PMCID: PMC4302738  PMID: 19052029
Copy number changes; CNV; CdLS; NIPBL; cohesion complex
2.  Insertional Translocation Detected Using FISH Confirmation of Array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) Results 
Insertional translocations (ITs) are rare events that require at least three breaks in the chromosomes involved and thus qualify as complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR). In the current study, we identified 40 ITs from approximately 18,000 clinical cases (1:500) using array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in conjunction with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmation of the aCGH findings, and parental follow-up studies. Both submicroscopic and microscopically visible IT events were detected. They were divided into three major categories: (1) simple intrachromosomal and interchromosomal IT resulting in pure segmental trisomy, (2) complex IT involving more than one abnormality, (3) deletion inherited from a parent with a balanced IT resulting in pure segmental monosomy. Of the cases in which follow-up parental studies were available, over half showed inheritance from an apparently unaffected parent carrying the same unbalanced rearrangement detected in the propositi, thus decreasing the likelihood that these IT events are clinically relevant. Nevertheless, we identified six cases in which small submicroscopic events were detected involving known disease-associated genes/genomic segments and are likely to be pathogenic. We recommend that copy number gains detected by clinical aCGH analysis should be confirmed using FISH analysis whenever possible in order to determine the physical location of the duplicated segment. We hypothesize that the increased use of aCGH in the clinic will demonstrate that IT occurs more frequently than previously considered but can identify genomic rearrangements with unclear clinical significance.
PMCID: PMC3726029  PMID: 20340098
array-CGH; genomic rearrangement; chromosome rearrangement; insertion; submicroscopic; FISH; segmental aneusomy
4.  Use of array CGH to detect exonic copy number variants throughout the genome in autism families detects a novel deletion in TMLHE 
Human Molecular Genetics  2011;20(22):4360-4370.
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with increasing evidence of heterogeneous genetic etiology including de novo and inherited copy number variants (CNVs). We performed array comparative genomic hybridization using a custom Agilent 1 M oligonucleotide array intended to cover 197 332 unique exons in RefSeq genes; 98% were covered by at least one probe and 95% were covered by three or more probes with the focus on detecting relatively small CNVs that would implicate a single protein-coding gene. The study group included 99 trios from the Simons Simplex Collection. The analysis identified and validated 55 potentially pathogenic CNVs, categorized as de novo autosomal heterozygous, inherited homozygous autosomal, complex autosomal and hemizygous deletions on the X chromosome of probands. Twenty percent (11 of 55) of these CNV calls were rare when compared with the Database of Genomic Variants. Thirty-six percent (20 of 55) of the CNVs were also detected in the same samples in an independent analysis using the 1 M Illumina single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Findings of note included a common and sometimes homozygous 61 bp exonic deletion in SLC38A10, three CNVs found in lymphoblast-derived DNA but not present in whole-blood derived DNA and, most importantly, in a male proband, an exonic deletion of the TMLHE (trimethyllysine hydroxylase epsilon) that encodes the first enzyme in the biosynthesis of carnitine. Data for CNVs present in lymphoblasts but absent in fresh blood DNA suggest that these represent clonal outgrowth of individual B cells with pre-existing somatic mutations rather than artifacts arising in cell culture. GEO accession number GSE23765 (, date last accessed on 30 August 2011). Genboree accession:, date last accessed on 30 August 2011.
PMCID: PMC3196886  PMID: 21865298
5.  Genomic Hypomethylation in the Human Germline Associates with Selective Structural Mutability in the Human Genome 
PLoS Genetics  2012;8(5):e1002692.
The hotspots of structural polymorphisms and structural mutability in the human genome remain to be explained mechanistically. We examine associations of structural mutability with germline DNA methylation and with non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) mediated by low-copy repeats (LCRs). Combined evidence from four human sperm methylome maps, human genome evolution, structural polymorphisms in the human population, and previous genomic and disease studies consistently points to a strong association of germline hypomethylation and genomic instability. Specifically, methylation deserts, the ∼1% fraction of the human genome with the lowest methylation in the germline, show a tenfold enrichment for structural rearrangements that occurred in the human genome since the branching of chimpanzee and are highly enriched for fast-evolving loci that regulate tissue-specific gene expression. Analysis of copy number variants (CNVs) from 400 human samples identified using a custom-designed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) chip, combined with publicly available structural variation data, indicates that association of structural mutability with germline hypomethylation is comparable in magnitude to the association of structural mutability with LCR–mediated NAHR. Moreover, rare CNVs occurring in the genomes of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and developmental delay and de novo CNVs occurring in those diagnosed with autism are significantly more concentrated within hypomethylated regions. These findings suggest a new connection between the epigenome, selective mutability, evolution, and human disease.
Author Summary
The human genome contains many loci with high incidence of structural mutations, including insertions and deletions of chromosomal segments. This excessive mutability has accelerated evolution and contributed to human disease but has yet to be explained. Segments of DNA repeated in low-copy numbers (LCRs) have been previously implicated in promoting structural mutability in specific disease-associated loci. Lack of methylation (hypomethylation) of genomic DNA has been previously associated with high structural mutability in gibbons and in human cancer cells, but the association with structural mutability in the human germline has not been explored prior to this study. Our analyses confirm the role of LCRs in promoting structural mutability on the genome scale but also reveal a surprisingly strong association of genomic instability with hypomethylation. Specifically, evolutionary analyses reveal that methylation deserts, the ∼1% fraction of the human genome with the lowest methylation in human sperm, harbor a tenfold higher number of structural mutations than genome-wide average. Moreover, the structural mutations in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, developmental delay, and autism are significantly more concentrated within hypomethylated regions. Our findings suggest a new connection between methylation of genomic DNA, selective structural mutability, evolution, and human disease.
PMCID: PMC3355074  PMID: 22615578
6.  Molecular mechanisms for subtelomeric rearrangements associated with the 9q34.3 microdeletion syndrome 
Human Molecular Genetics  2009;18(11):1924-1936.
We characterized at the molecular level the genomic rearrangements in 28 unrelated patients with 9q34.3 subtelomeric deletions. Four distinct categories were delineated: terminal deletions, interstitial deletions, derivative chromosomes and complex rearrangements; each results in haploinsufficiency of the EHMT1 gene and a characteristic phenotype. Interestingly, 25% of our patients had de novo interstitial deletions, 25% were found with derivative chromosomes and complex rearrangements and only 50% were bona fide terminal deletions. In contrast to genomic disorders that are often associated with recurrent rearrangements, breakpoints involving the 9q34.3 subtelomere region are highly variable. Molecular studies identified three regions of breakpoint grouping. Interspersed repetitive elements such as Alu, LINE, long-terminal repeats and simple tandem repeats are frequently observed at the breakpoints. Such repetitive elements may play an important role by providing substrates with a specific DNA secondary structure that stabilizes broken chromosomes or assist in either DNA double-strand break repair or repair of single double-strand DNA ends generated by collapsed forks. Sequence analyses of the breakpoint junctions suggest that subtelomeric deletions can be stabilized by both homologous and nonhomologous recombination mechanisms, through a telomere-capture event, by de novo telomere synthesis, or multistep breakage-fusion-bridge cycles.
PMCID: PMC2678925  PMID: 19293338
7.  A Novel Chromosome 19p13.12 Deletion in a Child with Multiple Congenital Anomalies 
We describe a patient with multiple congenital anomalies including deafness, lacrimal duct stenosis, strabismus, bilateral cervical sinuses, congenital cardiac defects, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. Mutation analysis of EYA1, SIX1, and SIX5, genes that underlie otofaciocervical and/or branchio-oto-renal syndrome, was negative. Pathologic diagnosis of the excised cervical sinus tracts was revised on re-examination to heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Using high resolution chromosomal microarray analysis, we identified a novel 2.52 Mb deletion at 19p13.12, which was confirmed by fluorescent in-situ hybridization and demonstrated to be a de novo mutation by testing of the parents. Overall, deletions of chromosome 19p13 are rare.
PMCID: PMC2872113  PMID: 19215039
craniofacial; 19p13; Chromosomal Microarray Analysis
8.  20p12.3 microdeletion predisposes to Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with variable neurocognitive deficits 
Journal of medical genetics  2008;46(3):168-175.
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is a bypass reentrant tachycardia that results from an abnormal connection between the atria and ventricles. Mutations in PRKAG2 have been described in patients with familial WPW syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Based on the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in the development of annulus fibrosus in mice, it has been proposed that BMP signaling through the type 1a receptor and other downstream components may play a role in preexcitation.
Methods and Results
Using the array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), we identified five individuals with non-recurrent deletions of 20p12.3. Four of these individuals had WPW syndrome with variable dysmorphisms and neurocognitive delay. With the exception of one maternally inherited deletion, all occurred de novo, and the smallest of these, harbored a single gene, BMP2. In two individuals with additional features of Alagille syndrome, deletion of both JAG1 and BMP2 were identified. Deletion of this region has not been described as a copy-number variant in the Database of Genomic Variants and has not been identified in 13,321 individuals from other cohort examined by array CGH in our laboratory.
Our findings demonstrate a novel genomic disorder characterized by deletion of BMP2 with variable cognitive deficits and dysmorphic features and show that individuals bearing microdeletions in 20p12.3 often present with WPW syndrome.
PMCID: PMC2680125  PMID: 18812404
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; BMP2; 20p12.3; TGF-beta signaling; JAG1
9.  Genomic Imbalances in Neonates With Birth Defects: High Detection Rates by Using Chromosomal Microarray Analysis 
Pediatrics  2008;122(6):1310-1318.
Our aim was to determine the frequency of genomic imbalances in neonates with birth defects by using targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization, also known as chromosomal microarray analysis.
Between March 2006 and September 2007, 638 neonates with various birth defects were referred for chromosomal microarray analysis. Three consecutive chromosomal microarray analysis versions were used: bacterial artificial chromosome-based versions V5 and V6 and bacterial artificial chromosome emulated oligonucleotide-based version V6 Oligo. Each version had targeted but increasingly extensive genomic coverage and interrogated >150 disease loci with enhanced coverage in genomic rearrangement-prone pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions.
Overall, 109 (17.1%) patients were identified with clinically significant abnormalities with detection rates of 13.7%, 16.6%, and 19.9% on V5, V6, and V6 Oligo, respectively. The majority of these abnormalities would not be defined by using karyotype analysis. The clinically significant detection rates by use of chromosomal microarray analysis for various clinical indications were 66.7% for “possible chromosomal abnormality” ± “others” (other clinical indications), 33.3% for ambiguous genitalia ± others, 27.1% for dysmorphic features + multiple congenital anomalies ± others, 24.6% for dysmorphic features ± others, 21.8% for congenital heart disease ± others, 17.9% for multiple congenital anomalies ± others, and 9.5% for the patients referred for others that were different from the groups defined. In all, 16 (2.5%) patients had chromosomal aneuploidies, and 81 (12.7%) patients had segmental aneusomies including common microdeletion or microduplication syndromes and other genomic disorders. Chromosomal mosaicism was found in 12 (1.9%) neonates.
Chromosomal microarray analysis is a valuable clinical diagnostic tool that allows precise and rapid identification of genomic imbalances and mosaic abnormalities as the cause of birth defects in neonates. Chromosomal microarray analysis allows for timely molecular diagnoses and detects many more clinically relevant genomic abnormalities than conventional cytogenetic studies, enabling more informed decision-making and management and appropriate assessment of recurrence risk.
PMCID: PMC2795566  PMID: 19047251
sporadic birth defects; array comparative genomic hybridization; copy-number variation; molecular cytogenetic analysis; mosaicism
10.  Bacterial artificial chromosome-emulation oligonucleotide arrays for targeted clinical array-comparative genomic hybridization analyses 
The goal of this work was to test the ability of oligonucleotide-based arrays to reproduce the results of focused bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based arrays used clinically in comparative genomic hybridization experiments to detect constitutional copy number changes in genomic DNA.
Custom oligonucleotide (oligo) arrays were designed using the Agilent Technologies platform to give high-resolution coverage of regions within the genome sequence coordinates of BAC/P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones that had already been validated for use in previous versions of clone arrays used in clinical practice. Standard array-comparative genomic hybridization experiments, including a simultaneous blind analysis of a set of clinical samples, were conducted on both array platforms to identify copy number differences between patient samples and normal reference controls.
Initial experiments successfully demonstrated the capacity of oligo arrays to emulate BAC data without the need for dye-reversal comparisons. Empirical data and computational analyses of oligo response and distribution from a pilot array were used to design an optimized array of 44,000 oligos (44K). This custom 44K oligo array consists of probes localized to the genomic positions of >1400 fluorescence in situ hybridization-verified BAC/PAC clones covering more than 140 regions implicated in genetic diseases, as well as all clinically relevant subtelomeric and pericentromeric regions.
Our data demonstrate that oligo-based arrays offer a valid alternative for focused BAC arrays. Furthermore, they have significant advantages, including better design flexibility, avoidance of repetitive sequences, manufacturing processes amenable to good manufacturing practice standards in the future, increased robustness because of an enhanced dynamic range (signal to background), and increased resolution that allows for detection of smaller regions of change.
PMCID: PMC2782565  PMID: 18414211
array-CGH; oligonucleotide; focused microarray; CNV; chromosome abnormalities; mosaicism
11.  Identification of Chromosome Abnormalities in Subtelomeric Regions by Microarray Analysis: A Study of 5,380 Cases 
Subtelomeric imbalances are a significant cause of congenital disorders. Screening for these abnormalities has traditionally utilized GTG-banding analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) is a relatively new technology that can identify microscopic and submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances. It has been proposed that an array with extended coverage at subtelomeric regions could characterize subtelomeric aberrations more efficiently in a single experiment. The targeted arrays for chromosome microarray analysis (CMA), developed by Baylor College of Medicine, have on average 12 BAC/PAC clones covering 10 Mb of each of the 41 subtelomeric regions. We screened 5,380 consecutive clinical patients using CMA. The most common reasons for referral included developmental delay (DD), and/or mental retardation (MR), dysmorphic features (DF), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), seizure disorders (SD), and autistic, or other behavioral abnormalities. We found pathogenic rearrangements at subtelomeric regions in 236 patients (4.4%). Among these patients, 103 had a deletion, 58 had a duplication, 44 had an unbalanced translocation, and 31 had a complex rearrangement. The detection rates varied among patients with a normal karyotype analysis (2.98%), with an abnormal karyotype analysis (43.4%), and with an unavailable or no karyotype analysis (3.16%). Six patients out of 278 with a prior normal subtelomere-FISH analysis showed an abnormality including an interstitial deletion, two terminal deletions, two interstitial duplications, and a terminal duplication. In conclusion, genomic imbalances at subtelomeric regions contribute significantly to congenital disorders. Targeted array-CGH with extended coverage (up to 10 Mb) of subtelomeric regions will enhance the detection of subtelomeric imbalances, especially for submicroscopic imbalances.
PMCID: PMC2680131  PMID: 18663743
array-CGH; subtelomere; chromosomal abnormality; FISH
12.  Interstitial deletion of 6q25.2–q25.3: a novel microdeletion syndrome associated with microcephaly, developmental delay, dysmorphic features and hearing loss 
Interstitial deletions of 6q are rare. We report a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of four patients with interstitial deletion involving 6q25. All of our patients presented with microcephaly, developmental delay, dysmorphic features and hearing loss, whereas two of them had agenesis of the corpus callosum. We determined the size, extent and genomic content of the deletions using high-density array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH), and found that a common segment spanning 3.52 Mb within the 6q25.2–q25.3 region was deleted in all four cases. We hypothesize that a subset of genes in the commonly deleted region are dosage sensitive and that haploinsufficieny of these genes impairs normal development of the brain and hearing.
PMCID: PMC2986272  PMID: 19034313
6q deletion; hearing loss; microcephaly, developmental delay; agenesis of the corpus callosum; array-CGH
13.  The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome 
Ross, Mark T. | Grafham, Darren V. | Coffey, Alison J. | Scherer, Steven | McLay, Kirsten | Muzny, Donna | Platzer, Matthias | Howell, Gareth R. | Burrows, Christine | Bird, Christine P. | Frankish, Adam | Lovell, Frances L. | Howe, Kevin L. | Ashurst, Jennifer L. | Fulton, Robert S. | Sudbrak, Ralf | Wen, Gaiping | Jones, Matthew C. | Hurles, Matthew E. | Andrews, T. Daniel | Scott, Carol E. | Searle, Stephen | Ramser, Juliane | Whittaker, Adam | Deadman, Rebecca | Carter, Nigel P. | Hunt, Sarah E. | Chen, Rui | Cree, Andrew | Gunaratne, Preethi | Havlak, Paul | Hodgson, Anne | Metzker, Michael L. | Richards, Stephen | Scott, Graham | Steffen, David | Sodergren, Erica | Wheeler, David A. | Worley, Kim C. | Ainscough, Rachael | Ambrose, Kerrie D. | Ansari-Lari, M. Ali | Aradhya, Swaroop | Ashwell, Robert I. S. | Babbage, Anne K. | Bagguley, Claire L. | Ballabio, Andrea | Banerjee, Ruby | Barker, Gary E. | Barlow, Karen F. | Barrett, Ian P. | Bates, Karen N. | Beare, David M. | Beasley, Helen | Beasley, Oliver | Beck, Alfred | Bethel, Graeme | Blechschmidt, Karin | Brady, Nicola | Bray-Allen, Sarah | Bridgeman, Anne M. | Brown, Andrew J. | Brown, Mary J. | Bonnin, David | Bruford, Elspeth A. | Buhay, Christian | Burch, Paula | Burford, Deborah | Burgess, Joanne | Burrill, Wayne | Burton, John | Bye, Jackie M. | Carder, Carol | Carrel, Laura | Chako, Joseph | Chapman, Joanne C. | Chavez, Dean | Chen, Ellson | Chen, Guan | Chen, Yuan | Chen, Zhijian | Chinault, Craig | Ciccodicola, Alfredo | Clark, Sue Y. | Clarke, Graham | Clee, Chris M. | Clegg, Sheila | Clerc-Blankenburg, Kerstin | Clifford, Karen | Cobley, Vicky | Cole, Charlotte G. | Conquer, Jen S. | Corby, Nicole | Connor, Richard E. | David, Robert | Davies, Joy | Davis, Clay | Davis, John | Delgado, Oliver | DeShazo, Denise | Dhami, Pawandeep | Ding, Yan | Dinh, Huyen | Dodsworth, Steve | Draper, Heather | Dugan-Rocha, Shannon | Dunham, Andrew | Dunn, Matthew | Durbin, K. James | Dutta, Ireena | Eades, Tamsin | Ellwood, Matthew | Emery-Cohen, Alexandra | Errington, Helen | Evans, Kathryn L. | Faulkner, Louisa | Francis, Fiona | Frankland, John | Fraser, Audrey E. | Galgoczy, Petra | Gilbert, James | Gill, Rachel | Glöckner, Gernot | Gregory, Simon G. | Gribble, Susan | Griffiths, Coline | Grocock, Russell | Gu, Yanghong | Gwilliam, Rhian | Hamilton, Cerissa | Hart, Elizabeth A. | Hawes, Alicia | Heath, Paul D. | Heitmann, Katja | Hennig, Steffen | Hernandez, Judith | Hinzmann, Bernd | Ho, Sarah | Hoffs, Michael | Howden, Phillip J. | Huckle, Elizabeth J. | Hume, Jennifer | Hunt, Paul J. | Hunt, Adrienne R. | Isherwood, Judith | Jacob, Leni | Johnson, David | Jones, Sally | de Jong, Pieter J. | Joseph, Shirin S. | Keenan, Stephen | Kelly, Susan | Kershaw, Joanne K. | Khan, Ziad | Kioschis, Petra | Klages, Sven | Knights, Andrew J. | Kosiura, Anna | Kovar-Smith, Christie | Laird, Gavin K. | Langford, Cordelia | Lawlor, Stephanie | Leversha, Margaret | Lewis, Lora | Liu, Wen | Lloyd, Christine | Lloyd, David M. | Loulseged, Hermela | Loveland, Jane E. | Lovell, Jamieson D. | Lozado, Ryan | Lu, Jing | Lyne, Rachael | Ma, Jie | Maheshwari, Manjula | Matthews, Lucy H. | McDowall, Jennifer | McLaren, Stuart | McMurray, Amanda | Meidl, Patrick | Meitinger, Thomas | Milne, Sarah | Miner, George | Mistry, Shailesh L. | Morgan, Margaret | Morris, Sidney | Müller, Ines | Mullikin, James C. | Nguyen, Ngoc | Nordsiek, Gabriele | Nyakatura, Gerald | O’Dell, Christopher N. | Okwuonu, Geoffery | Palmer, Sophie | Pandian, Richard | Parker, David | Parrish, Julia | Pasternak, Shiran | Patel, Dina | Pearce, Alex V. | Pearson, Danita M. | Pelan, Sarah E. | Perez, Lesette | Porter, Keith M. | Ramsey, Yvonne | Reichwald, Kathrin | Rhodes, Susan | Ridler, Kerry A. | Schlessinger, David | Schueler, Mary G. | Sehra, Harminder K. | Shaw-Smith, Charles | Shen, Hua | Sheridan, Elizabeth M. | Shownkeen, Ratna | Skuce, Carl D. | Smith, Michelle L. | Sotheran, Elizabeth C. | Steingruber, Helen E. | Steward, Charles A. | Storey, Roy | Swann, R. Mark | Swarbreck, David | Tabor, Paul E. | Taudien, Stefan | Taylor, Tineace | Teague, Brian | Thomas, Karen | Thorpe, Andrea | Timms, Kirsten | Tracey, Alan | Trevanion, Steve | Tromans, Anthony C. | d’Urso, Michele | Verduzco, Daniel | Villasana, Donna | Waldron, Lenee | Wall, Melanie | Wang, Qiaoyan | Warren, James | Warry, Georgina L. | Wei, Xuehong | West, Anthony | Whitehead, Siobhan L. | Whiteley, Mathew N. | Wilkinson, Jane E. | Willey, David L. | Williams, Gabrielle | Williams, Leanne | Williamson, Angela | Williamson, Helen | Wilming, Laurens | Woodmansey, Rebecca L. | Wray, Paul W. | Yen, Jennifer | Zhang, Jingkun | Zhou, Jianling | Zoghbi, Huda | Zorilla, Sara | Buck, David | Reinhardt, Richard | Poustka, Annemarie | Rosenthal, André | Lehrach, Hans | Meindl, Alfons | Minx, Patrick J. | Hillier, LaDeana W. | Willard, Huntington F. | Wilson, Richard K. | Waterston, Robert H. | Rice, Catherine M. | Vaudin, Mark | Coulson, Alan | Nelson, David L. | Weinstock, George | Sulston, John E. | Durbin, Richard | Hubbard, Tim | Gibbs, Richard A. | Beck, Stephan | Rogers, Jane | Bentley, David R.
Nature  2005;434(7031):325-337.
The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence.
PMCID: PMC2665286  PMID: 15772651
14.  Clinical Implementation of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis: Summary of 2513 Postnatal Cases 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(3):e327.
Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (a-CGH) is a powerful molecular cytogenetic tool to detect genomic imbalances and study disease mechanism and pathogenesis. We report our experience with the clinical implementation of this high resolution human genome analysis, referred to as Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA).
Methods and Findings
CMA was performed clinically on 2513 postnatal samples from patients referred with a variety of clinical phenotypes. The initial 775 samples were studied using CMA array version 4 and the remaining 1738 samples were analyzed with CMA version 5 containing expanded genomic coverage. Overall, CMA identified clinically relevant genomic imbalances in 8.5% of patients: 7.6% using V4 and 8.9% using V5. Among 117 cases referred for additional investigation of a known cytogenetically detectable rearrangement, CMA identified the majority (92.5%) of the genomic imbalances. Importantly, abnormal CMA findings were observed in 5.2% of patients (98/1872) with normal karyotypes/FISH results, and V5, with expanded genomic coverage, enabled a higher detection rate in this category than V4. For cases without cytogenetic results available, 8.0% (42/524) abnormal CMA results were detected; again, V5 demonstrated an increased ability to detect abnormality. Improved diagnostic potential of CMA is illustrated by 90 cases identified with 51 cryptic microdeletions and 39 predicted apparent reciprocal microduplications in 13 specific chromosomal regions associated with 11 known genomic disorders. In addition, CMA identified copy number variations (CNVs) of uncertain significance in 262 probands; however, parental studies usually facilitated clinical interpretation. Of these, 217 were interpreted as familial variants and 11 were determined to be de novo; the remaining 34 await parental studies to resolve the clinical significance.
This large set of clinical results demonstrates the significantly improved sensitivity of CMA for the detection of clinically relevant genomic imbalances and highlights the need for comprehensive genetic counseling to facilitate accurate clinical correlation and interpretation.
PMCID: PMC1828620  PMID: 17389918
15.  mRTVP-1, a Novel p53 Target Gene with Proapoptotic Activities 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2002;22(10):3345-3357.
We identified a novel mouse gene, mRTVP-1, as a p53 target gene using differential display PCR and extensive promoter analysis. The mRTVP-1 protein has 255 amino acids and differs from the human RTVP-1 (hRTVP-1) protein by two short in-frame deletions of two and nine amino acids. RTVP-1 mRNA was induced in multiple cancer cell lines by adenovirus-mediated delivery of p53 and by gamma irradiation or doxorubicin both in the presence and in the absence of endogenous p53. Analysis of RTVP-1 expression in nontransformed and transformed cells further supported p53-independent gene regulation. Using luciferase reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays we identified a p53 binding site within intron 1 of the mRTVP-1 gene. Overexpression of mRTVP-1 or hRTVP-1 induced apoptosis in multiple cancer cell lines including prostate cancer cell lines 148-1PA, 178-2BMA, PC-3, TSU-Pr1, and LNCaP, a human lung cancer cell line, H1299, and two isogenic human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 p53+/+ and HCT116 p53−/−, as demonstrated by annexin V positivity, phase-contrast microscopy, and in selected cases 4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and DNA fragmentation. Deletion of the signal peptide from the N terminus of RTVP-1 reduced its apoptotic activities, suggesting that a secreted and soluble form of RTVP-1 may mediate, in part, its proapoptotic activities.
PMCID: PMC133782  PMID: 11971968

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