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1.  Sensory neuropathy as part of the cerebellar ataxia neuropathy vestibular areflexia syndrome 
Neurology  2011;76(22):1903-1910.
The syndrome of cerebellar ataxia with bilateral vestibulopathy was delineated in 2004. Sensory neuropathy was mentioned in 3 of the 4 patients described. We aimed to characterize and estimate the frequency of neuropathy in this condition, and determine its typical MRI features.
Retrospective review of 18 subjects (including 4 from the original description) who met the criteria for bilateral vestibulopathy with cerebellar ataxia.
The reported age at onset range was 39–71 years, and symptom duration was 3–38 years. The syndrome was identified in one sibling pair, suggesting that this may be a late-onset recessive disorder, although the other 16 cases were apparently sporadic. All 18 had sensory neuropathy with absent sensory nerve action potentials, although this was not apparent clinically in 2, and the presence of neuropathy was not a selection criterion. In 5, the loss of pinprick sensation was virtually global, mimicking a neuronopathy. However, findings in the other 11 with clinically manifest neuropathy suggested a length-dependent neuropathy. MRI scans showed cerebellar atrophy in 16, involving anterior and dorsal vermis, and hemispheric crus I, while 2 were normal. The inferior vermis and brainstem were spared.
Sensory neuropathy is an integral component of this syndrome. It may result in severe sensory loss, which contributes significantly to the disability. The MRI changes are nonspecific, but, coupled with loss of sensory nerve action potentials, may aid diagnosis. We propose a new name for the condition: cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and bilateral vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS). Neurology® 2011;76:1903–1910
PMCID: PMC3115806  PMID: 21624989
2.  Liposomal Inhibition of Acrolein-Induced Injury in Rat Cultured Urothelial Cells 
International urology and nephrology  2014;46(10):1947-1952.
To study the protection offered by empty liposomes alone against acrolein-induced changes in urothelial cell viability and explored uptake of liposomes by primary (rat) urothelial cells.
Acrolein was used as a means to induce cellular damage and reduce urothelial cellular viability. The effect of acrolein or liposomal treatment on cellular proliferation was studied using BrdU assay. Cytokine release was measured after urothelial cells were exposed to acrolein. Temperature dependent uptake study was carried out for fluorescent labeled liposomes using confocal microscopy.
Liposome pretreatment protected against acrolein-induced decrease in urothelial cell proliferation. Liposomes also significantly affected the acrolein induced cytokine (IFNγ) release offering protection to the urothelial cells against acrolein damage. We also observed a temperature-dependent urothelial uptake of fluorescent-labeled liposomes occurred at 37 °C (but not at 4 °C).
Empty liposomes alone provide a therapeutic efficacy against acrolein induced changes in urothelial cell viability and may be a promising local therapy for bladder diseases. Hence our preliminary evidence provides support for liposome-therapy for urothelial protection and possible repair.
PMCID: PMC4177265  PMID: 24875005
urothelium; urinary bladder; liposome; injury; barrier function
3.  A comparison of the efficacy of darifenacin alone vs. darifenacin plus a Behavioural Modification Programme upon the symptoms of overactive bladder 
This study assessed the benefit of adding behavioural modification to darifenacin treatment for overactive bladder (OAB).
Materials and methods
The ABLE trial was a randomised, open-label, parallel-group, multicentre study of 12 weeks of darifenacin treatment [with voluntary up-titration from 7.5 mg once daily (qd) to 15 mg qd at week 2] alone or in combination with a Behavioural Modification Programme (BMP) for men and women with dry or wet OAB. Efficacy was assessed as the change in the number (per day) of micturitions (primary variable), urge urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes, urgency episodes, pads used and nocturnal voids. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was also evaluated. Tolerability and safety assessments included adverse events and the number of discontinuations.
Of 592 patients screened, 395 were randomised, 190 to darifenacin alone and 205 to darifenacin + BMP. At baseline, the majority of subjects were dry (mean 2.8 and three UUI episodes per day in the darifenacin and darifenacin + BMP groups respectively). At study end, darifenacin alone and darifenacin + BMP both produced significant reductions from baseline in median numbers of micturitions, UUI episodes, urgency episodes and nocturnal voids (all p < 0.05), but not in the number of pads used. HRQoL also improved. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in efficacy or HRQoL variables.
Darifenacin treatment provides a degree of normalisation of micturition variables and improvement in HRQoL that cannot be further enhanced by behavioural therapy of the type used in this study. Whether behavioural modification would add benefit over darifenacin treatment in patients with more pronounced incontinence problems remains to be determined.
PMCID: PMC2325270  PMID: 18324952
4.  Diagnosing motor neurone disease. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1996;312(7032):650-651.
PMCID: PMC2350520  PMID: 8597717
5.  Avoiding false positive diagnoses of motor neuron disease: lessons from the Scottish Motor Neuron Disease Register. 
OBJECTIVES--To describe the frequency and characteristics of those patients initially registered with the Scottish Motor Neuron Disease Register (SMNDR) but who subsequently had a diagnosis other than MND made (false positives), to analyse the features which led to a revised diagnosis, and to draw conclusions which might improve routine neurological practice. METHODS--The Scottish Motor Neuron Disease Register is a community based, prospective disease register to identify and follow up all incident cases of motor neuron disease in Scotland. Fifty three patients out of a total of 552 registered are presented, who, after initial registration, were later excluded because they failed to satisfy the register's diagnostic criteria. RESULTS--Seven of these patients were labelled as "MND plus" syndromes and may represent a distinct subset of MND. The remaining 46 patients had an alternative diagnosis made (false positive group), accounting for 8% of the total. In half of these cases, potentially beneficial therapies are available. The predominant reasons which lead to a diagnostic revision were: failure of symptom progression, development of atypical clinical features for MND, and investigation results. CONCLUSIONS--Patients with MND should undergo thorough and relevant investigations at presentation with the emphasis on neuroradiological imaging and neurophysiology; all patients should be followed up by an experienced neurologist, particularly those in whom symptoms and signs are restricted to either the bulbar or spinal muscles; failure of symptom progression or development of atypical features should lead to an early reassessment; finally, patients should be informed of the diagnosis only when it is secure.
PMCID: PMC1073793  PMID: 8708642
7.  Risk factors for motor neuron disease: a case-control study based on patients from the Scottish Motor Neuron Disease Register. 
In order to identify risk factors for the subsequent development of motor neuron disease (MND) we have carried out a case-control study of incident patients in Scotland, identified using the Scottish Motor Neuron Disease Register. A standard questionnaire was given to 103 patients and the same number of community controls matched on a one to one basis using the general practitioner's (GP) age and sex register. Recall bias was minimised by using GP records to verify the subject's report. There was an overall lifetime excess of fractures in patients, odds ratio (OR) = 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-2.5) and this was highest in the 5 years before symptom onset (OR = 15, 95% CI, 3.3-654). There was no association with non-fracture trauma but the OR for a manual occupation in patients was 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1-6.3). Both occupational exposure to lead (OR = 5.7, 95% CI, 1.6-30) and solvents/chemicals (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.3-10) were significantly more common in patients. No consistent association was found between MND and factors reflecting socioeconomic deprivation in childhood; childhood infections or social class. Our results identify a number of different factors which may contribute to the aetiology of MND.
PMCID: PMC489821  PMID: 8229031
8.  Utility of Scottish morbidity and mortality data for epidemiological studies of motor neuron disease. 
OBJECTIVES--To determine the accuracy of (1) hospital discharge data and (2) death certificates, coded as motor neuron disease (MND). DESIGN--Comparison of data from The Scottish Motor Neuron Disease Register (SMNDR) with routinely collected Scottish Hospital In-Patient Statistics (SHIPS) and death certificate coding. SETTING--Scotland UK. PATIENTS--1) 379 adults (> 15 years) discharged for the first time from a Scottish hospital in 1989-90 and (2) 281 deaths in the same period assigned to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9, category 335 (MND). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The sensitivity and positive predictive value of a diagnosis of MND as retrieved by (1) the Information and Statistics Division of the Common Services Agency for the Scottish Health Service for morbidity data and (2) the Registrar General's office for mortality data, using the SMNDR as the 'gold standard'. RESULTS--(1) Thirty per cent of adult patients identified as having MND by SHIPS did not have this disease and 23% of patients with MND did not appear on SHIPS. The sensitivity of a diagnosis of MND, as retrieved by SHIPS, was 84% and the positive predictive value was 70% overall. Miscoding of patients with pseudobulbar palsy caused by cerebrovascular disease was the major source of false positive error. The incidence of adult onset sporadic MND was over estimated by SHIPS by a factor of 1.6. (2) Mortality data were more accurate, with a false negative rate of 6% and a positive predictive value of 90%. CONCLUSIONS--Coded hospital discharge data are an inaccurate record of a diagnosis of MND and cannot, in their present form, be used as a reliable measure of disease incidence in Scotland. Greater care is required in the preparation of discharge summaries and coding if these data are to be useful for health care planning and epidemiological research. SHIPS is, however, an important source of information to achieve a complete sample of patients with MND. There is also a problematic false positive rate for mortality data but this source more closely approximates true incidence.
PMCID: PMC1059738  PMID: 8326268
9.  Adult onset motor neuron disease: worldwide mortality, incidence and distribution since 1950. 
This review examines the commonly held premise that, apart from the Western Pacific forms, motor neuron disease (MND), has a uniform worldwide distribution in space and time; the methodological problems in studies of MND incidence; and directions for future epidemiological research. MND is more common in men at all ages. Age-specific incidence rises steeply into the seventh decade but the incidence in the very elderly is uncertain. A rise in mortality from MND over recent decades has been demonstrated wherever this has been examined and may be real rather than due to improved case ascertainment. Comparison of incidence studies in different places is complicated by non-standardised methods of case ascertainment and diagnosis but there appear to be differences between well studied populations. In developed countries in the northern hemisphere there is a weak positive correlation between standardised, age-specific incidence and distance from the equator. There is now strong evidence for an environmental factor as the cause of the Western Pacific forms of MND. A number of clusters of sporadic MND have been reported from developed countries, but no single agent identified as responsible.
PMCID: PMC1015320  PMID: 1479386
12.  Effects of Cigarette Smoke Components on In Vitro Chemotaxis of Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes 
Infection and Immunity  1977;16(1):240-248.
Some ciliostatic components of cigarette smoke were studied as inhibitors of in vitro chemotaxis of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In comparison to their concentration in an inhibitory level of cigarette smoke, the unsaturated aldehydes acrolein and crotonaldehyde were the most potent inhibitors, whereas nicotine, cyanide, acetaldehyde, and furfural were the next strongest inhibitors. In contrast, sulfide, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and the phenols (phenol and o-, m-, and p-cresol) were relatively weak inhibitors of PMN chemotaxis. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde mimicked whole cigarette smoke in their effects on PMNs by not causing loss of PMN viability, yet their effects were prevented by the addition of cysteine. On the other hand, addition of nicotine, cyanide, acetaldehyde, and furfural to PMN suspensions resulted in a limited loss of cellular viabilities, and their effects on PMNs were not prevented by cysteine. Of the tested components, only cyanide significantly altered PMN glucose metabolism by increasing carbon flow via the glycolytic and hexose monophosphate pathways in a manner similar to that observed with whole cigarette smoke. The results of this study suggest that the unsaturated aldehydes, including acrolein and crotonaldehyde, are major contributors to the inhibitory properties of cigarette smoke. The inhibitory effects of these unsaturated aldehydes are probably due to a direct interaction of these oxidants and/or thiol-alkylating agents with PMNs, yet the glucose metabolism of these cells is unaffected. One interpretation of these data is that PMN chemotaxis is dependent upon particular cellular proteins containing one or more essential thiol group(s) but that these proteins are unrelated to glucose metabolism.
PMCID: PMC421514  PMID: 873608

Results 1-12 (12)