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1.  Integrative Analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans Genome by the modENCODE Project 
Gerstein, Mark B. | Lu, Zhi John | Van Nostrand, Eric L. | Cheng, Chao | Arshinoff, Bradley I. | Liu, Tao | Yip, Kevin Y. | Robilotto, Rebecca | Rechtsteiner, Andreas | Ikegami, Kohta | Alves, Pedro | Chateigner, Aurelien | Perry, Marc | Morris, Mitzi | Auerbach, Raymond K. | Feng, Xin | Leng, Jing | Vielle, Anne | Niu, Wei | Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn | Agarwal, Ashish | Alexander, Roger P. | Barber, Galt | Brdlik, Cathleen M. | Brennan, Jennifer | Brouillet, Jeremy Jean | Carr, Adrian | Cheung, Ming-Sin | Clawson, Hiram | Contrino, Sergio | Dannenberg, Luke O. | Dernburg, Abby F. | Desai, Arshad | Dick, Lindsay | Dosé, Andréa C. | Du, Jiang | Egelhofer, Thea | Ercan, Sevinc | Euskirchen, Ghia | Ewing, Brent | Feingold, Elise A. | Gassmann, Reto | Good, Peter J. | Green, Phil | Gullier, Francois | Gutwein, Michelle | Guyer, Mark S. | Habegger, Lukas | Han, Ting | Henikoff, Jorja G. | Henz, Stefan R. | Hinrichs, Angie | Holster, Heather | Hyman, Tony | Iniguez, A. Leo | Janette, Judith | Jensen, Morten | Kato, Masaomi | Kent, W. James | Kephart, Ellen | Khivansara, Vishal | Khurana, Ekta | Kim, John K. | Kolasinska-Zwierz, Paulina | Lai, Eric C. | Latorre, Isabel | Leahey, Amber | Lewis, Suzanna | Lloyd, Paul | Lochovsky, Lucas | Lowdon, Rebecca F. | Lubling, Yaniv | Lyne, Rachel | MacCoss, Michael | Mackowiak, Sebastian D. | Mangone, Marco | McKay, Sheldon | Mecenas, Desirea | Merrihew, Gennifer | Miller, David M. | Muroyama, Andrew | Murray, John I. | Ooi, Siew-Loon | Pham, Hoang | Phippen, Taryn | Preston, Elicia A. | Rajewsky, Nikolaus | Rätsch, Gunnar | Rosenbaum, Heidi | Rozowsky, Joel | Rutherford, Kim | Ruzanov, Peter | Sarov, Mihail | Sasidharan, Rajkumar | Sboner, Andrea | Scheid, Paul | Segal, Eran | Shin, Hyunjin | Shou, Chong | Slack, Frank J. | Slightam, Cindie | Smith, Richard | Spencer, William C. | Stinson, E. O. | Taing, Scott | Takasaki, Teruaki | Vafeados, Dionne | Voronina, Ksenia | Wang, Guilin | Washington, Nicole L. | Whittle, Christina M. | Wu, Beijing | Yan, Koon-Kiu | Zeller, Georg | Zha, Zheng | Zhong, Mei | Zhou, Xingliang | Ahringer, Julie | Strome, Susan | Gunsalus, Kristin C. | Micklem, Gos | Liu, X. Shirley | Reinke, Valerie | Kim, Stuart K. | Hillier, LaDeana W. | Henikoff, Steven | Piano, Fabio | Snyder, Michael | Stein, Lincoln | Lieb, Jason D. | Waterston, Robert H.
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2010;330(6012):1775-1787.
We systematically generated large-scale data sets to improve genome annotation for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a key model organism. These data sets include transcriptome profiling across a developmental time course, genome-wide identification of transcription factor–binding sites, and maps of chromatin organization. From this, we created more complete and accurate gene models, including alternative splice forms and candidate noncoding RNAs. We constructed hierarchical networks of transcription factor–binding and microRNA interactions and discovered chromosomal locations bound by an unusually large number of transcription factors. Different patterns of chromatin composition and histone modification were revealed between chromosome arms and centers, with similarly prominent differences between autosomes and the X chromosome. Integrating data types, we built statistical models relating chromatin, transcription factor binding, and gene expression. Overall, our analyses ascribed putative functions to most of the conserved genome.
PMCID: PMC3142569  PMID: 21177976
2.  Src-induced cisplatin resistance mediated by cell-to-cell communication 
Cancer research  2009;69(8):3619-3624.
Cisplatin-induced cell death can be triggered by cell-to-cell communication through gap junctions. Here we show that activated src produces tyrosine phosphorylation of the gap junction protein connexin 43, decreases gap junction communication, and increases cell survival in response to cisplatin. Experiments with mixed cell populations show that src activity in one cell can confer increased cisplatin survival on neighboring cells, even when the neighboring cells lack such src activity. This work is the first demonstration that expression of an oncogene in one cell can effect the survival of a neighboring cell not expressing the oncogene in response to a chemotherapeutic drug. The trans-acting effect of activated src on neighboring cells can be blocked by inhibitors of src kinase and counteracted by forced up-regulation of connexin 43, by either gene transfer or proteasome inhibition. These results identify a novel pathway of cisplatin resistance that may be amenable to therapeutic intervention.
PMCID: PMC2972619  PMID: 19351863
cisplatin; gap junctions; activated src; connexin 43
3.  Signal integration: a framework for understanding the efficacy of therapeutics targeting the human EGFR family 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2008;118(11):3574-3581.
The human EGFR (HER) family is essential for communication between many epithelial cancer cell types and the tumor microenvironment. Therapeutics targeting the HER family have demonstrated clinical success in the treatment of diverse epithelial cancers. Here we propose that the success of HER family–targeted monoclonal antibodies in cancer results from their ability to interfere with HER family consolidation of signals initiated by a multitude of other receptor systems. Ligand/receptor systems that initiate these signals include cytokine receptors, chemokine receptors, TLRs, GPCRs, and integrins. We further extrapolate that improvements in cancer therapeutics targeting the HER family are likely to incorporate mechanisms that block or reverse stromal support of malignant progression by isolating the HER family from autocrine and stromal influences.
PMCID: PMC2575712  PMID: 18982164
4.  A Single Amino Acid Residue Defines the Difference in Ovalicin Sensitivity between Type I and II Methionine Aminopeptidases*S 
The Journal of biological chemistry  2003;279(10):9475-9480.
TNP-470, the first anti-angiogenic small molecule to enter clinical trials, targets methionine aminopepti-dase-2 (MetAP-2), a metalloprotease that cleaves the N-terminal methionine of proteins. Previously, biochemical binding, in vivo yeast studies, and structural studies of human methionine aminopeptidase-2 bound to TNP-470 and its analogs fumagillin and ovalicin revealed that these compounds exhibit specificity for MetAP-2 over its family member MetAP-1. To further elucidate the nature of this specificity, we developed a yeast-based screen for human MetAP-2 mutations that confer ovalicin resistance. Of the three resistant alleles, A362T appeared in the majority of clones and was found to be the most resistant to the ovalicin class of inhibitors. Alignment of human MetAP-2 with human MetAP-1, which is naturally ovalicin-resistant, revealed that the analogous residue in MetAP-1 is also a threonine. Mutation of this residue to alanine resulted in an ovalicin-sensitive MetAP-1 allele, demonstrating that an alanine at this position is critical for inhibition by ovalicin. These results provide a molecular explanation for the specificity exhibited by this class of anti-angiogenic agents for MetAP-2 over MetAP-1 and may prove useful in the development of additional MetAP-2-specific therapeutic agents.
PMCID: PMC2556556  PMID: 14676204

Results 1-4 (4)