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1.  Subtelomeric Deletion of Chromosome 10p15.3: Clinical Findings and Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization 
We describe 19 unrelated individuals with submicroscopic deletions involving 10p15.3 characterized by chromosomal microarray (CMA). Interestingly, to our knowledge, only two individuals with isolated, submicroscopic 10p15.3 deletion have been reported to date; however, only limited clinical information is available for these probands and the deleted region has not been molecularly mapped. Comprehensive clinical history was obtained for 12 of the 19 individuals described in this study. Common features among these 12 individuals include: cognitive/behavioral/developmental differences (11/11), speech delay/language disorder (10/10), motor delay (10/10), craniofacial dysmorphism (9/12), hypotonia (7/11,), brain anomalies (4/6) and seizures (3/7). Parental studies were performed for nine of the 19 individuals; the 10p15.3 deletion was de novo in seven of the probands, not maternally inherited in one proband and inherited from an apparently affected mother in one proband. Molecular mapping of the 19 individuals reported in this study has identified two genes, ZMYND11 (OMIM# 608668) and DIP2C (OMIM# 611380) (UCSC Genome Browser), mapping within 10p15.3 which are most commonly deleted. Although no single gene has been identified which is deleted in all 19 individuals studied, the deleted region in all but one individual includes ZMYND11 and the deleted region in all but one other individual includes DIP2C. There is not a clearly identifiable phenotypic difference between these two individuals and the size of the deleted region does not generally predict clinical features. Little is currently known about these genes complicating a direct genotype/phenotype correlation at this time. These data however, suggest that ZMYND11 and/or DIP2C haploinsufficiency contributes to the clinical features associated with 10p15 deletions in probands described in this study.
PMCID: PMC3429713  PMID: 22847950
chromosomal microarray (CMA); 10p15.3; deletion; ZMYND11; DIP2C
2.  An evidence-based approach to establish the functional and clinical significance of CNVs in intellectual and developmental disabilities 
Copy number variants (CNVs) have emerged as a major cause of human disease such as autism and intellectual disabilities. Because CNVs are common in normal individuals, determining the functional and clinical significance of rare CNVs in patients remains challenging. The adoption of whole-genome chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) as a first-tier diagnostic test for individuals with unexplained developmental disabilities provides a unique opportunity to obtain large CNV datasets generated through routine patient care.
A consortium of diagnostic laboratories was established [the International Standards for Cytogenomic Arrays (ISCA) consortium] to share CNV and phenotypic data in a central, public database. We present the largest CNV case-control study to date comprising 15,749 ISCA cases and 10,118 published controls, focusing our initial analysis on recurrent deletions and duplications involving 14 CNV regions.
Compared to controls, fourteen deletions, and seven duplications were significantly overrepresented in cases, providing a clinical diagnosis as pathogenic.
Given the rapid expansion of clinical CMA testing, very large datasets will be available to determine the functional significance of increasingly rare CNVs. This data will provide an evidenced-based guide to clinicians across many disciplines involved in the diagnosis, management, and care of these patients and their families.
PMCID: PMC3661946  PMID: 21844811
CNVs; evidence-based approach; clinical significance; ID/DD; consortium
3.  Severe intellectual disability and autistic features associated with microduplication 2q23.1 
We report on two patients with developmental delay, hypotonia, and autistic features associated with duplications of chromosome region 2q23.1–2q23.2 detected by chromosome microarray analysis. The duplications include one OMIM Morbid Map gene, MBD5, as well as seven known RefSeq genes (ACVR2A, ORC4L, EPC2, KIF5C, MIR1978, LYPD6B, and LYPD6). MBD5 lies in the minimum area of overlap of the 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome. This report provides the first detailed clinical examination of two individuals with a duplication of this region and suggests that brain development and cognitive function may be affected by an increased dosage of the genes involved.
PMCID: PMC3306850  PMID: 22085900
2q23.1 microduplication; MBD5 gene; CGH microarray; autism spectrum disorder
4.  The phenotype of recurrent 10q22q23 deletions and duplications 
The genomic architecture of the 10q22q23 region is characterised by two low-copy repeats (LCRs3 and 4), and deletions in this region appear to be rare. We report the clinical and molecular characterisation of eight novel deletions and six duplications within the 10q22.3q23.3 region. Five deletions and three duplications occur between LCRs3 and 4, whereas three deletions and three duplications have unique breakpoints. Most of the individuals with the LCR3–4 deletion had developmental delay, mainly affecting speech. In addition, macrocephaly, mild facial dysmorphisms, cerebellar anomalies, cardiac defects and congenital breast aplasia were observed. For congenital breast aplasia, the NRG3 gene, known to be involved in early mammary gland development in mice, is a putative candidate gene. For cardiac defects, BMPR1A and GRID1 are putative candidate genes because of their association with cardiac structure and function. Duplications between LCRs3 and 4 are associated with variable phenotypic penetrance. Probands had speech and/or motor delays and dysmorphisms including a broad forehead, deep-set eyes, upslanting palpebral fissures, a smooth philtrum and a thin upper lip. In conclusion, duplications between LCRs3 and 4 on 10q22.3q23.2 may lead to a distinct facial appearance and delays in speech and motor development. However, the phenotypic spectrum is broad, and duplications have also been found in healthy family members of a proband. Reciprocal deletions lead to speech and language delay, mild facial dysmorphisms and, in some individuals, to cerebellar, breast developmental and cardiac defects.
PMCID: PMC3060324  PMID: 21248748
10q22.3q23.2; NRG3; BMPR1A; PTEN; GRID1; breast development

Results 1-4 (4)