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author:("Xie, bingnan")
1.  Analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Pochonia chlamydosporia suggests a close relationship to the invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in Hypocreales 
BMC Microbiology  2015;15:5.
The fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia parasitizes nematode eggs and has become one of the most promising biological control agents (BCAs) for plant-parasitic nematodes, which are major agricultural pests that cause tremendous economic losses worldwide. The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome is expected to open new avenues for understanding the phylogenetic relationships and evolution of the invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in Hypocreales.
The complete mitogenome sequence of P. chlamydosporia is 25,615 bp in size, containing the 14 typical protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, an intronic ORF coding for a putative ribosomal protein (rps3) and a set of 23 transfer RNA genes (trn) which recognize codons for all amino acids. Sequence similarity studies and syntenic gene analyses show that 87.02% and 58.72% of P. chlamydosporia mitogenome sequences match 90.50% of Metarhizium anisopliae sequences and 61.33% of Lecanicillium muscarium sequences with 92.38% and 86.04% identities, respectively. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 14 mt proteins in Pezizomycotina fungi supports that P. chlamydosporia is most closely related to the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae. The invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in Hypocreales cluster together and clearly separate from a cluster comprising plant-pathogenic fungi (Fusarium spp.) and Hypocrea jecorina. A comparison of mitogenome sizes shows that the length of the intergenic regions or the intronic regions is the major size contributor in most of mitogenomes in Sordariomycetes. Evolutionary analysis shows that rps3 is under positive selection, leading to the display of unique evolutionary characteristics in Hypocreales. Moreover, the variability of trn distribution has a clear impact on gene order in mitogenomes. Gene rearrangement analysis shows that operation of transposition drives the rearrangement events in Pezizomycotina, and most events involve in trn position changes, but no rearrangement was found in Clavicipitaceae.
We present the complete annotated mitogenome sequence of P. chlamydosporia. Based on evolutionary and phylogenetic analyses, we have determined the relationships between the invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in Hypocreales. The invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in Hypocreales referred to in this paper form a monophyletic group sharing a most recent common ancestor. Our rps3 and trn gene order results also establish a foundation for further exploration of the evolutionary trajectory of the fungi in Hypocreales.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12866-015-0341-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4360972  PMID: 25636983
Nematode egg-parasite fungus; Pochonia chlamydosporia; Biological control agent; Mitochondrial genome; rps3; Rearrangement; Evolution; Phylogeny
2.  Mapping and analysis of a novel candidate Fusarium wilt resistance gene FOC1 in Brassica oleracea 
BMC Genomics  2014;15(1):1094.
Cabbage Fusarium wilt is a major disease worldwide that can cause severe yield loss in cabbage (Brassica olerecea). Although markers linked to the resistance gene FOC1 have been identified, no candidate gene for it has been determined so far. In this study, we report the fine mapping and analysis of a candidate gene for FOC1 using a double haploid (DH) population with 160 lines and a F2 population of 4000 individuals derived from the same parental lines.
We confirmed that the resistance to Fusarium wilt was controlled by a single dominant gene based on the resistance segregation ratio of the two populations. Using InDel primers designed from whole-genome re-sequencing data for the two parental lines (the resistant inbred-line 99–77 and the highly susceptible line 99–91) and the DH population, we mapped the resistance gene to a 382-kb genomic region on chromosome C06. Using the F2 population, we narrowed the region to an 84-kb interval that harbored ten genes, including four probable resistance genes (R genes): Bol037156, Bol037157, Bol037158 and Bol037161 according to the gene annotations from BRAD, the genomic database for B. oleracea. After correcting the model of the these genes, we re-predicted two R genes in the target region: re-Bol037156 and re-Bol0371578. The latter was excluded after we compared the two genes’ sequences between ten resistant materials and ten susceptible materials. For re-Bol037156, we found high identity among the sequences of the resistant lines, while among the susceptible lines, there were two types of InDels (a 1-bp insertion and a 10-bp deletion), each of which caused a frameshift and terminating mutation in the cDNA sequences. Further sequence analysis of the two InDel loci from 80 lines (40 resistant and 40 susceptible) also showed that all 40 R lines had no InDel mutation while 39 out of 40 S lines matched the two types of loci. Thus re-Bol037156 was identified as a likely candidate gene for FOC1 in cabbage.
This work may lay the foundation for marker-assisted selection as well as for further function analysis of the FOC1 gene.
PMCID: PMC4299151  PMID: 25495687
Brassica oleracea; Fusarium wilt; Resistance gene; FOC1; Map-based cloning
3.  Draft Genome Sequence of Ralstonia solanacearum Race 4 Biovar 4 Strain SD54 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(6):e00890-13.
Ralstonia solanacearum is an important etiological agent that can cause serious bacterial wilt in a very wide range of potential host plants, including ginger. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of R. solanacearum SD54, a race 4 biovar 4 (R4B4) strain from a diseased ginger plant in China.
PMCID: PMC3868847  PMID: 24356823
4.  Genome-wide analysis of WRKY gene family in Cucumis sativus 
BMC Genomics  2011;12:471.
WRKY proteins are a large family of transcriptional regulators in higher plant. They are involved in many biological processes, such as plant development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Prior to the present study, only one full-length cucumber WRKY protein had been reported. The recent publication of the draft genome sequence of cucumber allowed us to conduct a genome-wide search for cucumber WRKY proteins, and to compare these positively identified proteins with their homologs in model plants, such as Arabidopsis.
We identified a total of 55 WRKY genes in the cucumber genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins, the cucumber WRKY (CsWRKY) genes were classified into three groups (group 1-3). Analysis of expression profiles of CsWRKY genes indicated that 48 WRKY genes display differential expression either in their transcript abundance or in their expression patterns under normal growth conditions, and 23 WRKY genes were differentially expressed in response to at least one abiotic stresses (cold, drought or salinity). The expression profile of stress-inducible CsWRKY genes were correlated with those of their putative Arabidopsis WRKY (AtWRKY) orthologs, except for the group 3 WRKY genes. Interestingly, duplicated group 3 AtWRKY genes appear to have been under positive selection pressure during evolution. In contrast, there was no evidence of recent gene duplication or positive selection pressure among CsWRKY group 3 genes, which may have led to the expressional divergence of group 3 orthologs.
Fifty-five WRKY genes were identified in cucumber and the structure of their encoded proteins, their expression, and their evolution were examined. Considering that there has been extensive expansion of group 3 WRKY genes in angiosperms, the occurrence of different evolutionary events could explain the functional divergence of these genes.
PMCID: PMC3191544  PMID: 21955985
5.  An Integrated Genetic and Cytogenetic Map of the Cucumber Genome 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(6):e5795.
The Cucurbitaceae includes important crops such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash and pumpkin. However, few genetic and genomic resources are available for plant improvement. Some cucurbit species such as cucumber have a narrow genetic base, which impedes construction of saturated molecular linkage maps. We report herein the development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers originated from whole genome shotgun sequencing and the subsequent construction of a high-density genetic linkage map. This map includes 995 SSRs in seven linkage groups which spans in total 573 cM, and defines ∼680 recombination breakpoints with an average of 0.58 cM between two markers. These linkage groups were then assigned to seven corresponding chromosomes using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH assays also revealed a chromosomal inversion between Cucumis subspecies [C. sativus var. sativus L. and var. hardwickii (R.) Alef], which resulted in marker clustering on the genetic map. A quarter of the mapped markers showed relatively high polymorphism levels among 11 inbred lines of cucumber. Among the 995 markers, 49%, 26% and 22% were conserved in melon, watermelon and pumpkin, respectively. This map will facilitate whole genome sequencing, positional cloning, and molecular breeding in cucumber, and enable the integration of knowledge of gene and trait in cucurbits.
PMCID: PMC2685989  PMID: 19495411

Results 1-5 (5)