This current work was to investigate the biological effects of acidic cosmetic water (ACW) on various biological assays. ACW was isolated from seawater and demonstrated several bio-functions at various concentration ranges. ACW showed a satisfactory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, which reduced 90% of bacterial growth after a 5-second exposure. We used cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to test the properties of ACW in inflammatory cytokine release, and it did not induce inflammatory cytokine release from un-stimulated, normal PBMCs. However, ACW was able to inhibit bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine TNF-α released from PBMCs, showing an anti-inflammation potential. Furthermore, ACW did not stimulate the rat basophilic leukemia cell (RBL-2H3) related allergy response on de-granulation. Our data presented ACW with a strong anti-oxidative ability in a superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. In mass spectrometry information, magnesium and zinc ions demonstrated bio-functional detections for anti-inflammation as well as other metal ions such as potassium and calcium were observed. ACW also had minor tyrosinase and melanin decreasing activities in human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn-MP) without apparent cytotoxicity. In addition, the cell proliferation assay illustrated anti-growth and anti-migration effects of ACW on human skin melanoma cells (A375.S2) indicating that it exerted the anti-cancer potential against skin cancer. The results obtained from biological assays showed that ACW possessed multiple bioactivities, including anti-microorganism, anti-inflammation, allergy-free, antioxidant, anti-melanin and anticancer properties. To our knowledge, this was the first report presenting these bioactivities on ACW.
acidic cosmetic water (ACW); antioxidant activity; anti-microorganism; anti-inflammation; allergy-free; skin-whitening; anti-melanoma
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen in both children and the elderly, but previous studies in China have provided limited information about invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). A total of 240 IPD S. pneumoniae strains (from 105 children and 135 adults) were collected from 12 cities in China in 2005–2011. Their phenotypes and genetic characteristics were analyzed. Streptococcus pneumoniae remained highly resistant to macrolides, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole each year. Serotypes were assigned to the 240 isolates, and 19A (22.1%), 19F (21.7%), 14 (7.5%), 3 (7.1%), and 23F (5.4%) were the most prevalent, accounting for 63.8% of all strains. Serogroup 19 strains were significantly more common among children than among adults (58.7% vs 32.4%, respectively; P < 0.001). Serotypes 19F and 19A demonstrated higher resistance to β-lactams and cephalosporins than the other serotypes. The coverage of PCV13 was superior to that calculated for PCV7 and PCV10 (77.9% vs 40.8% and 47.1%, respectively), and coverage was higher in children than in adults (85.6% vs 72.1%, respectively; P = 0.012). A multilocus sequence typing analysis revealed great diversity, with nine clonal complexes and 83 singletons among all the strains. Specifically, CC271 was more common in children, whereas singletons were more prevalent in adults. Among the serogroup 19 strains, 84.7% were ST271, ST320, or ST236, belonging to CC271. The homogeneous genetic background of 19F and 19A, together with the high resistance of these strains, suggests that clonal spread is responsible for the high prevalence of serogroup 19 in IPD. This is the first large study to investigate IPD strains in both children and adults in China.
We demonstrate a compact, inexpensive, and reliable fiber–coupled light source with broad bandwidth and sufficient power at 1300 nm for high resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging in real-time applications. By combining four superluminescent diodes (SLEDs) with different central wavelengths, the light source has a bandwidth of 145 nm centered at 1325 nm with over 10 mW of power. OCT images of an excised stage 30 embryonic chick heart acquired with our combined SLED light source (<5 μm axial resolution in tissue) are compared with images obtained with a single SLED source (~10 μm axial resolution in tissue). The high resolution OCT system with the combined SLED light source provides better image quality (smaller speckle noise) and a greater ability to observe fine structures in the embryonic heart.
We have designed a novel hybrid nanostructure by coating Fe2O3 nanoparticles with multi-walled carbon nanotubes to enhance the lithium storage capability of Fe2O3. The strategy to prepare Fe2O3@MWCNTs involves the synthesis of Fe nanoparticles wrapped in MWCNTs, followed by the oxidation of Fe nanoparticles under carbon dioxide. When used as the anode in a Li-ion battery, this hybrid material (70.32 wt% carbon nanotubes, 29.68 wt% Fe2O3) showed a reversible discharge capacity of 515 mAhg−1 after 50 cycles at a density of 100 mAg−1 and the capacity based on Fe2O3 nanoparticles was calculated as 1147 mAhg−1, Three factors are responsibile for the superior performance: (1) The hollow interiors of MWCNTs provide enough spaces for the accommodation of large volume expansion of inner Fe2O3 nanoparticles, which can improving the stability of electrode; (2) The MWCNTs increase the overall conductivity of the anode; (3) A stable solid electrolyte interface film formed on the surface of MWCNTs may reduce capacity fading.
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a highly heterogeneous genetic disease; therefore, an accurate molecular diagnosis is essential for appropriate disease treatment and family planning. The prevalence of RP in China had been reported at 1 in 3800, resulting in an estimated total of 340,000 Chinese RP patients. However, genetic studies of Chinese RP patients have been very limited. To date, no comprehensive molecular diagnosis has been done for Chinese RP patients. With the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS), comprehensive molecular diagnosis of RP is now within reach. The purpose of this study was to perform the first NGS-based comprehensive molecular diagnosis for Chinese RP patients.
Thirty-one well-characterized autosomal recessive RP (arRP) families were recruited. For each family, the DNA sample from one affected member was sequenced using our custom capture panel, which includes 163 retinal disease genes. Variants were called, filtered, and annotated by our in-house automatic pipeline.
Twelve arRP families were successfully molecular diagnosed, achieving a diagnostic rate of approximately 40%. Interestingly, approximately 63% of the pathogenic mutations we identified are novel, which is higher than that observed in a similar study on European descent (45%). Moreover, the clinical diagnoses of two families were refined based on the pathogenic mutations identified in the patients.
We conclude that comprehensive molecular diagnosis can be vital for an accurate clinical diagnosis of RP. Applying this tool on patients from different ethnic groups is essential for enhancing our knowledge of the global spectrum of RP disease-causing mutations.
Next-generation sequencing–based comprehensive molecular diagnosis of 31 families with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) was performed. This is the first such study of a Chinese arRP patient cohort, revealing a total of 10 novel putatively pathogenic mutations.
retinitis pigmentosa; next-generation sequencing; molecular diagnosis; Chinese population
Endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerosis and represents an important link between obesity and cardiovascular events. Strategies designed to prevent endothelial dysfunction may therefore reduce the cardiovascular complications triggered by obesity. We tested the hypothesis that deficiency of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (Psgl-1) would improve the endothelial dysfunction associated with obesity. Psgl-1-deficient (Psgl-1−/−) and wild-type (Psgl-1+/+) mice were fed standard chow or a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (diet-induced obesity [DIO]) for 10 weeks. DIO increased mesenteric perivascular adipose tissue (mPVAT) macrophage content and vascular oxidative stress in Psgl-1+/+ mice but not in Psgl-1−/− mice. Pressure myography using mesenteric arteries demonstrated that relaxation responses to acetylcholine were significantly impaired in DIO Psgl-1+/+ mice, whereas DIO Psgl-1−/− mice were protected from endothelial dysfunction with similar relaxation responses to Psgl-1+/+ or Psgl-1−/− mice fed standard chow. The superoxide scavenger 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPOL) partially recovered impaired endothelial function induced by DIO. A neutralizing Psgl-1 antibody was also effective in preventing endothelial dysfunction and reducing mPVAT macrophage content induced by DIO. These results indicate that obesity in mice leads to PVAT inflammation and endothelial dysfunction that is prevented by Psgl-1 deficiency. Psgl-1 inhibition may be a useful treatment strategy for targeting vascular disease associated with obesity.
The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg) provide cholinergic afferents to several brain areas. This cholinergic complex has been suggested to play a role in sleep, waking, motor function, learning and reward. To have a better understanding of the neurochemical organization of the PPTg/LDTg we characterized the phenotype of PPTg/LDTg neurons by determining in these cells the expression of transcripts encoding choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) or the vesicular glutamate transporters (vGluT1, vGluT2 and vGluT3). Within the PPTg/LDTg complex we found neurons expressing ChAT, vGluT2 or GAD transcripts, these neuronal phenotypes were intermingled, but not homogeneously distributed within the PPTg or LDTg. Previous studies suggested the presence of either glutamate or GABA immunolabeling in a large number of PPTg/LDTg cholinergic neurons, leading to the widespread notion that PPTg/LDTg cholinergic neurons co-release acetylcholine together with either glutamate or GABA. To assess the glutamatergic or GABAergic nature of the PPTg/LDTg cholinergic neurons we combined in situ hybridization (to detect vGluT2 or GAD transcripts) and immunohistochemistry (to detect ChAT), and found that over 95% of all PPTg/LDTg cholinergic neurons lack transcripts encoding either vGluT2 mRNA or GAD mRNA. As the vast majority of PPTg/LDTg cholinergic neurons lack transcripts encoding essential proteins for the vesicular transport of glutamate or for the synthesis of GABA, co-release of acetylcholine with either glutamate or GABA is unlikely to be a major factor in the interactions between acetylcholine, glutamate, and GABA at the postsynaptic site.
PPTg; LDTg; ventral tegmental area; substantia nigra; dopamine; reward
We investigated whether small RNA (sRNA) sequenced from field-collected mosquitoes and chironomids (Diptera) can be used as a proxy signature of viral prevalence within a range of species and viral groups, using sRNAs sequenced from wild-caught specimens, to inform total RNA deep sequencing of samples of particular interest. Using this strategy, we sequenced from adult Anopheles maculipennis s.l. mosquitoes the apparently nearly complete genome of one previously undescribed virus related to chronic bee paralysis virus, and, from a pool of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus mosquitoes, a nearly complete entomobirnavirus genome. We also reconstructed long sequences (1503-6557 nt) related to at least nine other viruses. Crucially, several of the sequences detected were reconstructed from host organisms highly divergent from those in which related viruses have been previously isolated or discovered. It is clear that viral transmission and maintenance cycles in nature are likely to be significantly more complex and taxonomically diverse than previously expected.
Translocator protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is a ubiquitous drug- and cholesterol-binding protein primarily found in the outer mitochondrial membrane as part of a mitochondrial cholesterol transport complex. TSPO is present at higher levels in steroid-synthesizing and rapidly proliferating tissues, and its biological role has been mainly linked to mitochondrial function, steroidogenesis, and cell proliferation/apoptosis. Aberrant TSPO levels have been linked to multiple diseases, including cancer, endocrine disorders, brain injury, neurodegeneration, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and inflammatory diseases. Investigation of the functions of this protein in vitro and in vivo have been mainly carried out using high-affinity drug ligands, such as isoquinoline carboxamides and benzodiazepines, and more recently, gene silencing methods. To establish a model to study the regulation of Tspo transcription in vivo, we generated a transgenic mouse model expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea coerulescens under control of the Tspo promoter region (Tspo-AcGFP). The expression profiles of Tspo-AcGFP, endogenous TSPO, and Tspo mRNA were found to be well correlated. Tspo-AcGFP synthesis in the transgenic mice was seen in almost every tissue examined, and as with TSPO in wild-type mice, Tspo-AcGFP was highly expressed in steroidogenic cells of the endocrine and reproductive systems, epithelial cells of the digestive system, skeletal muscle, and other organs. In summary, this transgenic Tspo-AcGFP mouse model recapitulates endogenous Tspo expression patterns and could be a useful, tractable tool for monitoring the transcriptional regulation and function of Tspo in live animal experiments.
Translocator protein; AcGFP; promoter activity; immunohistochemistry; expression profile
We explore the clinical character of cystitis glandularis accompanied with upper urinary tract obstruction.
We compared 70 cases of cystitis glandularis accompanied with upper urinary tract obstruction with 60 cases of cystitis glandularis without upper urinary tract obstruction. The difference of clinical manifestation and surgical efficacy was observed between the 2 groups.
The incidence of cystitis glandularis in women was higher than in men and the age of patients with cystitis glandularis and upper urinary tract obstruction was younger than the age of patients without upper urinary tract obstruction. The main symptom of cystitis glandularis accompanied with upper urinary tract obstruction were renal colic and abdominal pain; a few patients with a shorter course of the disease also had nausea, vomiting, frequency, urgency, dysuria, hematuria and fever. The distribution and morphological characteristics of lesions on the bladder and in the urine culture were not different between the 2 groups. There was no second operation on patients with upper urinary tract obstruction, but at least a second operation was performed on 9.3% patients without upper urinary tract obstruction.
In patients with upper urinary tract obstruction, we found that it was the main clinical symptom of their cystitis glandularis. Identifying and removing the causes of upper urinary tract obstruction is the most important management method. For the cystitis glandularis, active treatment or close follow-up should be made.
At present, the design of an ideal placebo control in acupuncture studies challenges researchers. Previously devised sham acupuncture techniques have reported various imperfections; therefore, the specific effects of acupuncture cannot be accurately examined in clinical trials primarily because of interferences from the placebo effects.
Guided by evidence-based medicine (EBM) theories, we have made an initial attempt to establish a set of control methods for use in acupuncture studies, which is named the target disease-guided placebo-controlled (TIGER) design. In a trial using the TIGER design, participants suffering simultaneously from a predefined target disease and a pseudo target disease will be recruited and randomized to receive identical acupuncture intervention measures. As a result, the interventions not only appear the same but also produce the same stimulations in both groups. The patients in the treatment group will be informed of the actual target disease that the treatment aims for, whereas patients in the control group will be informed that the treatment is for the pseudotarget disease. It is speculated that no psychological response will be aroused in the control group. During data analysis, changes in the outcome measures of the patients in the control groupreveal the real therapeutic effect of acupuncture, and those of patients in the treatment group show both the real and placebo acupuncture effect. In this article, we explain how to put this design into use in a planned randomized clinical trial of acupuncture for the treatment of migraine.
This approach can eliminate the acupuncture placebo effect in the control group that may confound trial results. It is possible to observe the specific and placebo effects of acupuncture for the target disease separately using the TIGER design.
The proposed TIGER design has limitations. It is designed for clinical studies focusing on the specific effects of acupuncture, and it needs to be tested and verified for practicality and feasibility in various clinical research settings.
Placebo design; Acupuncture; Clinical trials; Target disease
Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) is one of the major cellular serine-threonine phosphatases and functions as a tumor suppressor that negatively regulates the activity of some oncogenic kinases. Recent studies have reported that PP2A expression was suppressed during lung carcinogenesis, we there hypothesized that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PP2A subunit genes may affect PP2A function and thus contribute to lung cancer susceptibility. In a two-stage case-control study with a total of 1559 lung cancer patients and 1679 controls, we genotyped eight putative functional SNPs and one identified functional SNP (i.e., rs11453459) in seven major PP2A subunits (i.e., PPP2R1A, PPP2R1B, PPP2CA, PPP2R2A, PPP2R2B, PPP2R5C, PPP2R5E) in southern and eastern Chinese. We found that rs11453459G (-G/GG) variant genotypes of PPP2R1A and the rs1255722AA variant genotype of PPP2R5E conferred increased risks of lung cancer (rs11453459, -G/GG vs. –: OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.13–1.51; rs1255722, AA vs. AG/GG: OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.07–1.51). After combined the two variants, the number of the adverse genotypes was positively associated with lung cancer risk in a dose-response manner (Ptrend = 5.63×10−6). Further functional assay showed that lung cancer tissues carrying rs1255722AA variant genotype had a significantly lower mRNA level of PPP2R5E compared with tissues carrying GG/GA genotypes. However, such effect was not observed for the other SNPs and other combinations. Our findings suggested that the two functional variants in PPP2R1A and PPP2R5E and their combination are associated with lung cancer risk in Chinese, which may be valuable biomarkers to predict risk of lung cancer.
Pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction or hyper-reactivity occurs in association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) more frequently than previously recognized. Emerging evidence suggests that subtle inflammation exists in the airways among IBD patients even in the absence of any bronchopulmonary symptoms, and with normal pulmonary functions. The pulmonary impairment is more pronounced in IBD patients with active disease than in those in remission. A growing number of case reports show that the IBD patients develop rapidly progressive respiratory symptoms after colectomy, with failure to isolate bacterial pathogens on repeated sputum culture, and often request oral corticosteroid therapy. All the above evidence indicates that the inflammatory changes in both the intestine and lung during IBD. Clinical or subclinical pulmonary inflammation accompanies the main inflammation of the bowel. Although there are clinical and epidemiological reports of chronic inflammation of the pulmonary and intestinal mucosa in IBD, the detailed mechanisms of pulmonary-intestinal crosstalk remain unknown. The lung has no anatomical connection with the main inflammatory site of the bowel. Why does the inflammatory process shift from the gastrointestinal tract to the airways? The clinical and subclinical pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction, or hyper-reactivity among IBD patients need further evaluation. Here, we give an overview of the concordance between chronic inflammatory reactions in the airways and the gastrointestinal tract. A better understanding of the possible mechanism of the crosstalk among the distant organs will be beneficial in identifying therapeutic strategies for mucosal inflammatory diseases such as IBD and allergy.
Inflammatory bowel disease; Pulmonary symptoms; Gut-lung crosstalk; Biao-Li relationship; Social manner
Preferential CO oxidation (PROX) was investigated by using dealloyed nanoporous gold (NPG) catalyst under ambient conditions. Systematic investigations were carried out to characterize its catalytic performance by varying reaction parameters such as temperature and co-existence of CO2 and H2O, which revealed that NPG was a highly active and selective catalyst for PROX, especially at low temperature. At 20°C, the exit CO concentration could be reduced to less than 2 ppm with a turnover frequency of 4.1 × 10−2 s−1 at a space velocity of 120,000 mL h−1 g−1cat. and its high activity could retain for more than 24 hours. The presence of residual Ag species in the structure did not seem to improve the intrinsic activity of NPG for PROX; however, they contributed to the stabilization of the NPG structure and apparent catalytic activity. These results indicated that NPG might be readily applicable for hydrogen purification in fuel cell applications.
Microtubules (MTs) composed of αβ-tubulin heterodimers are highly dynamic polymers, whose stability can be regulated by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors. Both the anti-mitotic drug, Taxol, and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) stabilize this dynamicity by binding to and altering the conformation of MTs. In the current study, amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was used to examine the structural and dynamic properties of the MT complex with the microtubule binding domain of MAP4 (MTB-MAP4) in the presence and absence of Taxol. The changes in the HDX levels indicate that MTB-MAP4 may bind to both the outside and the luminal surfaces of the MTs, and that Taxol reduces both of these interactions. The MTB-MAP4 binding induces conformational rearrangements of α- and β-tubulin that promote an overall stabilization of MTs. Paradoxically, despite Taxol’s negative effects on MAP4 interactions with the MTs, its binding to the MTB-MAP4-MT complex further reduces the overall deuterium incorporation, suggesting that a more stable complex is formed in the presence of the drug.
RhoGDI (Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor alpha or RhoGDIα) has been identified as a regulator of Rho GTPases, which are essential for tumor progression, but its role in cancer remains controversial and little is known in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed RhoGDI expression in 147 clinicopathologically characterized HCC cases. RhoGDI expression was detected in cytoplasm of HCC tissues. Statistical analysis showed that there was no relationship between RhoGDI expression and clinicopathological features. Importantly, a significant trend was identified between loss of RhoGDI expression in HCC and worsening clinical prognosis. Multivariate survival analysis showed that negative RhoGDI expression was recognized as an independent prognostic factor of patient’s survival. Our results suggest that RhoGDI protein is a valuable marker of prognosis for patients with HCC.
Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor alpha; hepatocellular carcinoma; poor prognosis
Allergy is a complex disease that is likely to involve dysregulated CD4+ T cell activation. Here we propose a novel methodology to gain insight into how coordinated behaviour emerges between disease-dysregulated pathways in response to pathophysiological stimuli. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells of allergic rhinitis patients and controls cultured with and without pollen allergens, we integrate CD4+ T cell gene expression from microarray data and genetic markers of allergic sensitisation from GWAS data at the pathway level using enrichment analysis; implicating the complement system in both cellular and systemic response to pollen allergens. We delineate a novel disease network linking T cell activation to the complement system that is significantly enriched for genes exhibiting correlated gene expression and protein-protein interactions, suggesting a tight biological coordination that is dysregulated in the disease state in response to pollen allergen but not to diluent. This novel disease network has high predictive power for the gene and protein expression of the Th2 cytokine profile (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) and of the Th2 master regulator (GATA3), suggesting its involvement in the early stages of CD4+ T cell differentiation. Dissection of the complement system gene expression identifies 7 genes specifically associated with atopic response to pollen, including C1QR1, CFD, CFP, ITGB2, ITGAX and confirms the role of C3AR1 and C5AR1. Two of these genes (ITGB2 and C3AR1) are also implicated in the network linking complement system to T cell activation, which comprises 6 differentially expressed genes. C3AR1 is also significantly associated with allergic sensitisation in GWAS data.
E-selectin-1 (ESL-1), also known as golgi complex-localized glycoprotein-1 (GLG1), homocysteine-rich fibroblast growth factor receptor (CGR-1), and latent transforming growth factor-β complex protein 1 (LTCP-1), is a multifunctional protein with widespread tissue distribution. To determine the functional consequences of ESL-1 deficiency, mice were generated carrying an ESL-1 gene trap. After backcrossing to C57BL6/J for 6 generations, mice heterozygous for the gene trap (ESL-1+/-) were intercrossed to produce ESL-1-/- mice, however ESL-1-/- mice were not viable, even at embryonic day E10.5. To determine the effect of heterozygous ESL-1 deficiency on atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/-), ESL-1+/- mice were generated and fed western diet. Compared to ApoE-/-, ESL-1++ mice, atherosclerotic lesions from ApoE-/-, ESL-1+/- contained more collagen and fewer macrophages, suggesting increased plaque stability. In conclusion, heterozygous deficiency of ESL-1 is associated with features of increased atherosclerotic plaque stability while complete deficiency of ESL-1 leads to embryonic lethality.
leukocyte; selectins; macrophage; atherosclerosis; endothelium
Recent success in the derivation of haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) from mouse via parthenogenesis and androgenesis has enabled genetic screening in mammalian cells and generation of gene-modified animals. However, whether haESCs can be derived from primates remains unknown. Here, we report the derivation of haESCs from parthenogenetic blastocysts of Macaca fascicularis monkeys. These cells, termed as PG-haESCs, are pluripotent and can differentiate to cells of three embryonic germ layers in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the haploidy of one monkey PG-haESC line (MPH1) is more stable compared with that of the other one (MPH2), as shown by the existence of haploid cells for more than 140 days without fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) enrichment of haploid cells. Importantly, transgenic monkey PG-haESC lines can be generated by lentivirus- and piggyBac transposon-mediated gene transfer. Moreover, genetic screening is feasible in monkey PG-haESCs. Our results demonstrate that PG-haESCs can be generated from monkeys, providing an ideal tool for genetic analyses in primates.
embryonic stem cell; haploid cells; monkey
The adipocyte‐derived hormone leptin is elevated in obesity and may contribute to vascular risk associated with obesity. The mechanism(s) by which leptin affects vascular disease is unclear, although leptin has been shown to increase sympathetic activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of leptin treatment on endothelial function and the role of the local sympathetic nervous system in mediating these effects.
Methods and Results
Recombinant leptin was administered to C57BL6/J mice every other day for 1 week. Mesenteric arteriole myography revealed that leptin treatment caused significant impairment of endothelium‐dependent vasorelaxation. Although leptin alone did not raise aortic blood pressure, leptin treatment augmented the blood pressure response to angiotensin II. The effects of leptin on mesenteric arteriolar function and aortic blood pressure response to angiotensin II were neutralized following sympathetic denervation to the mesenteric vasculature. The superoxide scavenger TEMPOL was also effective in preventing the effects of leptin on endothelial dysfunction.
Leptin causes endothelial dysfunction and enhances the effects of angiotensin II on blood pressure. These effects of leptin are mediated by sympathetic nervous system activation and superoxide and may contribute to vascular stiffness and hypertension in obesity.
ganglionectomy; hypertension; nervous system; obesity; superoxide
Primary sarcoma of the aorta is extremely rare and accounts for <1% of all sarcomas. The present study describes the case of a 45-year-old male who presented with lower limb and abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) arteriography revealed a tumor that extended from the infrarenal aorta to the aortic bifurcation. The external and internal iliac arteries were occluded by the tumor incursion. Palliative surgery was performed for the sarcoma since the patient refused a radical resection. To improve the blood supply to the lower limbs, an axillary bifemoral bypass was established. Following the surgery, the pain was significantly reduced. However, the patient succumbed due to extensive metastasis 6 months after this surgery. Aortic sarcoma is an extremely rare disease with a poor prognosis. A diagnosis at a relatively early stage is necessary for a longer survival time. Radical surgery is the most significant treatment. Patients at advanced stages should consider palliative surgery in order to improve their quality of life.
abdominal aortic aneurysm; palliative surgery
In the title compound, [ZnI2(C34H31N3)], the ZnII atom is four-coordinated by two I atoms and the pyridine N atoms from the bidentate 6′-phenyl-2,2′-bipyridine ligand in a distorted tetrahedral geometry.