It has been appreciated over the past two decades that arterial remodelling, in addition to intimal hyperplasia, contributes significantly to the degree of restenosis that develops following revascularization procedures. Remodelling appears to be an adventitia-based process that is contributed to by multiple factors including cytokines and growth factors that regulate extracellular matrix or phenotypic transformation of vascular cells including myofibroblasts. In this review, we summarize the currently available information from animal models as well as clinical investigations regarding arterial remodelling. The factors that contribute to this process are presented with an emphasis on potential therapeutic methods to enhance favourable remodelling and prevent restenosis.
Restenosis; Constrictive remodelling; Adaptive remodelling; ECM; EEL
Pichia pastoris is commonly used for the production of recombinant proteins due to its preferential secretion of recombinant proteins, resulting in lower production costs and increased yields of target proteins. However, not all recombinant proteins can be successfully secreted in P. pastoris. A computational method that predicts the likelihood of a protein being secreted into the supernatant would be of considerable value; however, to the best of our knowledge, no such tool has yet been developed. We present a machine-learning approach called Presep to assess the likelihood of a recombinant protein being secreted by P. pastoris based on its pseudo amino acid composition (PseAA). Using a 20-fold cross validation, Presep demonstrated a high degree of accuracy, with Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) and overall accuracy (Q2) scores of 0.78 and 95%, respectively. Computational results were validated experimentally, with six β-galactosidase genes expressed in P. pastoris strain GS115 to verify Presep model predictions. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.967) was observed between Presep prediction secretion propensity and the experimental secretion percentage. Together, these results demonstrate the ability of the Presep model for predicting the secretion propensity of P. pastoris for a given protein. This model may serve as a valuable tool for determining the utility of P. pastoris as a host organism prior to initiating biological experiments. The Presep prediction tool can be freely downloaded at http://www.mobioinfor.cn/Presep.
While neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by steady degeneration over relatively long timelines, it is widely believed that the early stages are the most promising for therapeutic intervention, before irreversible neuronal loss occurs. Developing a therapeutic response requires a precise measure of disease progression. However, since the early stages are for the most part asymptomatic, obtaining accurate measures of disease progression is difficult. Longitudinal databases of hundreds of subjects observed during several years with tens of validated biomarkers are becoming available, allowing the use of computational methods. We propose a widely applicable statistical methodology for creating a disease progression score (DPS), using multiple biomarkers, for subjects with a neurodegenerative disease. The proposed methodology was evaluated for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using the publicly available AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, yielding an Alzheimer’s DPS or ADPS score for each subject and each time-point in the database. In addition, a common description of biomarker changes was produced allowing for an ordering of the biomarkers. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test delayed recall was found to be the earliest biomarker to become abnormal. The group of biomarkers comprising the volume of the hippocampus and the protein concentration amyloid beta and Tau were next in the timeline, and these were followed by three cognitive biomarkers. The proposed methodology thus has potential to stage individuals according to their state of disease progression relative to a population and to deduce common behaviors of biomarkers in the disease itself.
Neurodegenerative diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; biomarkers; disease progression score
Objective. To study the effects of estrogen on colon polyp formation, proliferation, and angiogenesis on a rat model of colon cancer induced by dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Methods. Thirty-six female ovariectomized (OVX) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: (I) control group (administrated with vehicles weekly), (II) DMH group (administrated with DMH weekly), and (III) DMH + E2 group (administrated with DMH and 17β-estradiol weekly). The incidence, volumes, and multiplicity of colon polyps in each group were evaluated. The microvessel density (MVD), the expressions of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), and the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF in polyps were detected in each group. Results. Estrogen reduced the multiplicity, volumes, and the PCNA expressions of DMH-induced colon polyps. The MVD in DMH + E2 group was significantly lower than that in DMH group. Estrogen treatment decreased the HIF-1α and VEGF expressions at both mRNA and protein level. Conclusion. Estrogen replacement was protective for ovariectomized rats from DMH-induced carcinogenesis, and one of the mechanisms for this was due to estrogen's inhibitive effects on blood vessel formation by downregulating VEGF and HIF-1α expressions.
In mainland China, most avian influenza A(H7N9) cases in the spring of 2013 were reported through the pneumonia of unknown etiology (PUE) surveillance system. To understand the role of possible underreporting and surveillance bias in assessing the epidemiology of subtype H7N9 cases and the effect of live-poultry market closures, we examined all PUE cases reported from 2004 through May 3, 2013. Historically, the PUE system was underused, reporting was inconsistent, and PUE reporting was biased toward A(H7N9)-affected provinces, with sparse data from unaffected provinces; however, we found no evidence that the older ages of persons with A(H7N9) resulted from surveillance bias. The absolute number and the proportion of PUE cases confirmed to be A(H7N9) declined after live-poultry market closures (p<0.001), indicating that market closures might have positively affected outbreak control. In China, PUE surveillance needs to be improved.
pneumonia surveillance; influenza A(H7N9) virus; influenza virus; viruses; influenza; epidemiology; China
It is known that the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and the cerebellar flocculus are the key areas, which contribute to the behavioral recovery (“vestibular compensation”) after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). In these areas, how the genetic activities of the metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR2 and mGluR7 performance after UL is unknown. With the means of quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry, we analyzed the expression of mGluR2 and mGluR7 in the bilateral MVN and the flocculus of rats in different stages after UL (the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day). Our results show that in the MVN, the mRNA, and protein expressions of mGluR7 were ipsilaterally decreased at the 1st day following UL. However, in the MVN, no change was observed in the mRNA and protein expressions of mGluR2. On the other hand, the mRNA and protein expression of mGluR2 were enhanced in the ipsilateral flocculus at the 1st day following UL, while in the flocculus no change was shown in mGluR7 mRNA and protein expressions. Our results suggest that mGluR2 and mGluR7 may contribute to the early rebalancing of spontaneous resting activity in the MVN.
flocculus; medial vestibular nucleus; mGluR2; mGluR7; vestibular compensation
Gliomas are the most common type of primary tumor in the central nervous system and are characterized by abundant capillary angiogenesis. It is important to study the underlying molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis in order to aid the identification of potential therapeutic targets. The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression levels of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in gliomas, and determine their relationships with angiogenesis. Immunohistochemical methods were used to detect TSP-1, TGF-β and PPAR-γ expression levels and to assess microvascular density (MVD) in 99 glioma tissue samples of various grades. The total positive expression rates of TSP-1 and PPAR-γ were 78.4 and 94.1% in low-grade gliomas and 45.8 and 39.6% in high-grade gliomas. These values suggest that their expression negatively correlated with tumor grade. However, TGF-β expression positively correlated with tumor grade; the total positive expression rate of TGF-β in high-grade gliomas (93.8%) was significantly increased compared with that in low-grade gliomas (43.1%). The MVD in the low-grade group was 28±7.2 vessels/field, which was significantly lower than in the high-grade group (45±6.2 vessels/field). TSP-1 and PPAR-γ expression levels were negatively correlated with MVD (P<0.05), while the TGF-β expression level was positively correlated with MVD (P<0.05). These results indicate that the TSP-1, TGF-β and PPAR-γ expression levels in gliomas are correlated with MVD, which suggests that these proteins may be involved in the regulation of glioma angiogenesis.
thrombospondin-1; transforming growth factor-β; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ; microvessel density; glioma
Nα-terminal acetylation of peptides plays an important biological role but is rarely observed in prokaryotes. Nα-terminal acetylated thymosin α1 (Tα1), a 28-amino-acid peptide, is an immune modifier that has been used in the clinic to treat hepatitis B and C virus (HBV/HCV) infections. We previously documented Nα-terminal acetylation of recombinant prothymosin α (ProTα) in E. coli. Here we present a method for production of Nα-acetylated Tα1 from recombinant ProTα. The recombinant ProTα was cleaved by human legumain expressed in Pichia pastoris to release Tα1 in vitro. The Nα-acetylated Tα1 peptide was subsequently purified by reverse phase and cation exchange chromatography. Mass spectrometry indicated that the molecular mass of recombinant Nα-acetylated Tα1 was 3108.79 in, which is identical to the mass of Nα-acetylated Tα1 produced by total chemical synthesis. This mass corresponded to the nonacetylated Tα1 mass with a 42 Da increment. The retention time of recombinant Nα-acetylated Tα1 and chemosynthetic Nα-acetylated Tα1 were both 15.4 min in RP-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These data support the use of an E. coli expression system for the production of recombinant human Nα-acetylated Tα1 and also will provide the basis for the preparation of recombinant acetylated peptides in E. coli.
The family C G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) T1R2 and T1R3 heterodimer functions as a broadly acting sweet taste receptor. Perception of sweet taste is a species-dependent physiological process. It has been widely reported that New World monkeys and rodents can not perceive some of the artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins that can be perceived by humans, apes, and Old World monkeys. Until now, only the sweet receptors of humans, mice and rats have been functionally characterized. Here we report characterization of the sweet taste receptor (T1R2/T1R3) from a species of New World squirrel monkey. Our results show that the heterodimeric receptor of squirrel monkey does not respond to artificial sweeteners aspartame, neotame, cyclamate, saccharin and sweet-tasting protein monellin, but surprisingly, it does respond to thaumatin at high concentrations (>18 μM). This is the first report that New World monkey species can perceive some specific sweet-tasting proteins. Furthermore, the receptor responses to the sweeteners cannot be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor lactisole. We compared the response differences of the squirrel monkey and human receptors and found that the residues in T1R2 determine species-dependent sweet taste toward saccharin, while the residues in either T1R2 or T1R3 are responsible for the sweet taste difference between humans and squirrel monkeys toward monellin. Molecular models indicated that electrostatic properties of the receptors probably mediate the species-dependent response to sweet-tasting proteins.
New World monkeys; squirrel monkey; sweet taste receptors; sweet-tasting proteins; G protein-coupled receptor; molecular modeling
Wnt signaling is required for both the development and homeostasis of the skin, yet its contribution to skin wound repair remains controversial. By employing Axin2LacZ/+ reporter mice we evaluated the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Wnt responsive cells, and found that the pattern of Wnt responsiveness varies with the hair cycle, and correlates with wound healing potential. Using Axin2LacZ/LacZ mice and an ear wound model, we demonstrate that amplified Wnt signaling leads to improved healing. Utilizing a biochemical approach that mimics the amplified Wnt response of Axin2LacZ/LacZ mice, we show that topical application of liposomal Wnt3a to a non-healing wound enhances endogenous Wnt signaling, and results in better skin wound healing. Given the importance of Wnt signaling in the maintenance and repair of skin, liposomal Wnt3a may have widespread application in clinical practice.
Antibiotics are often used to prevent sickness and improve production in animal agriculture, and the residues in animal bodies may enter tannery wastewater during leather production. This study aimed to use Illumina high-throughput sequencing to investigate the occurrence, diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of a full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Metagenomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated in the WWTP, but the relative abundance of archaea in anaerobic sludge was higher than in aerobic sludge. Sequencing reads from aerobic and anaerobic sludge revealed differences in the abundance of functional genes between both microbial communities. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance were identified in both communities. BLAST analysis against Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB) further revealed that aerobic and anaerobic sludge contained various ARGs with high abundance, among which sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 had the highest abundance, occupying over 20% of the total ARGs reads. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet) were highly rich in the anaerobic sludge, among which tet33 had the highest abundance, but was absent in aerobic sludge. Over 70 types of insertion sequences were detected in each sludge sample, and class 1 integrase genes were prevalent in the WWTP. The results highlighted prevalence of ARGs and MGEs in tannery WWTPs, which may deserve more public health concerns.
Many physicians are reluctant to treat elderly glioblastoma (GBM) patients as aggressively as younger patients, which is not evidence based due to the absence of validated data from primary studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide valid evidence for the use of the aggressive combination of radiotherapy (RT) and temozolomide (TMZ) in elderly GBM patients.
A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Studies comparing combined RT/TMZ with RT alone in elderly patients (≥65 years) with newly diagnosed GBM were eligible for inclusion.
No eligible randomized trials were identified. Alternatively, a meta-analysis of nonrandomized studies (NRSs) was performed, with 16 studies eligible for overall survival (OS) analysis and nine for progression-free survival (PFS) analysis. Combined RT/TMZ was shown to reduce the risk of death and progression in elderly GBM patients compared with RT alone (OS hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48–0.72; PFS: HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.41–0.84). Evaluable patients were reported to tolerate combined treatment but certain toxicities, and especially hematological toxicities, were more frequently observed. Limited data on O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter status and quality of life were reported.
The meta-analysis of NRSs provided level 2a evidence (Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine) that combined RT/TMZ conferred a clear survival benefit on a selection of elderly GBM patients who had a favorable prognosis (e.g., extensive resection, favorable KPS). Toxicities were more frequent but acceptable. Future randomized trials are warranted to justify a definitive conclusion.
Manual acupuncture has commonly been used in China, either alone or in combination with conventional medicine, to treat diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate the potential benefits and harms of manual acupuncture for DPN to justify its clinical use.
We searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled trials of manual acupuncture for DPN till 31 March 2013. Revman 5.2 software was used for data analysis with effect estimate presented as relative risk (RR) and mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI).
A total of 25 trials involving 1649 participants were included. The methodological quality of included trials was generally poor. Meta-analysis showed that manual acupuncture had better effect on global symptom improvement compared with mecobalamin (RR 1.31, 95%CI 1.21 to 1.42), vitamin B1 and B12 (RR 1.55, 95%CI 1.33 to 1.80), and no treatment (RR 1.56, 95%CI 1.31 to 1.85), and that the combination of manual acupuncture and mecobalamin had better effect compared with mecobalamin alone on global symptom improvement (RR 1.56, 95%CI 1.28 to 1.90). Adverse events were not reported in any trials. The asymmetric funnel plot suggested publication bias.
Despite the number of trials of manual acupuncture for DPN and their uniformly positive results, no clinically relevant conclusions can be drawn from this review due to the trials’ high risks of bias and the possibility of publication bias. Clearly defined and internationally acknowledged outcome measures are required for future study. There remains an urgent need for training Chinese researchers in conducting unbiased trials as well as prospectively registering all initiated Chinese trials to avoid publication bias.
Although migrant workers account for the majority of newborns in Beijing, their children are less likely to undergo appropriate universal newborn hearing screening/rescreening (UNHS) than newborns of local non-migrant residents. We hypothesised that this was at least in part due to the inadequacy of the UNHS protocol currently employed for newborn babies, and therefore aimed to modify the protocol to specifically reflect the needs of the migrant population.
A total of 10,983 healthy babies born to migrant mothers between January 2007 and December 2009 at a Beijing public hospital were investigated for hearing abnormalities according to a modified UNHS protocol. This incorporated two additional/optional otoacoustic emissions (OAE) tests at 24–48 hours and 2 months after birth. Infants not passing a screening test were referred to the next test, until any hearing loss was confirmed by the auditory brainstem response (ABR) test.
A total of 98.91% (10983/11104) of all newborn children underwent the initial OAE test, of which 27.22% (2990/10983) failed the test. 1712 of the failed babies underwent the second inpatient OAE test, with739 failing again; thus significantly decreasing the overall positive rate for abnormal hearing from 27.22% to 18.36% ([2990–973 /10983)]; p = 0). Overall, 1147(56.87%) babies underwent the outpatient OAE test again after1-month, of whom 228 failed and were referred for the second outpatient OAE test (i.e. 2.08% (228/10983) referral rate at 1month of age). 141 of these infants underwent the referral test, of whom 103 (73.05%) tested positive again and were referred for a final ABR test for hearing loss (i.e. final referral rate of 1.73% ([228-38/10983] at 2 months of age). Only 54 infants attended the ABR test and 35 (0.32% of the original cohort tested) were diagnosed with abnormal hearing.
Our study shows that it is feasible and practical to achieve high coverage rates for screening hearing loss and decrease the referral rates in newborn babies of migrant workers, using a modification of the currently employed UNHS protocol.
Auditory brainstem response (ABR); Migrant people; Newborn babies; Otoacoustic emissions (OAE); Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS)
To identify risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).
PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and references of retrieved articles were searched without language limitation. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using both the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects models.
Out of the 205 initially retrieved articles, 9 papers were included. All 4,564 patients were enrolled, including 213 patients with VAP and 4,351 patients without VAP. Among fourteen risk factors, six factors had statistical significances. Risk factors of VAP and its value of OR were as follows: genetic syndrome (OR =2.04; 95% CI: 1.08-3.86), steroids (OR =1.87; 95% CI: 1.07-3.27), reintubation or self-extubation (OR =3.16; 95% CI: 2.10-4.74), bloodstream infection (OR =4.42; 95% CI: 2.12-9.22), prior antibiotic therapy (OR =2.89; 95% CI: 1.41-5.94), bronchoscopy (OR =4.48; 95% CI: 2.31-8.71).
Special methods of preventions should be taken in the light of risk factors of VAP in PICU so as to decrease the rate.
Risk factors; ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP); pediatric intensive care unit (PICU); meta-analysis
Objective. To investigate the relationship between Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and its associated risk factors in Chinese patients with RA.
Methods. 138 Chinese RA patients and 150 healthy subjects were included. baPWV of all the participants was measured. RA related factors were determined, as well as traditional cardiovascular risk factors.
Results. baPWV was significant higher in RA group (1705.44 ± 429.20 cm/s) compared to the healthy control group (1386.23 ± 411.09 cm/s) (P < 0.001). Compared with low baPWV group, high baPWV group patients were significantly older (P = 0.008) and taller (P = 0.033). Serum cholesterol (P = 0.035), triglycerides (P = 0.004), and LDL level (P = 0.006) were significantly higher in high baPWV group patients compared with low baPWV group patients. The baPWV of RA patients was positively correlated with age (r = 0.439, P < 0.001), and serum cholesterol level (r = 0.231, P = 0.035), serum triglycerides level (r = 0.293, P < 0.001), serum LDL level (r = 0.323, P = 0.003). Meanwhile, baPWV negatively correlated with the height of RA patients (r = −0.253, P = 0.043). Multivariate regression analysis showed that baPWV of RA group was independently associated with age and serum triglycerides level. Conclusions. The old age and high level of serum triglycerides may be the major determinants of arterial stiffness in Chinese RA patients.
Nasal potential difference (NPD) is used as a biomarker of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity. We evaluated methods to detect changes in chloride and sodium transport by NPD based on a secondary analysis of a Phase II CFTR-modulator study. Thirty-nine subjects with CF who also had the G551D-CFTR mutation were randomized to receive ivacaftor (Kalydeco™; also known as VX-770) in four doses or placebo twice daily for at least 14 days. All data were analyzed by a single investigator who was blinded to treatment assignment. We compared three analysis methods to determine the best approach to quantify changes in chloride and sodium transport: (1) the average of both nostrils; (2) the most-polarized nostril at each visit; and (3) the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward. Parameters of ion transport included the PD change with zero chloride plus isoproterenol (CFTR activity), the basal PD, Ringer's PD, and change in PD with amiloride (measurements of ENaC activity), and the delta NPD (measuring CFTR and ENaC activity). The average and most-polarized nostril at each visit were most sensitive to changes in chloride and sodium transport, whereas the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward was less discriminatory. Based on our findings, NPD studies should assess both nostrils rather than a single nostril. We also found that changes in CFTR activity were more readily detected than changes in ENaC activity, and that rigorous standardization was associated with relatively good within-subject reproducibility in placebo-treated subjects (±2.8 mV). Therefore, we have confirmed an assay of reasonable reproducibility for detecting chloride-transport improvements in response to CFTR modulation.
Histones undergo numerous covalent modifications that play important roles in regulating gene expression. Previous investigations have focused on the effects of histone modifications on gene promoters, whereas efforts to unravel their effects on transcribed regions have lagged behind. To elucidate the effects of histone modification on transcribed regions, we constructed a quantitative model, which we suggest can predict the variation of gene expression more faithfully than the model constructed on promoters. Moreover, motivated by the fact that exon spicing is functionally coupled to transcription, we also devised a quantitative model to predict alternative exon expression using histone modifications on exons. This model was found to be general across different exon types and even cell types. Furthermore, an interaction network linking histone modifications to alternative exon expression was constructed using partial correlations. The network indicated that gene expression and specific histone modifications (H3K36me3 and H4K20me1) could directly influence the exon expression, while other modifications could act in an additive way to account for the stability and robustness. In addition, our results suggest that combinations of histone modifications contribute to exon splicing in a redundant and cumulative fashion. To conclude, this study provides a better understanding of the effects of histone modifications on gene transcribed regions.
Vestibular compensation is the process of behavioral recovery following peripheral vestibular lesion. In clinics, the histaminergic medicine is the most widely prescribed for the treatment of vertigo and motion sickness, however, the molecular mechanisms by which histamine modulates vestibular function remain unclear. During recovery from the lesion, the modulation of histamine receptors in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and the flocculus may play an important role. Here with the means of quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of histamine receptors (H1, H2, and H3) in the bilateral MVN and the flocculus of rats on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day following unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Our results have shown that on the ipsi-lesional flocculus the H1, H2 and H3 receptors mRNA and the protein increased significantly on the 1st and 3rd day, with compare of sham controls and as well the contralateral side of UL. However, on the 7th day after UL, this expression returned to basal levels. Furthermore, elevated mRNA and protein levels of H1, H2 and H3 receptors were observed in the ipsi-lesional MVN on the 1st day after UL compared with sham controls and as well the contralateral side of UL. However, this asymmetric expression was absent by the 3rd post-UL. Our findings suggest that the upregulation of histamine receptors in the MVN and the flocculus may contribute to rebalancing the spontaneous discharge in bilateral MVN neurons during vestibular compensation.
The genome is extensively transcribed into long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs), many of which are implicated in gene silencing1,2. Potential roles of lincRNAs in gene activation are much less understood3,4,5. Development and homeostasis require coordinate regulation of neighboring genes through a process termed locus control6. Some locus control elements and enhancers transcribe lincRNAs7,8,9,10, hinting at possible roles in long range control. In vertebrates, 39 Hox genes, encoding homeodomain transcription factors critical for positional identity, are clustered in four chromosomal loci; the Hox genes are expressed in nested anterior-posterior and proximal-distal patterns co-linear with their genomic position from 3′ to 5′of the cluster11. Here we identify HOTTIP, a lincRNA transcribed from the 5′ tip of the HOXA locus that coordinates the activation of multiple 5′ HOXA genes in vivo. Chromosomal looping brings HOTTIP into close proximity to its target genes. HOTTIP directly binds the adaptor protein WDR5 and targets WDR5/MLL complexes across HOXA, driving histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation and gene transcription. Induced proximity is necessary and sufficient for HOTTIP activation of its target genes. Thus, by serving as key intermediates that transmit information from higher order chromosomal looping into chromatin modifications, lincRNAs may organize chromatin domains to coordinate long-range gene activation.
PKCδ activation was found to be a principal rate-limiting step in matrix-degrading enzyme production in human articular chondrocytes. However, the role of the PKC pathways, specifically PKCδ, has not yet been assessed in intervertebral disc tissue homeostasis.
Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo techniques, we evaluated the pathophysiological role of the PKCδ pathway by examining (i) proteoglycan deposition; (ii) matrix-degrading enzyme production and activity; (iii) downstream signaling pathways regulated by PKCδ; and (iv) the effect on in vivo models of disc degeneration in genetically-engineered PKCδ knockout mice.
Pathway-specific inhibitor studies reveal a vital role of PKCδ-MAPK (ERK, p38, JNK) axis and NFκB in disc homeostasis. Accordingly, PKCδ knockout mice are markedly resistant to disc degeneration in a disc injury model in vivo.
Suppression of the PKCδ pathway may be beneficial in the prevention and/or treatment of disc degeneration, and these findings provide evidence for the potential therapeutic role of pathway-specific inhibitors of the PKCδ cascade in the future.
PKCδ; MMP-13; intervertebral disc degeneration; signaling pathways; MAPK; Intervertebral disc; MMPs; ADAMTS
Bacillus sp. strain FJAT-13831 was isolated from the no. 1 pit soil of Emperor Qin's Terracotta Warriors in Xi'an City, People's Republic of China. The isolate showed a close relationship to the Bacillus cereus group. The draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. FJAT-13831 was 4,425,198 bp in size and consisted of 5,567 genes (protein-coding sequences [CDS]) with an average length of 782 bp and a G+C value of 36.36%.