Twinning on the plane is a common mode of plastic deformation for hexagonal-close-packed metals. Here we report, by monitoring the deformation of submicron-sized single-crystal magnesium compressed normal to its prismatic plane with transmission electron microscopy, the reorientation of the parent lattice to a ‘twin’ lattice, producing an orientational relationship akin to that of the conventional twinning, but without a crystallographic mirror plane, and giving plastic strain that is not simple shear. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy observations reveal that the boundary between the parent lattice and the ‘twin’ lattice is composed predominantly of semicoherent basal/prismatic interfaces instead of the twinning plane. The migration of this boundary is dominated by the movement of these interfaces undergoing basal/prismatic transformation via local rearrangements of atoms. This newly discovered deformation mode by boundary motion mimics conventional deformation twinning but is distinct from the latter and, as such, broadens the known mechanisms of plasticity.
Deformation twinning and dislocations are known to govern the plastic behaviour of metals at room temperature. Here the authors demonstrate a new deformation mechanism in single-crystal magnesium characterized by twin-like crystal reorientation and special interfaces.
Background and Objective
Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is widely accepted for visualization of the biliary system. However, the sensitivity and specificity of MRCP for the diagnosis of biliary atresia (BA) are still not fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of three-dimensional MRCP (3D-MRCP) for BA in a large cohort of cholestatic infants and neonates.
One hundred ninety patients with infant jaundice underwent 3D-MRCP and one or more of the following: (1) intraoperative cholangiography, (2) laparoscopic exploration and pathological examination, or/and (3) clinical therapy. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of 3D-MRCP for BA.
Our study demonstrated that 158 of 190 patients were interpreted as having BA by 3D-MRCP; of those, 103 patients were confirmed as having BA, whereas 55 patients did not have BA. Of the 32 patients interpreted as non-BA cases by 3D-MRCP, one patient was misdiagnosed. The diagnostic accuracy for 3D-MRCP was 70.53% (134 of 190), the sensitivity was 99.04% (103 of 104), the specificity was 36.05% (31 of 86), the negative predictive value was 96.88% (31 of 32), the positive predictive value was 65.19% (103 of 158), the positive likelihood ratio was 2.7473, the negative likelihood ratio was 0.0267, and the Youden index was 0.3509.
The sensitivity of 3D-MRCP in diagnosing BA was excellent, but the specificity was not as high as described in previous reports. 3D-MRCP can be an effective screening method but should be combined with other modalities to identify BA and distinguish it from other causes of infant jaundice.
To evaluate the feasibility of dose-modulated retrospective ECG-gated thoracoabdominal aorta CT angiography (CTA) assessing abdominal aortic intimal flap motion and investigate the motion characteristics of intimal flap in acute aortic dissection (AAD).
Materials and Methods
49 patients who had thoracoabdominal aorta retrospective ECG-gated CTA scan were enrolled. 20 datasets were reconstructed in 5% steps between 0 and 95% of the R-R interval in each case. The aortic intimal flap motion was assessed by measuring the short axis diameters of the true lumen and false lumen 2 cm above of celiac trunk ostium in different R-R intervals. Intimal flap motion and configuration was assessed by two independent observers.
In these 49 patients, 37 had AAD, 7 had intramural hematoma, and 5 had negative result for acute aortic disorder. 620 datasets of 31 patients who showed double lumens in abdominal aorta were enrolled in evaluating intimal flap motion. The maximum and minimum true lumen diameter were 12.2±4.1 mm (range 2.6∼17.4) and 6.7±4.1 mm (range 0∼15.3) respectively. The range of intimal flap motion in all patients was 5.5±2.6 mm (range 1.8∼10.2). The extent of maximum true lumen diameter decreased during a cardiac cycle was 49.5%±23.5% (range 12%∼100%). The maximum motion phase of true lumen diameter was in systolic phase (5%∼40% of R-R interval). Maximum and minimum intimal flap motion was at 15% and 75% of the R-R interval respectively. Intimal flap configuration had correlation with the phase of cardiac cycle.
Abdominal intimal flap position and configuration varied greatly during a cardiac cycle. Retrospective ECG-gated thoracoabdominal aorta CTA can reflect the actual status of the true lumen and provide more information about true lumen collapse. This information may be helpful to diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dynamic abstraction.
Breast-fed infant microbiota is typically rich in bifidobacteria. Herein, major human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS) are assessed for their ability to promote the growth of bifidobacteria and to acidify their environment, key features of prebiotics. During in vitro anaerobic fermentation of infant microbiota, supplementation by HMOS significantly decreased the pH even greater than supplementation by fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic positive control. HMOS elevated lactate concentrations, increased the proportion of Bifidobacterium spp. in culture, and through their fermentation into organic acids, decreased the proportion of Escherichia and Clostridium perfringens. Three principal components of HMOS, 2′-fucosyllactose, lactodifucotetraose and 3-fucosyllactose, were consumed in these cultures. These three principal oligosaccharides of human milk were then individually tested as supplements for in vitro growth of four individual representative strains of infant gut microbes. Bifidobacterium longum JCM7007 and B. longum ATCC15697 efficiently consumed oligosaccharides and produced abundant lactate and short-chain fatty acids, resulting in significant pH reduction. The specificity of fermentation differed by microbe species and strain and by oligosaccharide structure. Escherichia coli K12 and C. perfringens did not utilize appreciable fucosylated oligosaccharides, and a typical mixture of organic acid fermentation products inhibited their growth. In summary, 2′-fucosyllactose, lactodifucotetraose, and 3-fucosyllactose, when cultured with B. longum JCM7007 and B. longum ATCC15697, exhibit key characteristics of a prebiotic in vitro. If these bifidobacteria are representative of pioneering or keystone species for human microbiota, fucosylated HMOS could strongly promote colonization and maintenance of a mutualist symbiotic microbiome. Thus, these simple glycans could mediate beneficial effects of human milk on infant health.
bifidobacteria; fucosylated oligosaccharides;
human milk; prebiotic
Bodhi beads are a Buddhist prayer item made from seeds. Bodhi beads have a large and emerging market in China, and demand for the beads has particularly increased in Buddhism regions, especially Tibet. Many people have started to focus on and collect Bodhi beads and to develop a Bodhi bead culture. But no research has examined the source plants of Bodhi beads. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in six provinces of China to investigate and document Bodhi bead plants. Reasons for the development of Bodhi bead culture were also discussed.
Six provinces of China were selected for market surveys. Information was collected using semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews, and participatory observation with traders, tourists, and local residents. Barkhor Street in Lhasa was focused on during market surveys because it is one of the most popular streets in China.
Forty-seven species (including 2 varieties) in 19 families and 39 genera represented 52 types of Bodhi beads that were collected. The most popular Bodhi bead plants have a long history and religious significance. Most Bodhi bead plants can be used as medicine or food, and their seeds or fruits are the main elements in these uses. ‘Bodhi seeds’ have been historically used in other countries for making ornaments, especially seeds of the legume family. Many factors helped form Bodhi bead culture in China, but its foundation was in Indian Buddhist culture.
As one of the earliest adornment materials, seeds played an important role for human production and life. Complex sources of Bodhi beads have different cultural and historical significance. People bought and collected Bodhi beads to reflect their love and admiration for the plants. Thus, the documentation of Bodhi bead plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of Bodhi bead culture and modern Buddhist culture.
Bodhi beads; Seeds; Buddhist culture
Near a charged surface, counterions of different valences and sizes cluster; and their concentration profiles stratify. At a distance from such a surface larger than the Debye length, the electric field is screened by counterions. Recent studies by a variational mean-field approach that includes ionic size effects and by Monte Carlo simulations both suggest that the counterion stratification is determined by the ionic valence-to-volume ratios. Central in the mean-field approach is a free-energy functional of ionic concentrations in which the ionic size effects are included through the entropic effect of solvent molecules. The corresponding equilibrium conditions define the generalized Boltzmann distributions relating the ionic concentrations to the electrostatic potential. This paper presents a detailed analysis and numerical calculations of such a free-energy functional to understand the dependence of the ionic charge density on the electrostatic potential through the generalized Boltzmann distributions, the role of ionic valence-to-volume ratios in the counterion stratification, and the modification of Debye length due to the effect of ionic sizes.
We report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain FJAT-14515. The genome is 5.44 Mb in length. It covers 5,263 genes with an average length of 791 bp, has a G+C value of 37.06%, and contains 67 tRNAs, 31 small RNAs, and 5 rRNA loci.
With advances in the development of various disciplines, there is a need to decipher bio-behavioural mechanisms via interdisciplinary means. Here, we present an interdisciplinary study of the role of silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) in disturbing the neural behaviours of zebrafish and a possible physiological mechanism for this phenomenon. We used adult zebrafish as an animal model to evaluate the roles of size (15-nm and 50-nm) and concentration (300 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL) in SiO2-NP neurotoxicity via behavioural and physiological analyses. With the aid of video tracking and data mining, we detected changes in behavioural phenotypes. We found that compared with 50-nm nanosilica, 15-nm SiO2-NPs produced greater significant changes in advanced cognitive neurobehavioural patterns (colour preference) and caused potentially Parkinson's disease-like behaviour. Analyses at the tissue, cell and molecular levels corroborated the behavioural results, demonstrating that nanosilica acted on the retina and dopaminergic (DA) neurons to change colour preference and to cause potentially Parkinson's disease-like behaviour.
To introduce a robot-assisted surgical system for spinal posterior fixation that can automatically recognize the drilling state and stop potential cortical penetration with force and image information and to further evaluate the accuracy and safety of the robot for sheep vertebra pedicle screw placement.
The Robotic Spinal Surgery System (RSSS) was composed of an optical tracking system, a navigation and planning system, and a surgical robot equipped with a 6-DOF force/torque sensor. The robot used the image message and force signals to sense the different operation states and to prevent potential cortical penetration in the pedicle screw insertion operation. To evaluate the accuracy and safety of the RSSS, 32 screw insertions were conducted. Furthermore, six trajectories were deliberately planned incorrectly to explore whether the robot could recognize the different drilling states and immediately prevent cortical penetration.
All 32 pedicle screws were placed in the pedicle without any broken pedicle walls. Compared with the preoperative planning, the average deviations of the entry points in the axial and sagittal views were 0.50±0.33 and 0.65±0.40 mm, and the average deviations of the angles in the axial and sagittal views were 1.9±0.82° and 1.48±1.2°. The robot successfully recognized the different drilling states and prevented potential cortical penetration. In the deliberately incorrectly planned trajectory experiments, the robot successfully prevented the cortical penetration.
These results verified the RSSS’s accuracy and safety, which supported its potential use for the spinal surgery.
Chemical investigation of the aqueous extract from the aerial part of Sibiraea angustata, has led to the isolation of eight new monoterpene acylglucosides named sibiraglycoside A-H(1-8), together with two known monoterpenes, Sibiraic acid (9) and Sibiskoside (10). Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic data analysis (including 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS experiments), as well as compared with the literature data. The relative configuration was established by NOE studies. In the in vitro bioassay, all the compounds showed moderate hypolipemic effects, among them, compounds 7 and 9, showed distinctive activity on lowering lipid.
Sibiraea angustata; sibiraglycoside A-H; monoterpene acylglucoside; hypolipemic effect
Clustered survival data frequently arise in biomedical applications, where event times of interest are clustered into groups such as families. In this article we consider an accelerated failure time frailty model for clustered survival data and develop nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation for it via a kernel smoother aided EM algorithm. We show that the proposed estimator for the regression coefficients is consistent, asymptotically normal and semiparametric efficient when the kernel bandwidth is properly chosen. An EM-aided numerical differentiation method is derived for estimating its variance. Simulation studies evaluate the finite sample performance of the estimator, and it is applied to the Diabetic Retinopathy data set.
Accelerated failure time model; Clustered survival data; EM algorithm; Kernel smoothing; Profile likelihood estimation
Background and Aim. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) can improve hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Angiotensin (Ang) II, the primary effector of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays vital roles in the development and progression of NASH. And some AngII-mediated effects can be regulated by TZDs. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2, a new component of RAS, can degrade Ang II to attenuate its subsequent physiological actions. We aimed to evaluate the effects of TZDs on ACE2 expression in insulin-sensitive
tissues in NASH rats. Methods. Forty rats were divided into the normal control, high-fat diet (HFD), pioglitazone control, and HFD plus pioglitazone groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, we evaluated changes in liver histology and tissue-specific
ACE2 expression. Results. ACE2 gene and protein expression was significantly greater in liver and adipose tissue in the HFD group compared with normal control group, while was significantly reduced in skeletal muscle. Pioglitazone significantly reduced the degree of hepatic steatosis compared with the HFD group. Pioglitazone significantly increased ACE2 protein expression in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle compared with the HFD group. Conclusions. Pioglitazone improves hepatic steatosis in the rats with HFD-induced NASH and upregulates ACE2 expression in insulin-sensitive tissues.
The clinical implication of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter status is ill-defined in elderly glioblastoma patients. Here we report a meta-analysis to seek valid evidence for its clinical relevance in this subpopulation.
Literature were searched and reviewed in a systematic manner using the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Studies investigating the association between MGMT promoter status and survival data of elderly patients (≥65 years) were eligible for inclusion.
Totally 16 studies were identified, with 13 studies included in the final analyses. The aggregate proportion of MGMT promoter methylation in elderly patients was 47% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 42–52%), which was similar to the value for younger patients. The analyses showed differential effects of MGMT status on overall survival (OS) of elderly patients according to assigned treatments: methylated vs. unmethylated: (1) temozolomide (TMZ)-containing therapies: hazard ratio [HR] 0.49, 95% CI 0.41–0.58; (2) TMZ-free therapies: HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.77–1.21. More importantly, a useful predictive value was observed by an interaction analysis: TMZ-containing therapies vs. RT alone: (1) methylated tumors: HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.36–0.65; (2) unmethylated tumors: HR 1.14; 95% CI 0.90–1.44.
The meta-analysis reports an age-independent presence of MGMT promoter methylation. More importantly, the study encouraged routine testing of MGMT promoter status especially in elderly glioblastoma patients by indicating a direct linkage between biomarker test and individual treatment decision. Future studies are needed to justify the mandatory testing in younger patients.
The therapeutic potential of Wnt proteins has long been recognized but challenges associated with in vivo stability and delivery have hindered their development as drug candidates. By exploiting the hydrophobic nature of the protein we provide evidence that exogenous Wnt3a can be delivered in vivo if it is associated with a lipid vesicle. Recombinant Wnt3a associates with the external surface of the lipid membrane; this association stabilizes the protein and leads to prolonged activation of the Wnt pathway in primary cells. We demonstrate the consequences of Wnt pathway activation in vivo using a bone marrow engraftment assay. These data provide validation for the development of WNT3A as a therapeutic protein.
New therapeutic approaches that eliminate or reduce the occurrence of intimal hyperplasia following balloon angioplasty could improve the efficacy of vascular interventions and improve the quality of life of patients suffering from vascular diseases. Here, we report that treatment of arteries using catheter balloons coated with thin polyelectrolyte-based films (‘polyelectrolyte multilayers’, PEMs) can substantially reduce intimal hyperplasia in an in vivo rat model of vascular injury. We used a layer-by-layer (LbL) process to coat the surfaces of inflatable catheter balloons with PEMs composed of nanolayers of a cationic poly(β-amino ester) (polymer 1) and plasmid DNA (pPKCδ) encoding the δ isoform of protein kinase C (PKCδ), a regulator of apoptosis and other cell processes that has been demonstrated to reduce intimal hyperplasia in injured arterial tissue when administered via perfusion using viral vectors. Insertion of balloons coated with polymer 1/pPKCδ multilayers into injured arteries for 20 min resulted in local transfer of DNA and elevated levels of PKCδ expression in the media of treated tissue 3 days after delivery. IFC and IHC analysis revealed these levels of expression to promote downstream cellular processes associated with up-regulation of apoptosis. Analysis of arterial tissue 14 days after treatment revealed polymer 1/pPKCδ-coated balloons to reduce the occurrence of intimal hyperplasia by ~60% compared to balloons coated with films containing empty plasmid vectors. Our results demonstrate the potential therapeutic value of this nanotechnology-based approach to local gene delivery in the clinically important context of balloon-mediated vascular interventions. These PEM-based methods could also prove useful for other in vivo applications that require short-term, surface-mediated transfer of plasmid DNA.
Layer-by-Layer; Polyelectrolyte Multilayers; Thin Films; Gene Delivery; Intimal Hyperplasia
Crypt abscesses caused by excessive neutrophil accumulation are prominent features of human campylobacteriosis and its associated pathology. The molecular and cellular events responsible for this pathological situation are currently unknown. We investigated the contribution of PI3Kγ signaling in Campylobacter jejuni-induced neutrophil accumulation and intestinal inflammation. Germ-free and specific pathogen free Il10−/−and germ-free Il10−/−; Rag2−/− mice were infected with C. jejuni (109 CFU/mouse). PI3Kγ signaling was manipulated using either the pharmacological PI3Kγ inhibitor AS252424 (i.p. 10 mg/kg daily) or genetically using Pi3γ−/− mice. After up to 14 days, inflammation was assessed histologically and by measuring levels of colonic Il1β, Cxcl2 and Il17a mRNA. Neutrophils were depleted using anti-Gr1 antibody (i.p. 0.5 mg/mouse/every 3 days). Using germ-free Il10−/−; Rag2−/− mice, we observed that innate immune cells are the main cellular compartment responsible for campylobacteriosis. Pharmacological blockade of PI3Kγ signaling diminished C. jejuni-induced intestinal inflammation, neutrophil accumulation and NF-κB activity, which correlated with reduced Il1β (77%), Cxcl2 (73%) and Il17a (72%) mRNA accumulation. Moreover, Pi3kγ−/− mice pretreated with anti-IL-10R were resistant to C. jejuni-induced intestinal inflammation compared to Wt mice. This improvement was accompanied by a reduction of C. jejuni translocation into the colon and extra-intestinal tissues and by attenuation of neutrophil migratory capacity. Furthermore, neutrophil depletion attenuated C. jejuni-induced crypt abscesses and intestinal inflammation. Our findings indicate that C. jejuni-induced PI3Kγ signaling mediates neutrophil recruitment and intestinal inflammation in Il10−/− mice. Selective pharmacological inhibition of PI3Kγ may represent a novel means to alleviate severe cases of campylobacteriosis, especially in antibiotic-resistant strains.
Innate immunity; NF-κB; inflammation; enteric infection; crypt abscesses
Protein functions are largely affected by their conformations. This is exemplified in proteins containing modular domains. However, the evolutionary dynamics that define and adapt the conformation of such modular proteins remain elusive. Here we show that cis-interactions between the C-terminal phosphotyrosines and SH2 domain within the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 can be tuned by an adaptor protein, Grb2. The competitiveness of two phosphotyrosines, namely pY542 and pY580, for cis-interaction with the same SH2 domain is governed by an antagonistic combination of contextual amino acid sequence and position of the phosphotyrosines. Specifically, pY580 with the combination of a favorable position and an adverse sequence has an overall advantage over pY542. Swapping the sequences of pY542 and pY580 results in one dominant form of cis-interaction and subsequently inhibits the trans-regulation by Grb2. Thus, the antagonistic combination of sequence and position may serve as a basic design principle for proteins with tunable conformations.
The aim of this study was to investigate the methylation status of fragile histidine triad (FHIT) and the effects of FHIT on cell growth and cyclin D1 expression in hepatoma cells. The total proteins from the human hepatoma cell lines HepG2, Hep3B and Huh7 were collected and the expression levels of FHIT were analyzed. The methylation status in the promoter region of FHIT in the hepatoma cells was measured using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The HepG2, Hep3B and Huh7 cells were subsequently treated with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-azadc) and the restoration of FHIT expression was then examined. A p-hemagglutinin (HA)-FHIT plasmid was constructed and used to transfect the HepG2 cells, and the inhibitory effects of the transfection on cell growth were then assessed. In addition, HepG2 cells were cotransfected with the pHA-FHIT plasmid and a cyclin D1 luciferase reporter plasmid, and the effects of FHIT on the activity of cyclin D1 transcription factor were analyzed using a luciferase assay. FHIT was observed to be expressed at a low level in Hep3B and HepG2 cells; however, it was expressed at a relatively high level in Huh7 cells. The promoter region of FHIT in the Hep3B and HepG2 cells was partially methylated, and 5-azadc treatment induced an increased expression of FHIT. The increased expression of FHIT inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells. Cotransfection with the pHA-FHIT plasmid significantly inhibited the transcriptional activity of the cyclin D1 promoter and decreased the expression of cyclin D1 in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, FHIT was partially methylated in the HepG2 and Hep3B hepatoma cells. The overexpression of FHIT inhibited cell growth and decreased the expression of cyclin D1 in HepG2 cells.
hepatoma; fragile histidine triad; methylation; cyclin D1; signaling pathway
It has been appreciated over the past two decades that arterial remodelling, in addition to intimal hyperplasia, contributes significantly to the degree of restenosis that develops following revascularization procedures. Remodelling appears to be an adventitia-based process that is contributed to by multiple factors including cytokines and growth factors that regulate extracellular matrix or phenotypic transformation of vascular cells including myofibroblasts. In this review, we summarize the currently available information from animal models as well as clinical investigations regarding arterial remodelling. The factors that contribute to this process are presented with an emphasis on potential therapeutic methods to enhance favourable remodelling and prevent restenosis.
Restenosis; Constrictive remodelling; Adaptive remodelling; ECM; EEL
Pichia pastoris is commonly used for the production of recombinant proteins due to its preferential secretion of recombinant proteins, resulting in lower production costs and increased yields of target proteins. However, not all recombinant proteins can be successfully secreted in P. pastoris. A computational method that predicts the likelihood of a protein being secreted into the supernatant would be of considerable value; however, to the best of our knowledge, no such tool has yet been developed. We present a machine-learning approach called Presep to assess the likelihood of a recombinant protein being secreted by P. pastoris based on its pseudo amino acid composition (PseAA). Using a 20-fold cross validation, Presep demonstrated a high degree of accuracy, with Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) and overall accuracy (Q2) scores of 0.78 and 95%, respectively. Computational results were validated experimentally, with six β-galactosidase genes expressed in P. pastoris strain GS115 to verify Presep model predictions. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.967) was observed between Presep prediction secretion propensity and the experimental secretion percentage. Together, these results demonstrate the ability of the Presep model for predicting the secretion propensity of P. pastoris for a given protein. This model may serve as a valuable tool for determining the utility of P. pastoris as a host organism prior to initiating biological experiments. The Presep prediction tool can be freely downloaded at http://www.mobioinfor.cn/Presep.
While neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by steady degeneration over relatively long timelines, it is widely believed that the early stages are the most promising for therapeutic intervention, before irreversible neuronal loss occurs. Developing a therapeutic response requires a precise measure of disease progression. However, since the early stages are for the most part asymptomatic, obtaining accurate measures of disease progression is difficult. Longitudinal databases of hundreds of subjects observed during several years with tens of validated biomarkers are becoming available, allowing the use of computational methods. We propose a widely applicable statistical methodology for creating a disease progression score (DPS), using multiple biomarkers, for subjects with a neurodegenerative disease. The proposed methodology was evaluated for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using the publicly available AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, yielding an Alzheimer’s DPS or ADPS score for each subject and each time-point in the database. In addition, a common description of biomarker changes was produced allowing for an ordering of the biomarkers. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test delayed recall was found to be the earliest biomarker to become abnormal. The group of biomarkers comprising the volume of the hippocampus and the protein concentration amyloid beta and Tau were next in the timeline, and these were followed by three cognitive biomarkers. The proposed methodology thus has potential to stage individuals according to their state of disease progression relative to a population and to deduce common behaviors of biomarkers in the disease itself.
Neurodegenerative diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; biomarkers; disease progression score
Objective. To study the effects of estrogen on colon polyp formation, proliferation, and angiogenesis on a rat model of colon cancer induced by dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Methods. Thirty-six female ovariectomized (OVX) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: (I) control group (administrated with vehicles weekly), (II) DMH group (administrated with DMH weekly), and (III) DMH + E2 group (administrated with DMH and 17β-estradiol weekly). The incidence, volumes, and multiplicity of colon polyps in each group were evaluated. The microvessel density (MVD), the expressions of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), and the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF in polyps were detected in each group. Results. Estrogen reduced the multiplicity, volumes, and the PCNA expressions of DMH-induced colon polyps. The MVD in DMH + E2 group was significantly lower than that in DMH group. Estrogen treatment decreased the HIF-1α and VEGF expressions at both mRNA and protein level. Conclusion. Estrogen replacement was protective for ovariectomized rats from DMH-induced carcinogenesis, and one of the mechanisms for this was due to estrogen's inhibitive effects on blood vessel formation by downregulating VEGF and HIF-1α expressions.
In mainland China, most avian influenza A(H7N9) cases in the spring of 2013 were reported through the pneumonia of unknown etiology (PUE) surveillance system. To understand the role of possible underreporting and surveillance bias in assessing the epidemiology of subtype H7N9 cases and the effect of live-poultry market closures, we examined all PUE cases reported from 2004 through May 3, 2013. Historically, the PUE system was underused, reporting was inconsistent, and PUE reporting was biased toward A(H7N9)-affected provinces, with sparse data from unaffected provinces; however, we found no evidence that the older ages of persons with A(H7N9) resulted from surveillance bias. The absolute number and the proportion of PUE cases confirmed to be A(H7N9) declined after live-poultry market closures (p<0.001), indicating that market closures might have positively affected outbreak control. In China, PUE surveillance needs to be improved.
pneumonia surveillance; influenza A(H7N9) virus; influenza virus; viruses; influenza; epidemiology; China
It is known that the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and the cerebellar flocculus are the key areas, which contribute to the behavioral recovery (“vestibular compensation”) after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). In these areas, how the genetic activities of the metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR2 and mGluR7 performance after UL is unknown. With the means of quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry, we analyzed the expression of mGluR2 and mGluR7 in the bilateral MVN and the flocculus of rats in different stages after UL (the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day). Our results show that in the MVN, the mRNA, and protein expressions of mGluR7 were ipsilaterally decreased at the 1st day following UL. However, in the MVN, no change was observed in the mRNA and protein expressions of mGluR2. On the other hand, the mRNA and protein expression of mGluR2 were enhanced in the ipsilateral flocculus at the 1st day following UL, while in the flocculus no change was shown in mGluR7 mRNA and protein expressions. Our results suggest that mGluR2 and mGluR7 may contribute to the early rebalancing of spontaneous resting activity in the MVN.
flocculus; medial vestibular nucleus; mGluR2; mGluR7; vestibular compensation
Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), one of the target genes of the Wnt signaling pathway, has recently been identified as a marker for brain cancer stem-like cells. However, the role of LGR5 in glioma is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between LGR5 expression and pathological grade in glioma, and the impact of LGR5 on the proliferation of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Firstly, LGR5 expression was immunohistochemically evaluated in 54 resected gliomas of different pathologic grades, and its association with Ki-67 was evaluated. Subsequently, using western blotting and qRT-PCR, the expression of LGR5 was assessed in three glioma cell lines U87, U118 and U251. Moreover, the effects of LGR5 knockdown by siRNA on glioma cell proliferation, cell cycle, clone formation and tumorsphere formation in vitro and gliomagenesis in vivo were assessed. The results revealed that i) LGR5 was positively expressed in all glioma specimens and its expression increased with pathologic grade and Ki-67 expression; ii) LGR5 was highly expressed in three glioma cell lines and its expression was reduced significantly by siRNA; and iii) RNAi-mediated downregulation of endogenous LGR5 in U87 cells resulted in the suppression of cell proliferation, arrest of the cell cycle, and reduction in clone and tumorsphere formation in vitro. In addition, LGR5 depletion significantly inhibited tumor orthotopic xenograft growth in nude mice. These findings indicate that LGR5 plays a major role in gliomagenesis by promoting neoplastic cell proliferation, suggesting LGR5 as a molecular marker for pathology and a novel therapeutic target for malignant glioma.
glioma; LGR5; proliferation; orthotopic xenograft; siRNA