Understory vegetation plays a crucial role in carbon and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems; however, it is not clear how understory species affect tree litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics. In this study, we examined the impacts of understory litter on the decomposition and nutrient release of tree litter both in a pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) and a poplar (Populus × xiaozhuanica) plantation in Northeast China. Leaf litter of tree species, and senesced aboveground materials from two dominant understory species, Artemisia scoparia and Setaria viridis in the pine stand and Elymus villifer and A. sieversiana in the poplar stand, were collected. Mass loss and N and P fluxes of single-species litter and three-species mixtures in each of the two forests were quantified. Data from single-species litterbags were used to generate predicted mass loss and N and P fluxes for the mixed-species litterbags. In the mixture from the pine stand, the observed mass loss and N release did not differ from the predicted value, whereas the observed P release was greater than the predicted value. However, the presence of understory litter decelerated the mass loss and did not affect N and P releases from the pine litter. In the poplar stand, litter mixture presented a positive non-additive effect on litter mass loss and P release, but an addition effect on N release. The presence of understory species accelerated only N release of poplar litter. Moreover, the responses of mass loss and N and P releases of understory litter in the mixtures varied with species in both pine and poplar plantations. Our results suggest that the effects of understory species on tree litter decomposition vary with tree species, and also highlight the importance of understory species in litter decomposition and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems.
Nanoarchitectured electroactive materials can boost rates of Li insertion/extraction, showing genuine potential to increase power output of Li-ion batteries. However, electrodes assembled with low-dimensional nanostructured transition metal oxides by conventional approach suffer from dramatic reductions in energy capacities owing to sluggish ion and electron transport kinetics. Here we report that flexible bulk electrodes, made of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Cu/MnO2 hybrid and seamlessly integrated with Cu solid current collector, substantially optimizes Li storage behavior of the constituent MnO2. As a result of the unique integration of solid/nanoporous hybrid architecture that simultaneously enhances the electron transport of MnO2, facilitates fast ion diffusion and accommodates large volume changes on Li insertion/extraction of MnO2, the supported MnO2 exhibits a stable capacity of as high as ~1100 mA h g−1 for 1000 cycles, and ultrahigh charge/discharge rates. It makes the environmentally friendly and low-cost electrode as a promising anode for high-performance Li-ion battery applications.
Oxidative stress caused by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is capable of damaging effects on numerous cellular components. Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs, EC 126.96.36.199) are key enzymes of the antioxidant network in plants. In this study, W69 and W106, two putative GPX genes, were obtained by de novo transcriptome sequencing of salt-treated wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings. The purified His-tag fusion proteins of W69 and W106 reduced H2O2 and t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) using glutathione (GSH) or thioredoxin (Trx) as an electron donor in vitro, showing their peroxidase activity toward H2O2 and toxic organic hydroperoxide. GFP fluorescence assays revealed that W69 and W106 are localized in chloroplasts. Quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR) analysis showed that two GPXs were differentially responsive to salt, drought, H2O2, or ABA. Isolation of the W69 and W106 promoters revealed some cis-acting elements responding to abiotic stresses. Overexpression of W69 and W106 conferred strong tolerance to salt, H2O2, and ABA treatment in Arabidopsis. Moreover, the expression levels of key regulator genes (SOS1, RbohD and ABI1/ABI2) involved in salt, H2O2 and ABA signaling were altered in the transgenic plants. These findings suggest that W69 and W106 not only act as scavengers of H2O2 in controlling abiotic stress responses, but also play important roles in salt and ABA signaling.
The end replication problem, which occurs in normal somatic cells inducing replicative senescence, is solved in most cancer cells by activating telomerase. The activity of telomerase is highly associated with carcinogenesis which makes the enzyme an attractive biomarker in cancer diagnosis and treatment. The indole alkaloid harmine has multiple pharmacological properties including DNA intercalation which can lead to frame shift mutations. In this study, harmine was applied to human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Its activity towards telomerase was analyzed by utilizing the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP). Our data indicate that harmine exhibits a pronounced cytotoxicity and induces an anti-proliferation state in MCF-7 cells which is accompanied by a significant inhibition of telomerase activity and an induction of an accelerated senescence phenotype by over-expressing elements of the p53/p21 pathway.
Telomerase; Senescence; MCF-7; p53; p21; Alkaloid; DNA intercalation; Apoptosis
High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, but not all HDL are functionally equivalent. A primary determinant of HDL functional status is the conformational adaptability of its main protein component, apoA-I, an exchangeable apolipoprotein. Chemical modification of apoA-I, as may occur under conditions of inflammation or diabetes, can severely impair HDL function and is associated with the presence of cardiovascular disease. Chemical modification of apoA-I also impairs its ability to exchange on and off HDL, a critical process in reverse cholesterol transport. In this study, we developed a method using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) to quantify HDL-apoA-I exchange. Using this approach, we measured the degree of HDL-apoA-I exchange for HDL isolated from rabbits fed a high fat, high cholesterol diet, as well as human subjects with acute coronary syndrome and metabolic syndrome. We observed that HDL-apoA-I exchange was markedly reduced when atherosclerosis was present, or when the subject carries at least one risk factor of cardiovascular disease. These results show that HDL-apoA-I exchange is a clinically relevant measure of HDL function pertinent to cardiovascular disease.
In 2000, three Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains were isolated from outbreaks of infection in layers, ducklings, and geese in the same region of China during the same time period. Here, we report their complete genome sequences, which belong to the NDV genotype VIId. This discovery might provide clues as to the evolution of the NDVs of different avian origins.
Previous reports have demonstrated that L1cam is aberrantly expressed in various tumors. The potential role of L1cam in the progression and metastasis of gastric cancer is still not clear and needs exploring.
Expression of L1cam was evaluated in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The relationship between L1cam expression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. The effects of L1cam on cell proliferation, migration and invasion were investigated in gastric cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. The impact of L1cam on PI3K/Akt pathway was also evaluated.
L1cam was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. L1cam expression was correlated with aggressive tumor phenotype and poor overall survival in gastric cancer patients. Ectopic expression of L1cam in gastric cell lines significantly promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion whereas knockdown of L1cam inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro as well as tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. The low level of phosphorylated Akt in HGC27 cells was up-regulated after ectopic expression of L1cam, whereas the high level of phosphorylated Akt in SGC7901 cells was suppressed by knockdown of L1cam. Moreover, the migration and invasion promoted by L1cam overexpression in gastric cancer cells could be abolished by either application of LY294002 (a phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor) or knockdown of endogenous Akt by small interfering RNA.
Our study demonstrated that L1cam, overexpressed in gastric cancer and associated with poor prognosis, plays an important role in the progression and metastasis of gastric cancer.
L1cam; Metastasis; PI3K/Akt; Prognosis; Gastric cancer
The chimeric fusion protein, AML1-ETO, generated by translocation of t(8;21), abnormally recruits histone deacetylase (HDAC) to the promoters of AML1 target genes, resulting in transcriptional repression of the target genes and development of t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia. Abnormal expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, especially p21, is considered a possible mechanism of the arrested maturation and differentiation seen in leukemia cells. A new generation of HDAC inhibitors is becoming an increasing focus of attention for their ability to induce differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells and to block the cell cycle. Our previous research had demonstrated that valproic acid induces G0/G1 arrest of Kasumi-1 cells in t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we further confirmed that valproic acid inhibits the growth of Kasumi-1 cells in a murine xenograft tumor model, and that this occurs via upregulation of histone acetylation in the p21 promoter region, enhancement of p21 expression, suppression of phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, blocking of transcription activated by E2F, and induction of G0/G1 arrest.
valproic acid; acute myeloid leukemia; AML1-ETO; p21; E2F
The cell division cycle 20 homolog (CDC20) is an essential cofactor of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C). CDC20 overexpression has been detected in many types of human cancers; however, its clinical role in colorectal cancer remains unknown.
Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to compare CDC20 expression in adjacent non-cancerous, cancerous and liver metastatic tissues as well as in colon cancer cell lines and normal colon epithelial cell lines. Additionally, the correlation of CDC20 expression with patient clinical parameters and its diagnostic value were statistically analyzed.
CDC20 was overexpressed in colon cancer cell lines/primary cancer tissues compared with normal colon epithelial cell lines/adjacent noncancerous tissue samples. Interestingly, CDC20 expression was further increased in metastatic liver tissues. CDC20 protein expression was significantly correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.008), N classification (P = 0.020), M classification (P = 0.013) and pathologic differentiation (P = 0.008). Patients with higher CDC20 expression had a shorter overall survival than those with lower CDC20 expression. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that CDC20 expression was an independent prognostic factor (P < 0.001).
CDC20 may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker of human colorectal cancer.
CDC20; Prognosis; Colorectal cancer
Vibrio vulnificus, which is the causative agent of cholera, is a Gram-negative, curved, motile, and rod-shaped bacterium. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the type strain, ATCC 27562, which was the first isolated Vibrio vulnificus strain.
To report the feasibility, efficacy, and toxicity of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) and/or inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis (IVCTT) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Materials and methods
Forty-one patients treated with SBRT using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for HCC with PVTT/IVCTT between July 2010 and May 2012 were analyzed. Of these, 33 had PVTT and 8 had IVCTT. SBRT was designed to target the tumor thrombosis and deliver a median total dose of 36 Gy (range, 30–48 Gy) in six fractions during two weeks.
The median follow-up was 10.0 months. At the time of analysis, 15 (36.6%) achieved complete response, 16 (39.0%) achieved partial response, 7 (17.1%) patients were stable, and three (7.3%) patients showed progressive disease. No treatment-related Grade 4/5 toxicity was seen within three months after SBRT. One patient had Grade 3 elevation of bilirubin. The one-year overall survival rate was 50.3%, with a median survival of 13.0 months. The only independent predictive factor associated with better survival was response to radiotherapy.
VMAT-based SBRT is a safe and effective treatment option for PVTT/IVCTT in HCC. Prospective randomized controlled trials are warranted to validate the role of SBRT in these patients.
BEP clade of the grass family (Poaceae) is composed of three subfamilies, i.e. Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pooideae. Controversies on the phylogenetic relationships among three subfamilies still persist in spite of great efforts. However, previous evidence was mainly provided from plastid genes with only a few nuclear genes utilized. Given different evolutionary histories recorded by plastid and nuclear genes, it is indispensable to uncover their relationships based on nuclear genes. Here, eleven species with whole-sequenced genome and six species with transcriptomic data were included in this study. A total of 121 one-to-one orthologous groups (OGs) were identified and phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by different tree-building methods. Genes which might have undergone positive selection and played important roles in adaptive evolution were also investigated from 314 and 173 one-to-one OGs in two bamboo species and 14 grass species, respectively. Our results support the ((B, P) E) topology with high supporting values. Besides, our findings also indicate that 24 and nine orthologs with statistically significant evidence of positive selection are mainly involved in abiotic and biotic stress response, reproduction and development, plant metabolism and enzyme etc. from two bamboo species and 14 grass species, respectively. In summary, this study demonstrates the power of phylogenomic approach to shed lights on the evolutionary relationships within the BEP clade, and offers valuable insights into adaptive evolution of the grass family.
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of κ-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H on endothelial function and underlying mechanism in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Chronic hypoxia-induced HPH was simulated by exposing the rats to 10% oxygen for 2 wk. After hypoxia, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular pressure (RVP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) were measured. Relaxation of pulmonary artery in response to acetylcholine (ACh) was determined. Expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) with NO production, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), gp91phox expression and nitrotyrosine content were measured. The effect of U50,488H administration during chronic hypoxia was investigated. Administration of U50,488H significantly decreased mPAP and right ventricular hypertrophy as evidenced by reduction in RVP and RVHI. These effects were mediated by κ-opioid receptor. In the meantime, treatment with U50,488H significantly improved endothelial function as evidenced by enhanced relaxation in response to ACh. Moreover, U50,488H resulted in a significant increase in eNOS phosphorylation, NO content in serum, and T-AOC in pulmonary artery of HPH rats. In addition, the activity of eNOS was enhanced, but the activity of iNOS was attenuated in the pulmonary artery of chronic hypoxic rats treated with U50,488H. On the other hand, U50,488H markedly blunted HPH-induced elevation of gp91phox expression and nitrotyrosine content in pulmonary artery, and these effects were blocked by nor-BNI, a selective κ-opioid receptor antagonist. These data suggest that κ-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H improves endothelial function in rats with HPH. The mechanism of action might be attributed to the preservation of eNOS activity, enhancement of eNOS phosphorylation, downregulation of iNOS activity and its antioxidative/nitrative effect.
Nowadays, treatments for cholestasis remain largely nonspecific and often ineffective. Recent studies showed that inflammatory injuries and oxidative stress occur in the liver with cholestasis. In this study, we would use corilagin to treat the animal model of acute cholestasis in order to define the activity to interfere with inflammation-related and oxidative stress pathway in cholestatic pathogenesis.
Rats were administrated with alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate to establish model of cholestasis and divided into corilagin, ursodeoxycholic acid, dexamethasone, model and normal groups with treatment of related agent. At 24h, 48h and 72h time points after administration, living condition, serum markers of liver damage, pathological changes of hepatic tissue, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) were examined and observed.
Compared to model group, corilagin had remarkable effect on living condition, pathological manifestation of liver tissue, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, (P<0.01), but no effect on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). With corilagin intervention, levels of MPO, MDA and translocation of NF-κB were notably decreased, and levels of SOD and NO were markedly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01).
It is shown that corilagin is a potential component to relieve cholestasis through inflammation-related and oxidation-related pathway.
Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is widely used in the treatment of limb ischemia for its potent vasodilatory and antiplatelet effects. In order to assess the curative effect of liposomal PGE1 (lipo-PGE1) as an adjuvant to surgery in patients with acute lower limb ischemia (ALLI), 204 patients who underwent hybrid procedures (operative thromboembolectomy or bypass and necessary endovascular interventions) for ALLI were randomly divided into a blank control group and a lipo-PGE1 group (intravenous infusion of 20 μg/day for 12–14 consecutive days following surgery). Patients were followed-up for 6 months after surgical revascularization for clinical events. The primary study endpoint, which was the combined incidence of perioperative (30 days) mortality (POM) and major adverse limb events (MALE; amputation or major intervention), was significantly reduced in patients treated with lipo-PGE1 (5.1% compared with 13.2% in the control group). The overall incidence of clinical events, including POM, MALE and major adverse cardiovascular events, was significantly reduced in patients receiving lipo-PGE1 (8.2%) compared with the controls (20.8%). Hybrid procedures are an improved method for treating ALLI and may remedy underlying lesions of vessels following thromboembolectomy.
liposomal prostaglandin E1; acute lower limb ischemia; hybrid procedures
Access to a wider range of quantitative protein assays would significantly impact the number and use of tissue markers in guiding disease treatment. Quantitative mass spectrometry-based peptide and protein assays, such as immuno-SRM assays, have seen tremendous growth in recent years in application to protein quantification in biological fluids such as plasma or urine. Here, we extend the capability of the technique by demonstrating the application of a multiplexed immuno-SRM assay for quantification of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) levels in cell line lysates and human surgical specimens. The performance of the assay was characterized using peptide response curves, with linear ranges covering approximately 4 orders of magnitude and limits of detection in the low fmol/mg lysate range. Reproducibility was acceptable with median coefficients of variation of approximately 10%. We applied the assay to measurements of ER and HER2 in well-characterized cell line lysates with good discernment based on ER/HER2 status. Finally, the proteins were measured in surgically resected breast cancers, and the results showed good correlation with ER/HER2 status determined by clinical assays. This is the first implementation of the peptide-based immuno-SRM assay technology in cell lysates and human surgical specimens.
Estrogen receptor; HER2/Neu; immunoaffinity; peptides; tissue
In order to counter the common perception that molecular diagnostics are too complicated to work in low resource settings, we have performed a difficult sample preparation and DNA amplification protocol using instrumentation designed to be operated without wall or battery power. In this work we have combined a nearly electricity-free nucleic acid extraction process with an electricity-free isothermal amplification assay to detect the presence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) DNA in the stool of infected patients. We used helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA) to amplify the DNA in a low-cost, thermoplastic reaction chip heated with a pair of commercially available toe warmers, while using a simple Styrofoam insulator. DNA was extracted from known positive and negative stool samples. The DNA extraction protocol utilized an air pressure driven solid phase extraction device run using a standard bicycle pump. The simple heater setup required no electricity or battery and was capable of maintaining the temperature at 65°C±2°C for 55 min, suitable for repeatable HDA amplification. Experiments were performed to explore the adaptability of the system for use in a range of ambient conditions. When compared to a traditional centrifuge extraction protocol and a laboratory thermocycler, this disposable, no power platform achieved approximately the same lower limit of detection (1.25×10−2 pg of C. difficile DNA) while requiring much less raw material and a fraction of the lab infrastructure and cost. This proof of concept study could greatly impact the accessibility of molecular assays for applications in global health.
Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Patients usually present late with local invasion or metastasis, for which there are no effective therapies available. Following previous studies that identified the adhesion molecule Cadherin-17(CDH17) as a potential marker for gastric carcinoma, we performed proof-of-principle studies to develop rational therapeutic approaches targeting CDH17 for treating this disease.
Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression of CDH17 in 156 gastric carcinomas, and the relationship between survival and CDH17 expression was studied by multivariate analyses. The effect of RNA interference–mediated knockdown of CDH17 on proliferation of gastric carcinoma cell lines was examined in vitro and in vivo, as well as the effects on downstream signaling by immunoblotting.
CDH17 was consistently up-regulated in human gastric cancers, and overall survival in patients with CDH17 upregulation was poorer than in those without expression of this gene (5 yrs overall survival rate 29.0% vs. 45.0%, P<0.01). Functional assays demonstrated that CDH17 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, clonogenicity and induce G0/G1 arrest. In mice, shRNA-mediated CDH17 knockdown markedly inhibits tumor growth; intratumoral injection of CDH17 shRNAs results in significant antitumor effects on transplanted tumor models. The antitumor mechanisms underlying CDH17 inhibition involve inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
Our results identify CDH17 as a biomarker of gastric carcinoma and attractive therapeutic target for this aggressive malignancy.
Tumor-infiltrating immune cells play important roles in metastasis. We have recently revealed the recruitment of a specific myeloid cell subset (CD11b/Gr1mid) to hepatic metastases. Such a recruitment relies on CCL2/CCR2 signaling and acts to sustain metastatic growth. A similar cell subset was identified in patients bearing hepatic metastases of colorectal cancer, highlighting the potential therapeutic relevance of our findings.
CCL2; colon cancer; liver metastasis; myeloid cell recruitment
Since the KCNB1 encoding Kv2.1 channel accounts for the majority of Kv currents modulating insulin secretion by pancreatic islet beta-cells, we postulated that KCNB1 is a plausible candidate gene for genetic variation contributing to the variable compensatory secretory function of beta-cells in type-2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted two studies, a case-control study and a cross-section study, to investigate the association of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KCNB1 with T2D and its linking traits. In the case-control study, we first examined the association of 20 tag SNPs of KCNB1 with T2D in a population with 226 T2D patients and non-diabetic subjects (screening study). We then identified the association in an enlarged population of 412 T2D patients and non-diabetic subjects (replication study). In the cross-sectional study, we investigated the linkage between the candidate SNP rs1051295 and T2D by comparing beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity among rs1051295 genotypes in a general population of 1051 subjects at fasting and after glucose loading (oral glucose tolerance tests, OGTT) in 84 fasting glucose impaired subjects, and several T2D-related traits. We found that among the 19 available tag SNPs, only the KCNB1 rs1051295 was associated with T2D (P = 0.027), with the rs1051295 TT genotype associated with an increased risk of T2D compared with genotypes CC (P = 0.009). At fasting, rs1051295 genotype TT was associated with a 9.8% reduction in insulin sensitivity compared to CC (P = 0.008); along with increased plasma triglycerides (TG) levels (TT/CC: P = 0.046) and increased waist/hip (W/H) ratio (TT/CC: P = 0.013; TT/TC: P = 0.002). OGTT confirmed that genotype TT exhibited reduced insulin sensitivity by 16.3% (P = 0.030) compared with genotype TC+CC in a fasting glucose impaired population. The KCNB1 rs1051295 genotype TT in the Chinese Han population is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased plasma TG and W/H ratio, which together contribute to an increased risk for T2D.
Responses to alpha interferon (IFN-α)-based treatment are dependent on both host and viral factors and vary markedly among patients infected with different hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes (GTs). Patients infected with GT3 viruses consistently respond better to IFN treatment than do patients infected with GT1 viruses. The mechanisms underlying this difference are not well understood. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of HCV NS5A proteins from different genotypes on IFN signaling. We found that the overexpression of either GT1 or GT3 NS5A proteins significantly inhibited IFN-induced IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) signaling, phosphorylated STAT1 (P-STAT1) levels, and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression compared to controls. GT1 NS5A protein expression exhibited stronger inhibitory effects on IFN signaling than did GT3 NS5A protein expression. Furthermore, GT1 NS5A bound to STAT1 with a higher affinity than did GT3 NS5A. Domain mapping revealed that the C-terminal region of NS5A conferred these inhibitory effects on IFN signaling. The overexpression of HCV NS5A increased HCV replication levels in JFH1-infected cells through the further reduction of levels of P-STAT1, ISRE signaling, and downstream ISG responses. We demonstrated that the overexpression of GT1 NS5A proteins resulted in less IFN responsiveness than did the expression of GT3 NS5A proteins through stronger binding to STAT1. We confirmed that GT1 NS5A proteins exerted stronger IFN signaling inhibition than did GT3 NS5A proteins in an infectious recombinant JFH1 virus. The potent antiviral NS5A inhibitor BMS-790052 did not block NS5A-mediated IFN signaling suppression in an overexpression model, suggesting that NS5A's contributions to replication are independent of its subversive action on IFN. We propose a model in which the binding of the C-terminal region of NS5A to STAT1 leads to decreased levels of P-STAT1, ISRE signaling, and ISG transcription and, ultimately, to preferential GT1 resistance to IFN treatment.
Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible gene 45-α (GADD45α) protein has been shown to be a tumour suppressor and is implicated in cell-cycle arrest and suppression of cell growth. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein plays an important role in cell survival and is linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of HCV NS5A in the development of HCC remains to be clarified. This study sought to determine whether GADD45α mediates HCV NS5A-induced cellular survival and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of GADD45α expression regulated by HCV NS5A. It was found that HCV NS5A downregulated GADD45α expression at the transcriptional level by decreasing promoter activity, mRNA transcription and protein levels. Knockdown of p53 resulted in a similar decrease in GADD45α expression to that caused by HCV NS5A, whilst overexpression of p53 reversed the HCV NS5A-mediated downregulation of GADD45α. HCV NS5A repressed p53 expression, which was followed by a subsequent decrease in GADD45α expression. Further evidence was provided showing that HCV NS5A led to increases of phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB and Akt levels. Inhibition of these pathways using pharmacological inhibitors or specific small interfering RNAs rescued HCV NS5A-mediated downregulation of p53 and GADD45α. It was also found that HCV NS5A protein and depletion of GADD45α increased cell growth, whereas ectopic expression of GADD45α eliminated HCV NS5A-induced cell proliferation. These results indicated that HCV NS5A downregulates GADD45α expression and subsequently triggers cellular proliferation. These findings provide new insights suggesting that HCV NS5A could contribute to the occurrence of HCV-related HCC.
Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. is a high saline-alkaline tolerant forage grass genus of the tribe Gramineae family, which also plays an important role in protection of natural environment. To date, little is known about the saline-alkaline tolerance of L. chinensis on the molecular level. To better understand the molecular mechanism of saline-alkaline tolerance in L. chinensis, 454 pyrosequencing was used for the transcriptome study.
We used Roche-454 massive parallel pyrosequencing technology to sequence two different cDNA libraries that were built from the two samples of control and under saline-alkaline treatment (optimal stress concentration-Hoagland solution with 100 mM NaCl and 200 mM NaHCO3). A total of 363,734 reads in control group and 526,267 reads in treatment group with an average length of 489 bp and 493 bp were obtained, respectively. The reads were assembled into 104,105 unigenes with MIRA sequence assemable software, among which, 73,665 unigenes were in control group, 88,016 unigenes in treatment group and 57,576 unigenes in both groups. According to the comparative expression analysis between the two groups with the threshold of “log2 Ratio ≥1”, there were 36,497 up-regulated unegenes and 18,218 down-regulated unigenes predicted to be the differentially expressed genes. After gene annotation and pathway enrichment analysis, most of them were involved in stress and tolerant function, signal transduction, energy production and conversion, and inorganic ion transport. Furthermore, 16 of these differentially expressed genes were selected for real-time PCR validation, and they were successfully confirmed with the results of 454 pyrosequencing.
This work is the first time to study the transcriptome of L. chinensis under saline-alkaline treatment based on the 454-FLX massively parallel DNA sequencing platform. It also deepened studies on molecular mechanisms of saline-alkaline in L. chinensis, and constituted a database for future studies.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious healthcare problem worldwide because of its increasing morbidity and high mortality rates. However, our understanding of the mechanism of liver tumorigenesis remains incomplete. We report the expression of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in the livers of rats with diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced HCC and investigated the correlation between MLCK and liver tumorigenesis by observing the expression of MLCK in a rat model of HCC. HCC was induced in rats by an intraperitoneal injection of DENA, and resveratrol-treated rats were orally administered resveratrol with 50 mg/kg body weight/day. The livers of rats were excised after 20 weeks and immersed in 10% formaldehyde prior to immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses for determining the level of MLCK expression. These analyses indicated that the MLCK expression was higher in the livers of HCC rats than in normal and resveratrol-treated rats. High level of MLCK expression was responsible for proliferation and anti-apoptotic effects. However, resveratrol down-regulated the expression of MLCK, which induced cell apoptosis and inhibited liver tumorigenesis in rats with DENA-induced HCC. Our results suggest that the over expression of MLCK may be related to the development of liver tumorigenesis.
myosin light chain kinase; liver tumorigenesis; resveratrol; apoptosis