Major burn triggers immune dysfunction, which is associated with wound healing complications. Gamma delta T-cells have been shown to be important in post-burn inflammation and wound healing; however their cytokine phenotype at the burn wound site is unknown.
C57BL/6 male mice were subjected to a major burn (25% TBSA, 3rd degree) or sham treatment. At 3 h, 3 days and 7 days thereafter, skin samples were collected and subjected to dispase and trypsin digestion to isolate single cells. The cells were phenotyped and evaluated for cytokine profiles by flow cytometry. Th-1 cells were defined as IFNγ positive, Th-2 cells were defined IL-10 positive and Th-17 cells were defined as IL-17 positive.
At 7 days after burn a shift towards Th-2 and Th-17 positive T-cells at the wound site was observed. Further analysis revealed that at 3 h post-injury the percentage of γδ T-cells positive for IFNγ, IL-10 and IL-17 where comparable between sham and burn skin samples. At 3 days and 7 days post-injury the percentage of cells positive for each cytokine increased; however, the increase was significantly greater for IL-10 and IL-17, as compared with IFNγ (i.e., 9-20 fold vs. 3-fold). Skin αβ T-cells preferentially produced IFNγ (~20%), which was unaffected by burn injury.
These data demonstrate that burn wound γδ T-cells are activated for enhanced cytokine production and display a shift towards a Th-2 and/or Th-17 phenotype. In contrast, burn wound αβ T-cells were not activated for enhanced cytokine production.
Injury; Cytokines; Inflammation
To investigate the feasibility of the anti-mucin 1 (anti-MUC1/CD227) antibody in the fluorescent imaging of ovarian cancer, the CD227 antibody and a control IgG antibody were labeled with a near-infrared dye [Cy5.5-N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)] and a green dye (fluorescein-NHS). In vivo fluorescence images were obtained at 4, 12 and 36 h after injection of the probes into OVCAR3 tumor-bearing mice. The tumor to background ratios were calculated for both probes. Ex vivo fluorescence images were obtained following sacrifice at 36 h. After conjugation to Cy5.5 and fluorescein, the dual-color labeled CD227 probe (Ab-FL-Cy5.5) could be visualized by both green and near-infrared fluorescence. Uptake by the tumors was higher for the Ab-FL-Cy5.5 than for the IgG-Cy5.5 probe. All tumors could be visualized by in vivo imaging with an acceptable tumor to background ratio. Ex vivo studies demonstrated the advantages of using green fluorescence imaging to guide the resection of tumor tissues. These preliminary data indicate that the Ab-FL-Cy5.5 probe is promising for further tumor imaging applications and clinical translation.
fluorescence imaging; ovarian cancer; mucin 1 antibody; CD227 antibody; near-infrared fluorescence
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a autoimmune disease, early and accurate detection is vital for effective treatment. Very recently, a large of novel laboratory index were found to diagnose AS. However, the correlation between red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and AS has been poorly discussed in previous study. Then, our aim was to focus on the association between RDW and AS. AS patients without drugs treatments and healthy individuals were incorporated in our study. Laboratory parameters including RDW tests were conducted consecutively on the entire cohort of AS patients and healthy individuals. AS patients with increased RDW showed significant difference compared to healthy individuals (13.66±0.77 vs. 12.77±0.47, P<0.01), similarly, difference of AS patients and heathy individuals stratified by sex was almost the same as that in two groups. Some significantly positive correlation were observed between RDW and CRP, ESR, IgG, BASDAI score in patients with AS (r=0.356, P=0.018; r=0.481, P=0.001; r=0.385, P=0.010; r=0.586, P<0.01), almost identical results were showed when AS patients was stratified by gender. Finally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of RDW levels to identify AS patients exhibited a statistically significant level (area under the curve of 0.853; sensitivity of 72.7%, specificity of 81.4%). The results suggested that increased RDW was associated with AS and may be used as a potential marker estimating disease activity of AS.
Ankylosing spondylitis; red blood cell distribution width; C-reactive protein; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; Bath AS disease activity index
Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSC) was first recognized as a specific entity in the World Health Organization 2004 classification. The “classic” tumor presentation includes an extracellular blue-gray mucinous/myxoid matrix accompanying the typical tubular and spindle cell epithelial components. Tubules are lined by cuboidal to columnar cells with bland nuclei, central small to medium sized nucleoli, and few to no mitoses. By expanding the histologic spectrum, a number of studies highlighted the distinction between MTSC and solid variant of papillary renal cell carcinoma (sPRCC), although controversy still exists. Here, we evaluated two cases of MTSC and compared two cases of sPRCC by light microscopy, special staining, immunohistochemical staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We found that morphologic and immunophenotyping features showed more overlap between MTSC and sPRCC. In addition, gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 and loss of Y, which are characteristic of PRCC, were observed in two cases of sPRCC and one case of MTSC, suggesting that MTSC is similar to sPRCC or may be a subtype of PRCC.
Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_194
Carcinoma; Renal cell; Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma; Fluorescence in situ hybridization; Immunohistochemistry
Hypoxia-induced microtubule disruption and mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) are crucial events leading to fatal cell damage and recent studies showed that microtubules (MTs) are involved in the modulation of mitochondrial function. Dynein light chain Tctex-type 1 (DYNLT1) is thought to be associated with MTs and mitochondria. Previously we demonstrated that DYNLT1 knockdown aggravates hypoxia-induced mitochondrial permeabilization, which indicates a role of DYNLT1 in hypoxic cytoprotection. But the underlying regulatory mechanism of DYNLT1 remains illusive. Here we aimed to investigate the phosphorylation alteration of DYNLT1 at serine 82 (S82) in hypoxia (1% O2). We therefore constructed recombinant adenoviruses to generate S82E and S82A mutants, used to transfect H9c2 and HeLa cell lines. Development of hypoxia-induced mPT (MMP examining, Cyt c release and mPT pore opening assay), hypoxic energy metabolism (cellular viability and ATP quantification), and stability of MTs were examined. Our results showed that phosph-S82 (S82-P) expression was increased in early hypoxia; S82E mutation (phosphomimic) aggravated mitochondrial damage, elevated the free tubulin in cytoplasm and decreased the cellular viability; S82A mutation (dephosphomimic) seemed to diminish the hypoxia-induced injury. These data suggest that DYNLT1 phosphorylation at S82 is involved in MTs and mitochondria regulation, and their interaction and cooperation contribute to the cellular hypoxic tolerance. Thus, we provide new insights into a DYNLT1 mechanism in stabilizing MTs and mitochondria, and propose a potential therapeutic target for hypoxia cytoprotective studies.
DYNLT1; energy metabolism; hypoxia; microtubule; mPT; phosphorylation
Keratinocyte migration is an early event in the wound healing process. Although we previously found that CD9 downregulation is required for the keratinocyte migration during wound repair, the mechanism of how CD9 expression is regulated remains unclear. Here, we observed the effect of hypoxia (2% O2) on CD9 expression and keratinocyte migration. CD9 expression was downregulated and keratinocyte migration was increased under hypoxic conditions. In addition, CD9 overexpression reversed hypoxia-induced cell migration. We also found that hypoxia activated the p38/MAPK pathway. SB203580, a p38/MAPK inhibitor, increased CD9 expression and inhibited keratinocyte migration under hypoxia, while MKK6 (Glu) overexpression decreased CD9 expression and promoted hypoxic keratinocyte migration. Our results demonstrate that hypoxia regulates CD9 expression and CD9-mediated keratinocyte migration via the p38/MAPK pathway.
Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental pollutant that causes multiple adverse health effects in humans and animals. In this study, we investigated Cd-mediated toxic effects in rats during pregnancy and endocrine intervention in the placenta.
We exposed pregnant rats to intraperitoneal Cd (CdCl2) at various doses (0, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg BW/day) from days 5 to 19 of pregnancy and evaluated the maternal-placental-fetal parameters linked to preeclampsia. We measured the corticosterone level in rat serum and placental tissue by sensitive ELISA and also analyzed the expression of glucocorticoid synthesis enzymes in the placenta.
Key features of preeclampsia (PE), including hypertension, proteinuria, glomerular endotheliosis, placental abnormalities and small fetal size, appeared in pregnant rats after injection with 0.5 mg/kg BW/day Cd. The placental corticosterone production and maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone levels were increased in rats treated with 0.5 mg/kg BW/day Cd (P <0.01). The expression of 21-hydroxylase (CYP21) and 11beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), enzymes essential for corticosteroid synthesis, were increased in Cd-exposed placenta (P <0.01). 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD2), a dominant negative regulator of local glucocorticoid levels, was decreased in Cd-exposed placenta (P <0.01).
Our study demonstrates for the first time that changes in placental glucocorticoid synthesis induced by Cd exposure during pregnancy could contribute to preeclamptic conditions in rats.
Cadmium; Preeclampsia; Glucocorticoid synthesis; Placenta; Rat
The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is critical for the development of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and recent studies have suggested that disruption of this signaling cascade may underlie the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the exact role of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, including low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and 6 (LRP5/6) and β-catenin components, in a mouse model of PD remains unclear. In the present study, the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre transgenic mouse line was used to generate mice with the specific knockout of LRP5, LRP6 or β-catenin in DA neurons. Following inactivation of LRP5, LRP6 or β-catenin, TH-immunohistochemical staining was performed. The results indicated that β-catenin is required for the development or maintenance of these neurons; however, LRP5 and LRP6 were found to be dispensable. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice, the depletion of LRP5, LRP6 or β-catenin was found to be protective for the midbrain DA neurons to a certain extent. These in vivo results provide a novel perspective for the function of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in a mouse model of PD.
LRP5; LRP6; β-catenin; MPTP; dopaminergic neuron; Parkinson’s disease
Lotus is a diploid plant with agricultural, medicinal, and ecological significance. Genetic linkage maps are fundamental resources for genome and genetic study, and also provide molecular markers for breeding in agriculturally important species. Genotyping by sequencing revolutionized genetic mapping, the restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) allowed rapid discovery of thousands of SNPs markers, and a crucial aspect of the sequence based mapping strategy is the reference sequences used for marker identification.
We assessed the effectiveness of linkage mapping using three types of references for scoring markers: the unmasked genome, repeat masked genome, and gene models. Overall, the repeat masked genome produced the optimal genetic maps. A high-density genetic map of American lotus was constructed using an F1 population derived from a cross between Nelumbo nucifera ‘China Antique’ and N. lutea ‘AL1’. A total of 4,098 RADseq markers were used to construct the American lotus ‘AL1’ genetic map, and 147 markers were used to construct the Chinese lotus ‘China Antique’ genetic map. The American lotus map has 9 linkage groups, and spans 494.3 cM, with an average distance of 0.7 cM between adjacent markers. The American lotus map was used to anchor scaffold sequences in the N. nucifera ‘China Antique’ draft genome. 3,603 RADseq markers anchored 234 individual scaffold sequences into 9 megascaffolds spanning 67% of the 804 Mb draft genome.
Among the unmasked genome, repeat masked genome and gene models, the optimal reference sequences to call RADseq markers for map construction is repeat masked genome. This high density genetic map is a valuable resource for genomic research and crop improvement in lotus.
Chinese lotus; Genome assembly; Genotyping by sequencing; Restriction associated sequencing; Megascaffold
To determine the impact of supplemental zinc, vitamin A, and glutamine alone or in combination on growth, intestinal barrier function, stress and satiety-related hormones among Brazilian shantytown children with low median height-for-age z-scores.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in children aged two months to nine years from the urban shanty compound community of Fortaleza, Brazil. Demographic and anthropometric information was assessed. The random treatment groups available for testing (a total of 120 children) were as follows: (1) glutamine alone, n = 38; (2) glutamine plus vitamin A plus zinc, n = 37; and a placebo (zinc plus vitamin A vehicle) plus glycine (isonitrogenous to glutamine) control treatment, n = 38. Leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and plasma levels of cortisol were measured with immune-enzymatic assays; urinary lactulose/mannitol and serum amino acids were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00133406.
Glutamine treatment significantly improved weight-for-height z-scores compared to the placebo-glycine control treatment. Either glutamine alone or all nutrients combined prevented disruption of the intestinal barrier function, as measured by the percentage of lactulose urinary excretion and the lactulose:mannitol absorption ratio. Plasma leptin was negatively correlated with plasma glutamine (p = 0.002) and arginine (p = 0.001) levels at baseline. After glutamine treatment, leptin was correlated with weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) (p≤0.002) at a 4-month follow-up. In addition, glutamine and all combined nutrients (glutamine, vitamin A, and zinc) improved the intestinal barrier function in these children.
Taken together, these findings reveal the benefits of glutamine alone or in combination with other gut-trophic nutrients in growing children via interactions with leptin.
Micronutrients; Stress; Growth and Development; Intestinal Barrier Function; Hormonal Biomarkers
We previously showed that microRNA 181 (miR-181) can inhibit PRRSV replication by directly targeting its genomic RNA. Here, we report that miR-181 can downregulate the PRRSV receptor CD163 in blood monocytes and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) through targeting the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of CD163 mRNA. Downregulation of CD163 leads to the inhibition of PRRSV entry into PAMs and subsequently suppresses PRRSV infection. Our findings indicate that delivery of miR-181 can be used as antiviral therapy against PRRSV infection.
Angiogenesis is a hallmark of many conditions, including cancer, stroke, vascular disease, diabetes, and high-altitude exposure. We have previously shown that one can study angiogenesis in animal models by using total hemoglobin (tHb) as a marker of cerebral blood volume (CBV), measured using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (bNIRS). However, the method was not suitable for patients as global anoxia was used for the calibration. Here we determine if angiogenesis could be detected using a calibration method that could be applied to patients. CBV, as a marker of angiogenesis, is quantified in a rat cortex before and after hypoxia acclimation. Rats are acclimated at 370-mmHg pressure for three weeks, while rats in the control group are housed under the same conditions, but under normal pressure. CBV increased in each animal in the acclimation group. The mean CBV (%volume/volume) is 3.49%±0.43% (mean±SD) before acclimation for the experimental group, and 4.76%±0.29% after acclimation. The CBV for the control group is 3.28%±0.75%, and 3.09%±0.48% for the two measurements. This demonstrates that angiogenesis can be monitored noninvasively over time using a bNIRS system with a calibration method that is compatible with human use and less stressful for studies using animals.
near-infrared spectroscopy; near infrared; hemoglobin; acclimation; cerebral blood volume; angiogenesis; hypoxia; brain
The neuropeptide oxytocin enhances in-group favoritism and ethnocentrism in males. However, whether such effects also occur in women and extend to national symbols and companies/consumer products is unclear. In a between-subject, double-blind placebo controlled experiment we have investigated the effect of intranasal oxytocin on likeability and arousal ratings given by 51 adult Chinese males and females for pictures depicting people or national symbols/consumer products from both strong and weak in-groups (China and Taiwan) and corresponding out-groups (Japan and South Korea). To assess duration of treatment effects subjects were also re-tested after 1 week. Results showed that although oxytocin selectively increased the bias for overall liking for Chinese social stimuli and the national flag, it had no effect on the similar bias toward other Chinese cultural symbols, companies, and consumer products. This enhanced bias was maintained 1 week after treatment. No overall oxytocin effects were found for Taiwanese, Japanese, or South Korean pictures. Our findings show for the first time that oxytocin increases liking for a nation's society and flag in both men and women, but not that for other cultural symbols or companies/consumer products.
ethnocentrism; in-group; oxytocin; national flag; social
Dysfunction of central serotonin (5-HT) system has been proposed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for anxiety and depression, and the association of diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders has been noticed by the high prevalence of anxiety/depression in patients with diabetes mellitus. This promoted us to examine these behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice and those also suffering with diabetes mellitus. Mice lacking either 5-HT or central serotonergic neurons were generated by conditional deletion of Tph2 or Lmx1b respectively. Simultaneous depletion of both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) in Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DT receptor (DTR) mice. The central 5-HT-deficient mice showed reduced anxiety-like behaviors as they spent more time in and entered more often into the light box in the light/dark box test compared with controls; similar results were observed in the elevated plus maze test. However, they displayed no differences in the immobility time of the forced swimming and tail suspension tests suggesting normal depression-like behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice. As expected, DT-treated Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DTR mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet endocrine cells exhibited several classic diabetic symptoms. Interestingly, they displayed increased anxiety-like behaviors but reduced immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Furthermore, the hippocampal neurogenesis was dramatically enhanced in these mice. These results suggest that the deficiency of central 5-HT may not be sufficient to induce anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice, and the enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to the altered depression-like behaviors in the 5-HT-deficient mice with diabetes. Our current investigation provides understanding the relationship between diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders.
diabetes mellitus; anxiety; depression; serotonin; Pet1; adult neurogenesis
The high incidence of recurrence and the poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) necessitate the discovery of new predictive markers of HCC invasion and prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the expression pattern of two members of a novel oncogene family, Musashi1 (MSI1) and Musashi2 (MSI2) in 40 normal hepatic tissue specimens, 149 HCC specimens and their adjacent non-tumourous tissues. We observed that MSI1 and MSI2 were significantly up-regulated in HCC tissues. High expression levels of MSI1 and MSI2 were detectable in 37.6% (56/149) and 49.0% (73/149) of the HCC specimens, respectively, but were rarely detected in adjacent non-tumourous tissues and were never detected in normal hepatic tissue specimens. Nevertheless, only high expression of MSI2 correlated with poor prognosis. In addition, MSI2 up-regulation correlated with clinicopathological parameters representative of highly invasive HCC. Further study indicated that MSI2 might enhance invasion of HCC by inducing epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Knockdown of MSI2 significantly decreased the invasion of HCC cells and changed the expression pattern of EMT markers. Moreover, immunohistochemistry assays of 149 HCC tissue specimens further confirmed this correlation. Taken together, the results of our study demonstrated that MSI2 correlates with EMT and has the potential to be a new predictive biomarker of HCC prognosis and invasion to help guide diagnosis and treatment of post-operative HCC patients.
hepatocellular carcinoma; musashi (MSI); invasion; prognosis; biomarker
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) induces stem cells to mobilize to the injury site, which have beneficial effect on tissue repair. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of G-CSF on the thin endometrium in rat models. In the present study, rats with thin endometrium were divided into 4 groups (experimental group I: administrated with G-CSF (40 µg/kg/d) 4–6 hours post-modeling; control group I: administrated with saline 4–6 hours post-modeling; experimental group II: administrated with G-CSF (40 µg/kg/d) 12 days post-modeling; control group II: administrated with saline 12 days post-modeling. The agentia was given once daily and last for 5 days. Endometrial morphology was analyzed by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, and the regeneration of endometrial cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western-blot with cytokeratin and vimentin. We found that endometrial thickness and morphology presented a significant difference between experimental groups and control groups. No matter when we start with G-CSF, there was a significantly thicker endometrium and stronger expression of cytokeratin/vimintin in the experimental groups compared with the control groups (P<0.01). There were significant thicker endometrial lining and stronger expression of cytokeratin/vimintin in experimental group I than that of experimental group II (P<0.05), but there was no difference in the endometrial lining and the expression of cytokeratin/vimintin between the two control groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, G-CSF can promote the regeneration of endometrial cells in animal research, especially when the G-CSF was administrated earlier.
Sensory input is generally thought to be necessary for refining and consolidating neuronal connections during brain development. We here report that cortical callosal axons in somatosensory cortex require sensory input for their target selection in contralateral cortex.
Eliminating sensory input to either hemisphere by unilateral transection of infraorbital nerve (ION) prevents target selection of callosal axons in contralateral cortex. Strikingly, blocking sensory input bilaterally, by simultaneously transecting both IONs, results in rescued callosal projection. In contrast, non-simultaneous bilateral ION transection has the same effect as unilateral transection. Similar results are obtained by lesion of whisker hair follicles. c-Fos-positive neurons in brain slices treated with KCl is decreased more in contralateral cortex with unilateral removal of sensory input, but decreased similarly in both cortices in mice with simultaneous bilateral removal of sensory input. Frequency of sEPSC of cortical neurons is also reduced in contralateral cortex with the unilateral removal of sensory input, but equally reduced on both sides with the bilateral removal of sensory input, suggesting that unbalanced bilateral sensory input might lead to mismatched neuronal activity between the two cortices and contribute to the formation of callosal projection.
Our data demonstrate a critical role of balanced bilateral somatosensory input in the formation of callosal connections, and thus reveal a new role of sensory input in wiring brain circuits.
Callosal projection; Sensory input; Axon pathfinding; Somatosensory cortex
Accumulating evidence implicates the relationship between neuroinflammation and pathogenesis in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD). The nose has recently been considered a gate way to the brain which facilitates entry of environmental neurotoxin into the brain. Our study aims to build a PD model by a natural exposure route. In this report, we establish a new endotoxin-based PD model in mice by unilateral intranasal (i.n.) instillation of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) every other day for 5 months. These mice display a progressive hypokinesia, selective loss of dopaminergic neurons, and reduction in striatal dopamine (DA) content, as well as α-synuclein aggregation in the SN, without systemic inflammatory and immune responses. This new PD model provides a tool for studying the inflammation-mediated chronic pathogenesis and searching for therapeutic intervention in glia-neuron pathway that will slow or halt neurodegeneration in PD.
The high incidence of morbidity and mortality following major burn can in part be attributed to immune derangements and wound healing complications. Inflammation plays an important role in wound healing, of which inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) derived nitric oxide is a central mediator. T-cells of the γδ TCR lineage have also been shown to be important in healing of the burn wound site. Nonetheless, the role of γδ T-cells in the regulation of the burn wound iNOS expression is unknown.
Wildtype (WT) and δ TCR−/− male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to burn (3rd degree, 12.5% TBSA) or sham treatment. Three days after injury, skin samples from non-injured and the burn wound were collected and analyzed for the expression of iNOS and cytokines and chemokine levels. In a second series of experiments, WT mice were subjected to burn and left untreated or treated with the iNOS inhibitor, L-Nil. Skin cytokine and chemokine levels were assessed 3 days thereafter.
Burn induced an 18-fold increase in iNOS expression at the wound site as compared to the uninjured skin of WT sham mice. In δ TCR−/− mice iNOS expression at the wound site was significantly lower than that of the WT group. Burn also induced increased levels of IL-1β, IL-6, G-CSF, TNF-α, KC, MCP-1, MIP-1α and MIP-1β at the wound site in WT and δ TCR−/− mice, but G-CSF, TNF-α, and MIP-1β levels were greater in δ TCR−/− mice. Inhibition of iNOS activity in WT mice with L-Nil suppressed burn wound levels of IL-1β, G-CSF, and MIP-1α, whereas IL-6, TNF-α, KC, MCP-1 and MIP-1β were unaffected.
T-cells of the γδ TCR lineage significantly contribute to the up-regulation of iNOS expression which contributes to wound inflammation.
iNOS; chemokines; cytokines; inflammation; trauma; wound healing
Tetraspanin CD9 has been implicated in various cellular and physiological processes, including cell migration. In our previous study, we found that wound repair is delayed in CD9-null mice, suggesting that CD9 is critical for cutaneous wound healing. However, many cell types, including immune cells, endothelial cells, keratinocytes and fibroblasts undergo marked changes in gene expression and phenotype, leading to cell proliferation, migration and differentiation during wound repair, whether CD9 regulates kerationcytes migration directly remains unclear. In this study, we showed that the expression of CD9 was downregulated in migrating keratinocytes during wound repair in vivo and in vitro. Recombinant adenovirus vector for CD9 silencing or overexpressing was constructed and used to infect HaCaT cells. Using cell scratch wound assay and cell migration assay, we have also demonstrated that downregulation of CD9 promoted keratinocyte migration in vitro, whereas CD9 overexpression inhibited cell migration. Moreover, CD9 inversely regulated the activity and expression of MMP-9 in keratinocytes, which was involved in CD9-regulated keratinocyte migration. Importantly, CD9 silencing-activated JNK signaling was accompanied by the upregulation of MMP-9 activity and expression. Coincidentally, we found that SP600125, a JNK pathway inhibitor, decreased the activity and expression of MMP-9 of CD9-silenced HaCaT cells. Thus, our results suggest that CD9 is downregulated in migrating keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro, and a low level of CD9 promotes keratinocyte migration in vitro, in which the regulation of MMP-9 through the JNK pathway plays an important role.
Systemic administration of chemotherapy for cancer often has toxic side effects, limiting the doses that can be used in its treatment. In this study, we developed methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles loaded with curcumin and doxorubicin (Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL) that were tolerated by recipient mice and had enhanced antitumor effects and fewer side effects. It was shown that these Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles could release curcumin and doxorubicin slowly in vitro. The long circulation time of MPEG-PCL micelles and the slow rate of release of curcumin and doxorubicin in vivo may help to maintain plasma concentrations of active drug. We also demonstrated that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL had improved antitumor effects both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism by which Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles inhibit lung cancer might involve increased apoptosis of tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. We found advantages using Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles in the treatment of cancer, with Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL achieving better inhibition of LL/2 lung cancer growth in vivo and in vitro. Our study indicates that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles may be an effective treatment strategy for cancer in the future.
methoxy poly(ethylene glycol); poly(caprolactone); curcumin; doxorubicin; micelles; cancer; treatment
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a major form of primary liver cancer in adults. MicroRNAs (miRs), small non-coding single-stranded RNAs of 19-24 nucleotides in length, negatively regulate the expression of many target genes at the post-transcriptional and/or translational levels and play a critical role in the initiation and progression of HCC. In this review we have summarized the information of aberrantly expressed miRs in HCC, their mechanism of action and relationship to cancer. The recent advances in HCC research reveal that miRs regulate expression of various oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, thereby contributing to the modulation of diverse biological processes including proliferation, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and metastasis. From a clinical viewpoint, polymorphisms within miR-binding sites are associated with the risk of HCC. Polymorphisms in miR related genes have been shown to correlate with survival or treatment outcome in patients. Furthermore, the review focuses on the potential role of miRs as novel biomarkers and their translational applications for diagnosis and therapy in HCC. With further insights into miR deregulation in HCC, it is expected that novel miR-based therapeutics will arise. Also, we orient the readers to other reviews that may provide better understanding of miR research in HCC.
MicroRNA; Cancer; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Biomarker; Polymorphism
Cancer metastasis is a highly coordinated and dynamic multistep process in which cancer cells interact with a variety of host cells. Morphological studies have documented the association of circulating tumor cells with host platelets, where a surface coating of platelets protects tumor cells from mechanical trauma and the immune system. Cantharidin is an active constituent of mylabris, a traditional Chinese medicine. Cantharidin and norcantharidin are potent protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitors that exhibit in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity against several types of cancer, including breast cancer. We investigated whether cantharidin and norcantharidin could repress the ability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to adhere to platelets. Using MTT, clone formation, apoptosis, adhesion and wound-healing assays, we found that cantharidin and norcantharidin induced apoptosis and repressed MCF-7 cell growth, adhesion and migration. Moreover, we developed a flow cytometry-based analysis of tumor cell adhesion to platelets. We proved that cantharidin and norcantharidin repressed MCF-7 cell adhesion to platelets through downregulation of α2 integrin, an adhesion molecule present on the surface of cancer cells. The repression of α2 integrin expression was found to be executed through the protein kinase C pathway, the activation of which could have been due to PP2A inhibition.
cantharidin and norcantharidin; breast cancer; platelet; integrin α2; protein kinase C; protein phosphatase 2A
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the swine industry. Emerging evidence indicates that the host microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in host-pathogen interactions. However, whether host miRNAs can target PRRSV and be used to inhibit PRRSV infection has not been reported. Recently, microRNA 181 (miR-181) has been identified as a positive regulator of immune response, and here we report that miR-181 can directly impair PRRSV infection. Our results showed that delivered miR-181 mimics can strongly inhibit PRRSV replication in vitro through specifically binding to a highly (over 96%) conserved region in the downstream of open reading frame 4 (ORF4) of the viral genomic RNA. The inhibition of PRRSV replication was specific and dose dependent. In PRRSV-infected Marc-145 cells, the viral mRNAs could compete with miR-181-targeted sequence in luciferase vector to interact with miR-181 and result in less inhibition of luciferase activity, further demonstrating the specific interactions between miR-181 and PRRSV RNAs. As expected, miR-181 and other potential PRRSV-targeting miRNAs (such as miR-206) are expressed much more abundantly in minimally permissive cells or tissues than in highly permissive cells or tissues. Importantly, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain-infected pigs treated with miR-181 mimics showed substantially decreased viral loads in blood and relief from PRRSV-induced fever compared to negative-control (NC)-treated controls. These results indicate the important role of host miRNAs in modulating PRRSV infection and viral pathogenesis and also support the idea that host miRNAs could be useful for RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated antiviral therapeutic strategies.