Hybrid materials made from all inorganic components are intriguing in many fields, because they have shown in-depth potential use for electronic and optoelectronic applications including solar cells, gas sensors, photodetectors, and field effect transistors. Hybrid materials made from SnO2 nanoparticles on SnSe nanosheets have been synthesized via a facile, lost-cost and safe solution method, and have been demonstrated as promising multifunctional materials in various prototype devices, including gas sensors, photodetectors, and field effect transistors.
Dengue virus (DENV) infection is the most important arthropod- borne viral disease in human, but antiviral therapy and approved vaccines remain unavailable due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) phenomenon. Many studies showed that pre-membrane (prM)-specific antibodies do not efficiently neutralize DENV infection but potently promote ADE infection. However, most of the binding epitopes of these antibodies remain unknown.
In the present study, we characterized a DENV cross-reactive monoclonal antibody (mAb), 4D10, that neutralized poorly but potently enhanced infection of four standard DENV serotypes and immature DENV (imDENV) over a broad range of concentration. In addition, the epitope of 4D10 was successfully mapped to amino acid residues 14 to18 of DENV1-4 prM protein using a phage-displayed peptide library and comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. We found that the epitope was DENV serocomplex cross-reactive and showed to be highly immunogenic in Balb/c mice. Furthermore, antibody against epitope peptide PL10, like 4D10, showed broad cross-reactivity and weak neutralizing activtity with four standard DENV serotypes and imDENV but significantly promoted ADE infection. These results suggested 4D10 and anti-PL10 sera were infection-enhancing antibodies and PL10 was infection-enhancing epitope.
We mapped the epitope of 4D10 to amino acid residues 14 to18 of DENV1-4 prM and found that this epitope was infection-enhancing. These findings may provide significant implications for future vaccine design and facilitate understanding the pathogenesis of DENV infection.
Dengue virus; prM protein; Epitope; Phage display peptide library; Antibody-dependent enhancement
Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Olfaction plays a vital role in guiding mosquito behaviors and contributes to their ability to transmit pathogens. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are abundant in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception. While comprehensive descriptions are available of OBPs from Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae, only a few genes from Ae. albopictus have been reported. In this study, twenty-one putative AalbOBP genes were cloned using their homologues in Ae. aegypti to query an Ae. albopictus partial genome sequence. Two antenna-specific OBPs, AalbOBP37 and AalbOBP39, display a remarkable similarity in their overall folding and binding pockets, according to molecular modeling. Binding affinity assays indicated that AalbOBP37 and AalbOBP39 had overlapping ligand affinities and are affected in different pH condition. Electroantennagrams (EAG) and behavioral tests show that these two genes were involved in olfactory reception. An improved understanding of the Ae. albopictus OBPs is expected to contribute to the development of more efficient and environmentally-friendly mosquito control strategies.
Rehmannia glutinosa, a traditional Chinese medicine herb, is unable to grow normally in a soil where the same species has recently been cultivated. The biological basis of this so called “replanting disease” is unknown, but it may involve the action of microRNAs (miRNAs), which are known to be important regulators of plant growth and development. High throughput Solexa/Illumina sequencing was used to generate a transcript library of the R. glutinosa transcriptome and degradome in order to identify possible miRNAs and their targets implicated in the replanting disease. A total of 87,665 unigenes and 589 miRNA families (17 of which have not been identified in plants to date) was identified from the libraries made from a first year (FP) and a second year (SP) crop. A comparison between the FP and SP miRNAs showed that the abundance of eight of the novel and 295 of the known miRNA families differed between the FP and SP plants. Sequencing of the degradome sampled from FP and SP plants led to the identification of 165 transcript targets of 85 of the differentially abundant miRNA families. The interaction of some of these miRNAs with their target(s) is likely to form an important part of the molecular basis of the replanting disease of R. glutinosa.
Tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) are central elements in the immune control of cancers. To systematically explore the TSA genome, we developed a computational technology called Heterogeneous Expression Profile Analysis (HEPA), which can identify genes relatively uniquely expressed in cancer cells in contrast to normal somatic tissues. Rating human genes by their HEPA score enriched for clinically useful TSA genes, nominating candidate targets whose tumor-specific expression was verified by RT-PCR. Coupled with HEPA, we designed a novel assay termed Protein A/G based Reverse Serological Evaluation (PARSE) for quick detection of serum autoantibodies against an array of putative TSA genes. Remarkably, highly tumor-specific autoantibody responses against seven candidate targets were detected in 4–11% of patients, resulting in distinctive autoantibody signatures in lung and stomach cancers. Interrogation of a larger cohort of 149 patients and 123 healthy individuals validated the predictive value of the autoantibody signature for lung cancer. Together, our results establish an integrated technology to uncover a cancer-specific antigen genome offering a reservoir of novel immunological and clinical targets.
Tumor specific antigen; TSA; Gene expression profiling; New algorithims; Immunodiagnosis; Autoantibody signatures
Corky split vein caused by boron (B) deficiency in ‘Newhall’ Navel Orange was studied in the present research. The boron-deficient citrus exhibited a symptom of corky split vein in mature leaves. Morphologic and anatomical surveys at four representative phases of corky split veins showed that the symptom was the result of vascular hypertrophy. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed based on the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform, which was applied to analyze the gene expression profilings of corky split veins at four morphologic phases. Over 5.3 million clean reads per library were successfully mapped to the reference database and more than 22897 mapped genes per library were simultaneously obtained. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the expressions of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, cell division, vascular development, lignin biosynthesis and photosynthesis in corky split veins were all affected. The expressions of WOL and ARR12 involved in the cytokinin signal transduction pathway were up-regulated at 1st phase of corky split vein development. Furthermore, the expressions of some cell cycle genes, CYCs and CDKB, and vascular development genes, WOX4 and VND7, were up-regulated at the following 2nd and 3rd phases. These findings indicated that the cytokinin signal transduction pathway may play a role in initiating symptom observed in our study.
Non-parasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication are rare. The clinical symptoms involved are not specific to this condition, thereby making diagnosis difficult and treatment controversial. Here, we report a case of 70-year-old woman complaining of abdominal satiety, combined with non-specific pain in the right upper quadrant. The abdominal contrast-enhanced MRI-scan revealed a large and thick-walled septus cystic lesion in the liver. During operation, the biliary fistula was confirmed in the cyst cavity. A silica gel tube was inserted via the cystic duct for cholangiography, which demonstrated communication between the cyst and biliary tract. We performed wide-scale cyst wall resection; the biliary fistula was completely repaired by the closure of communicated bile ducts. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged with no sign of cholangitis or any other symptoms. The novel surgical management via wide resection of the cyst wall and closure of biliary communication proved to be an adequate and effective procedure for treating nonparasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication.
Hepatic cyst; biliary communication; surgical management
O-Linked β-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase (OGT) plays an important role in the glycosylation of proteins, which is involved in various cellular events. In human, three isoforms of OGT (short OGT [sOGT]; mitochondrial OGT [mOGT]; and nucleocytoplasmic OGT [ncOGT]) share the same catalytic domain, implying that they might adopt a similar catalytic mechanism, including sugar donor recognition. In this work, the sugar-nucleotide tolerance of sOGT was investigated. Among a series of uridine 5′-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) analogs tested using the casein kinase II (CKII) peptide as the sugar acceptor, four compounds could be used by sOGT, including UDP-6-deoxy-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcNPr, UDP-6-deoxy-GalNAc and UDP-4-deoxy-GlcNAc. Determined values of Km showed that the substitution of the N-acyl group, deoxy modification of C6/C4-OH or epimerization of C4-OH of the GlcNAc in UDP-GlcNAc decreased its affinity to sOGT. A molecular docking study combined with site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the backbone carbonyl oxygen of Leu653 and the hydroxyl group of Thr560 in sOGT contributed to the recognition of the sugar moiety via hydrogen bonds. The close vicinity between Met501 and the N-acyl group of GlcNPr, as well as the hydrophobic environment near Met501, were responsible for the selective binding of UDP-GlcNPr. These findings illustrate the interaction of OGT and sugar nucleotide donor, providing insights into the OGT catalytic mechanism.
Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2×2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (P<0.05) total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05) the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05) expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity.
The natural flavone acacetin has been demonstrated to inhibit transient outward potassium current (Ito) in human atrial myocytes. However, the molecular determinants of acacetin for blocking Ito are unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the properties and molecular determinants of this compound for blocking hKv4.3 channels (coding Ito) stably expressed in HEK 293 cells using the approaches of whole-cell patch voltage-clamp technique and mutagenesis. It was found that acacetin inhibited hKv4.3 current by binding to both the closed and open channels, and decreased the recovery from inactivation. The blockade of hKv4.3 channels by acacetin was use- and frequency-dependent, and IC50s of acacetin for inhibiting hKv4.3 were 7.9, 6.1, 3.9, and 3.2 µM, respectively, at 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 3.3 Hz. The mutagenesis study revealed that the hKv4.3 mutants T366A and T367A in the P-loop helix, and V392A, I395A and V399A in the S6-segment had a reduced channel blocking efficacy of acacetin (IC50, 44.5 µM for T366A, 25.8 µM for T367A, 17.6 µM for V392A, 16.2 µM for I395A, and 19.1 µM for V399A). These results demonstrate the novel information that acacetin may inhibit the closed channels and block the open state of the channels by binding to their P-loop filter helix and S6 domain. The use- and rate-dependent blocking of hKv4.3 by acacetin is likely beneficial for managing atrial fibrillation.
The Southeast Asian deletion (--SEA) is the most commonly observed mutation among diverse α-thalassemia alleles in Southeast Asia and South China. It is generally argued that mutation --SEA, like other variants causing hemoglobin disorders, is associated with protection against malaria that is endemic in these regions. However, little evidence has been provided to support this claim.
We first examined the genetic imprint of recent positive selection on the --SEA allele and flanking sequences in the human α-globin cluster, covering a genomic region spanning ~410 kb, by genotyping 28 SNPs in a Chinese population consisting of 76 --SEA heterozygotes and 138 normal individuals. The pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the long-range haplotype test revealed a signature of positive selection. The network of inferred haplotypes suggested a single origin of the --SEA allele.
Thus, our data support the hypothesis that the --SEA allele has been subjected to recent balancing selection, triggered by malaria.
AIM: To evaluate the effect of thienorphine on small intestinal transit in vivo and on guinea-pig ileum (GPI) contraction in vitro.
METHODS: The effects of thienorphine on intestinal transit were examined in mice and in isolated GPI. Buprenorphine and morphine served as controls. The distance traveled by the head of the charchol and the total length of the intestine were measured in vivo. Gastrointestinal transit was expressed as a percentage of the distance traveled by the head of the marker relative to the total length of the small intestine. The isolated GPI preparations were connected to an isotonic force transducer and equilibrated for at least 1 h before exposure to drugs. Acetylcholine was used for muscle stimulation.
RESULTS: Thienorphine (0.005-1.0 mg/kg, ig) or buprenorphine (0.005-1.0 mg/kg, sc) dose-dependently significantly inhibited gut transit compared with saline. Thienorphine inhibited gut transit less than buprenorphine. The maximum inhibition by thienorphine on the intestinal transit was 50%-60%, whereas the maximum inhibition by morphine on gut transit was about 100%. Thienorphine also exhibited less inhibition on acetylcholine-induced contraction of GPI, with a maximum inhibition of 65%, compared with 93% inhibition by buprenorphine and 100% inhibition by morphine. Thienorphine induced a concentration-dependent decrease in the basal tonus of spontaneous movement of the GPI, the effect of which was weaker than that with buprenorphine. The duration of the effect of thienorphine on the GPI was longer than that with buprenorphine.
CONCLUSION: Thienorphine had less influence, but a longer duration of action on GPI contraction and moderately inhibited intestinal transit.
Thienorphine; Buprenorphine; Guinea-pig ileum; Gut transit; Contraction
The radix of Angelica sinensis is widely used as a medicinal herbal and metabolomics research of this plant during growth is necessary.
Principal component analysis of the UPLC-QTOFMS data showed that these 27 samples could be separated into 4 different groups. The chemical markers accounting for these separations were identified from the PCA loadings plot. These markers were further verified by accurate mass tandem mass and retention times of available reference standards. The study has shown that accumulation of secondary metabolites of Angelica sinensis is closely related to the growth periods.
The UPLC-QTOFMS based metabolomics approach has great potential for analysis of the alterations of secondary metabolites of Angelica sinensis during growth.
Angelica sinensis; UPLC-QTOFMS; Metabolomics; Principal component analysis (PCA); Chemometrics
Leucine-rich repeat flightless-I-interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2) is a myeloid differentiation factor 88-interacting protein with a positive regulatory function in toll-like receptor signaling. In this study, seven LRRFIP2 protein variants (LvLRRFIP2A-G) were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. All the seven LvLRRFIP2 protein variants encode proteins with a DUF2051 domain. LvLRRFIP2s were upregulated in hemocytes after challenged with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Dual-luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells revealed that LvLRRFIP2 activates the promoters of Drosophila and shrimp AMP genes. The knockdown of LvLRRFIP2 by RNA interference resulted in higher cumulative mortality of L. vannamei upon V. parahaemolyticus but not S. aureus and WSSV infections. The expression of L. vannamei AMP genes were reduced by dsLvLRRFIP2 interference. These results indicate that LvLRRFIP2 has an important function in antibacterials via the regulation of AMP gene expression.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are derived from the metabolism of oxygen and are traditionally viewed as toxic byproducts that cause damage to biomolecules. It is now becoming widely acknowledged that ROS are key modulators in a variety of biological processes and pathological states. ROS mediate key signaling transduction pathways by reversible oxidation of certain signaling components and are involved in the signaling of growth factors, G-protein-coupled receptors, Notch, and Wnt and its downstream cascades including MAPK, JAK-STAT, NF-κB, and PI3K/AKT. Vascular formation and development is one of the most important events during embryogenesis and is vital for postnasal tissue repair. In this paper, we will discuss how ROS regulate different steps in vascular development, including smooth muscle cell differentiation, angiogenesis, endothelial progenitor cells recruitment, and vascular cell migration.
We present two cases of glioma (WHO grade III) in pregnant females presenting in the third trimester. Gliomas during pregnancy are rare. At present, the association between gliomas and pregnancy is poorly understood and little has been reported with regard to the management of patients with gliomas in pregnancy. Management of these cases presents a medical dilemma. Gliomas during pregnancy pose a risk to maternal and fetal life. The benefit-to-risk ratio should be carefully evaluated and discussed prior to surgery. In the present cases, caesarean section (CS) followed by craniotomy was performed under the same general anesthesia at 34 weeks’ gestation. The mothers received radiotherapy and chemotherapy following surgery. They have been followed up to the present date and remain in good health. These two cases indicate that early CS followed by craniotomy is an effective choice in pregnant patients with gliomas at ≥34 weeks’ gestation. In the present study, we describe these two cases and review the literature with regard to gliomas during pregnancy.
brain tumors; pregnancy; treatment; outcome research
Objective: This study aimed to explore clinical and virological characteristics of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with hepatic steatosis in order to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of hepatic steatosis.
Methods: A total of 360 CHB inpatients were recruited from Affiliated Dongnan Hospital of Xiamen University and divided into hepatic steatosis group and non- hepatic steatosis group. The body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA) and hepatic histological changes were detected and compared between the two groups. The association of these factors with hepatic steatosis was evaluated in CHB patients.
Results: BMI, FPG, TG, TC, GGT, AST and HBV DNA showed statistically significant differences between two groups (P<0.01). The patients with hepatic steatosis had markedly higher BMI, FBG, TG and TC than those without steatosis did. No significant differences were found in ALT and HBeAg between two groups (P>0.05). In male patients, there was marked difference in the WHR between two groups (P < 0.01), which was not found in female patients (P > 0.05). The severity of hepatic steatosis increased in patients with hepatic steatosis, compared to those without steatosis (P < 0. 01), but the severities of inflammation and fibrosis in the non-hepatic steatosis group were dramatically higher than those in the hepatic steatosis group (P < 0. 01).
Conclusions: BMI, WHR, FBG, TG and TC appeared to be influencing factors of CHB combined with hepatic steatosis. Hepatic steatosis in CHB patients was closely related to changes in anthropometric indices and metabolic factors but not HBV. It is necessary to improve these factors to effectively prevent hepatic steatosis in CHB patients.
Chronic hepatitis B; Hepatic steatosis; anthropometric index; Metabolic factor.
Our aim in the present study was to investigate the potential roles of the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in the regulation of apoptosis during cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (CAP). A rat CAP model was induced by injection of cerulein (50 μg/kg), and the severity of CAP was estimated by measuring serum amylase and lipase, pancreatic edema and histological changes. Pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis was determined by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the expression of GRP78, XIAP and the apoptotic genes caspase-3, -7 and -9 were determined by real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting. After induction with cerulein, increased serum amylase and lipase, pancreatic edema, inflammation and apoptosis were observed in CAP rats. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of GRP78 and XIAP were significantly downregulated in CAP rats, while the mRNA levels of caspase-3, -7 and -9, as well as the cell apoptotic index were markedly increased when compared with control rats (P<0.05). The expression of GRP78 and XIAP was negatively correlated with caspase expression in CAP (P<0.05). This study suggests that the downregulation of GRP78 and XIAP were correlated with apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cells, and that this may occur through the regulation of caspase activation during CAP.
acute pancreatitis; 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein; X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein; apoptosis; caspase
Allitridi (diallyl trisulfide) is an active compound (volatile oil) from garlic. The previous studies reported that allitridi had anti-arrhythmic effect. The potential ionic mechanisms are, however, not understood. The present study was designed to determine the effects of allitridi on cardiac potassium channels expressed in HEK 293 cells using a whole-cell patch voltage-clamp technique and mutagenesis. It was found that allitridi inhibited hKv4.3 channels (IC50 = 11.4 µM) by binding to the open channel, shifting availability potential to hyperpolarization, and accelerating closed-state inactivation of the channel. The hKv4.3 mutants T366A, T367A, V392A, and I395A showed a reduced response to allitridi with IC50s of 35.5 µM, 44.7 µM, 23.7 µM, and 42.4 µM. In addition, allitridi decreased hKv1.5, hERG, hKCNQ1/hKCNE1 channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells with IC50s of 40.2 µM, 19.6 µM and 17.7 µM. However, it slightly inhibited hKir2.1 current (100 µM, inhibited by 9.8% at −120 mV). Our results demonstrate for the first time that allitridi preferably blocks hKv4.3 current by binding to the open channel at T366 and T367 of P-loop helix, and at V392 and I395 of S6 domain. It has a weak inhibition of hKv1.5, hERG, and hKCNQ1/hKCNE1 currents. These effects may account for its anti-arrhythmic effect observed in experimental animal models.
In the title compound, C9H12N2O, the mean plane through the amide group and the benzene ring form a dihedral angle of 33.93 (7)°. An intramolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond is present. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming double-stranded chains parallel to the b axis.
Accumulating evidence suggest that numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation, as well as various diseases that accompany inflammatory responses. Inflammation is known to be a major contributor to atherogenesis. Previous studies provide promising evidence in support of the role of miRNAs in cardiovascular disease. However, mechanistic data on these small molecules in atherosclerosis (AS) are still missing. The present study aims to investigate the potential role of miRNAs in AS.
Methods and Results
The miRNA transcriptase was verified by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Thoracic aorta samples were obtained from Apolipoprotein E knockout mice, and plasma samples were from coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. The results showed that the miR-155 level was the most significantly elevated both in AS mice and CAD patients relative to the normal control. The functional role of miR-155 in the atherosclerotic path physiological process was also observed in vivo and in vitro. The observations suggested that miR-155 is a part of a negative feedback loop, which down-modulates inflammatory cytokine production and decreases AS progression. miR-155 was also found to mediate the inflammatory response and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 10.
miR-155 contributes to the prevention of AS development and progression. It may also be involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of the inflammatory response and MAPK pathway by targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 10.
The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous PTD and to explore the potential interaction of the single or joint gene polymorphism of CYP1A1 and GSTs with maternal passive smoking on the risk of spontaneous PTD.
We investigated whether the association between maternal passive smoking and PTD can be modified by 2 metabolic genes, i.e. cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), in a case-control study with 198 spontaneous preterm and 524 term deliveries in Shenzhen and Foshan, China. We used logistic regression to test gene-passive smoking interaction, adjusting for maternal socio-demographics and prepregnancy body mass index.
Overall, maternal passive smoking during pregnancy was associated with higher risk of PTD (adjusted odds ratio = 2.20 [95% confidence interval: 1.56–3.12]). This association was modified by CYP1A1 and GSTs together, but not by any single genotype. For cross-categories of CYP1A1 Msp I and GSTs, maternal passive smoking was associated with higher risk of PTD among those women with CYP1A1 “TC/CC”+ GSTs “null”, but not among women with other genotypes; and this interaction was significant (OR = 2.66 [95% CI: 1.19–5.97]; P-value: 0.017). For cross-categories of CYP1A1 BsrD I and GSTs, maternal passive smoking was associated with higher risk of PTD only among those women with CYP1A1“AG/GG”+ GSTs “null”, but not among women with other genotypes; and this interaction was significant (OR = 3.00 [95% CI: 1.17–7.74]; P-value: 0.023).
Our findings suggest that the combined genotypes of CYP1A1 and GSTs can help to identify vulnerable pregnant women who are subject to high risk of spontaneous PTD due to passive smoking.
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a universal and essential signaling protein in Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B. In this study, two MyD88 protein variants (LvMyD88 and LvMyD88-1) were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. The LvMyD88 cDNA is 1,848 bp in length and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,428 bp, whereas the LvMyD88-1 cDNA is 1,719 bp in length and has an ORF of 1,299 bp. Both variants encode proteins with death and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains and share 91% sequence identity. In healthy L. vannamei, the LvMyD88 genes were highly expressed in hemocytes but at a low level in the hepatopancreas. The LvMyD88s expression was induced in hemocytes after challenge with lipopolysaccharide, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphyloccocus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus, but not by poly I∶C. Overexpression of LvMyD88 and LvMyD88-1 in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells led to activation of antimicrobial peptide genes and wsv069 (ie1), wsv303, and wsv371. These results suggested that LvMyD88 may play a role in antibacterial and antiviral response in L. vannamei. To our knowledge, this is the first report on MyD88 in shrimp and a variant of MyD88 gene in invertebrates.
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes liver injury in humans and mice. DNA fragmentation is a hallmark of APAP-induced cell death, and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) correlates with DNA fragmentation after APAP overdose. To test the hypothesis that AIF may be a critical mediator of APAP-induced cell death, fasted male AIF-deficient Harlequin (Hq) mice and respective wild-type (WT) animals were treated with 200 mg/kg APAP. At 6 h after APAP, WT animals developed severe liver injury as indicated by the increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities (8600 ± 1870 U/l) and 61 ± 8% necrosis. This injury was accompanied by massive DNA strand breaks in centrilobular hepatocytes (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL] assay) and release of DNA fragments into the cytosol (anti-histone ELISA). In addition, there was formation of reactive oxygen (increase in liver glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and mitochondrial protein carbonyls) and peroxynitrite (nitrotyrosine [NT] staining) together with mitochondrial translocation of activated c-jun-N-terminal kinase (P-JNK) and release of AIF from the mitochondria. In contrast, Hq mice had significantly less liver injury (ALT: 330 ± 130 U/l; necrosis: 4 ± 2%), minimal nuclear DNA damage, and drastically reduced oxidant stress (based on all parameters) at 6 h. WT and Hq mice had the same baseline levels of cyp2E1 and of glutathione. The initial depletion of glutathione (20 min after APAP) was the same in both groups suggesting that there was no relevant difference in metabolic activation of APAP. Thus, AIF has a critical function in APAP hepatotoxicity by facilitating generation of reactive oxygen in mitochondria and, after nuclear translocation, AIF can be involved in DNA fragmentation.
acetaminophen; drug hepatotoxicity; cell death; DNA fragmentation; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species