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1.  Commercially available antibodies can be applied in quantitative multiplexed peptide immunoaffinity enrichment targeted mass spectrometry assays 
Proteomics  2016;16(15-16):2141-2145.
Immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides coupled to multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (immuno-MRM) enables highly specific, sensitive, and precise quantification of peptides and post-translational modifications. Major obstacles to developing a large number of immuno-MRM assays are the poor availability of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) validated for immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides and the cost and lead time of developing the antibodies de novo. Although many thousands of mAbs are commercially offered, few have been tested for application to immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides. In this study we tested the success rate of using commercially available mAbs for peptide immuno-MRM assays. We selected 105 commercial mAbs (76 targeting non-modified “pan” epitopes, 29 targeting phosphorylation) to proteins associated with the DNA damage response network. We found that 8 of the 76 pan (11%) and 5 of the 29 phospho-specific mAbs (17%) captured tryptic peptides (detected by LC-MS/MS) of their protein targets from human cell lysates. Seven of these mAbs were successfully used to configure and analytically characterize immuno-MRM assays. By applying selection criteria upfront, the results indicate that a screening success rate of up to 24% is possible, establishing the feasibility of screening a large number of catalog antibodies to provide readily-available assay reagents.
doi:10.1002/pmic.201500540
PMCID: PMC5024709  PMID: 27094115
antibody validation; DNA damage response; immuno-MRM; phosphorylation; protein quantification
2.  Antibody-coupled magnetic beads can be re-used in immuno-MRM assays to reduce cost and extend antibody supply 
Journal of proteome research  2015;14(10):4425-4431.
Immuno-affinity enrichment of peptides coupled to targeted, multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (immuno-MRM) enables precise quantification of peptides. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies are routinely used as affinity reagents in immuno-MRM assays, but they are not renewable, limiting the number of experiments that can be performed. In this report, we describe a workflow to regenerate anti-peptide polyclonal antibodies coupled to magnetic beads for enrichments in multiplex immuno-MRM assays. A multiplexed panel of 44 antibodies (targeting 60 peptides) is used to show that peptide analytes can be effectively stripped off of antibodies using acid washing without compromising assay performance. The performance of the multiplexed panel (determined by correlation, agreement, and precision of reused assays) is reproducible (R2 between 0.81–0.99) and consistent (median CVs 8–15%) for at least ten times of washing and re-use. Application of this workflow to immuno-MRM studies greatly reduces per sample assay cost and increases the number of samples that can be interrogated with a limited supply of polyclonal antibody reagent. This allows more characterization for promising and desirable targets prior to committing funds and efforts to conversion to a renewable monoclonal antibody.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00290
PMCID: PMC5017239  PMID: 26302155
targeted proteomics; quantitative proteomics; peptide assays; immunoaffinity enrichment; antibody; mass spectrometry
3.  The Human Salivary Proteome is Radiation Responsive 
Radiation research  2014;181(5):521-530.
In the event of a nuclear incident in a heavily populated area, the surge in demand for medical evaluation will likely overwhelm our emergency care system, compromising our ability to care for victims with life-threatening injuries or exposures. Therefore, there exists a need for a rapidly deployable biological assay for radiation exposure that can be performed in the field by individuals with little to no medical training. Saliva is an attractive biofluid for this purpose, due to the relative ease of its collection and the wide array of biomolecules it contains. To determine whether the human salivary proteome is responsive to ionizing radiation exposure, we characterized the abundances of salivary proteins in humans before and after total body irradiation. Using an assay panel targeting 90 analytes (growth factors, chemokines and cytokines), we identified proteins that were significantly radiation responsive in human saliva. The responses of three proteins (monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1, interleukin 8 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1) were confirmed using independent immunoassay platforms and then verified and further characterized in 130 saliva samples from a completely independent set of 38 patients undergoing total body irradiation. The results demonstrate the potential for detecting radiation exposure based on analysis of human saliva.
doi:10.1667/RR13586.1
PMCID: PMC4110973  PMID: 24720749
4.  Multiplexed quantification of estrogen receptor and HER2/Neu in tissue and cell lysates by peptide immunoaffinity enrichment mass spectrometry 
Proteomics  2012;12(8):1253-1260.
Access to a wider range of quantitative protein assays would significantly impact the number and use of tissue markers in guiding disease treatment. Quantitative mass spectrometry-based peptide and protein assays, such as immuno-SRM assays, have seen tremendous growth in recent years in application to protein quantification in biological fluids such as plasma or urine. Here, we extend the capability of the technique by demonstrating the application of a multiplexed immuno-SRM assay for quantification of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) levels in cell line lysates and human surgical specimens. The performance of the assay was characterized using peptide response curves, with linear ranges covering approximately 4 orders of magnitude and limits of detection in the low fmol/mg lysate range. Reproducibility was acceptable with median coefficients of variation of approximately 10%. We applied the assay to measurements of ER and HER2 in well-characterized cell line lysates with good discernment based on ER/HER2 status. Finally, the proteins were measured in surgically resected breast cancers, and the results showed good correlation with ER/HER2 status determined by clinical assays. This is the first implementation of the peptide-based immuno-SRM assay technology in cell lysates and human surgical specimens.
doi:10.1002/pmic.201100587
PMCID: PMC3418804  PMID: 22577026
Estrogen receptor; HER2/Neu; immunoaffinity; peptides; tissue
5.  Blood-Based Detection of Radiation Exposure in Humans Based on Novel Phospho-Smc1 ELISA 
Radiation Research  2010;175(3):266-281.
The structural maintenance of chromosome 1 (Smc1) protein is a member of the highly conserved cohesin complex and is involved in sister chromatid cohesion. In response to ionizing radiation, Smc1 is phosphorylated at two sites, Ser-957 and Ser-966, and these phosphorylation events are dependent on the ATM protein kinase. In this study, we describe the generation of two novel ELISAs for quantifying phospho-Smc1Ser-957 and phospho-Smc1Ser-966. Using these novel assays, we quantify the kinetic and biodosimetric responses of human cells of hematological origin, including immortalized cells, as well as both quiescent and cycling primary human PBMC. Additionally, we demonstrate a robust in vivo response for phospho-Smc1Ser-957 and phospho-Smc1Ser-966 in lymphocytes of human patients after therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation, including total-body irradiation, partial-body irradiation, and internal exposure to 131I. These assays are useful for quantifying the DNA damage response in experimental systems and potentially for the identification of individuals exposed to radiation after a radiological incident.
doi:10.1667/RR2402.1
PMCID: PMC3123689  PMID: 21388270
6.  A targeted proteomics–based pipeline for verification of biomarkers in plasma 
Nature biotechnology  2011;29(7):625-634.
High-throughput technologies can now identify hundreds of candidate protein biomarkers for any disease with relative ease. However, because there are no assays for the majority of proteins and de novo immunoassay development is prohibitively expensive, few candidate biomarkers are tested in clinical studies. We tested whether the analytical performance of a biomarker identification pipeline based on targeted mass spectrometry would be sufficient for data-dependent prioritization of candidate biomarkers, de novo development of assays and multiplexed biomarker verification. We used a data-dependent triage process to prioritize a subset of putative plasma biomarkers from >1,000 candidates previously identified using a mouse model of breast cancer. Eighty-eight novel quantitative assays based on selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry were developed, multiplexed and evaluated in 80 plasma samples. Thirty-six proteins were verified as being elevated in the plasma of tumor-bearing animals. The analytical performance of this pipeline suggests that it should support the use of an analogous approach with human samples.
doi:10.1038/nbt.1900
PMCID: PMC3232032  PMID: 21685906

Results 1-6 (6)