A history of allergies is associated with a decreased risk of several types of cancers. Potential mechanisms include enhanced immune surveillance against tumor cells early in disease development and/or carcinogenic infectious agents. We tested whether allergies are inversely associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), accounting for factors that may modify the association, such as tumor site, stage, and HPV infection.
We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between allergy history (including different types of allergies) and OSCC, adjusted for potential confounders, among 400 cases and 613 controls. Analyses were also stratified by site, stage, and measures of HPV infection.
We observed a weak inverse association between history of any allergy and OSCC (OR=0.81, 95% CI, 0.61–1.08). This association was present only for allergies to airborne allergens (dust/pollen/mold); OR=0.67; 95% CI, 0.48–0.93. The inverse associations with airborne allergies were slightly stronger for oropharyngeal SCC (OR=0.56; 95% CI, 0.35–0.90) than for oral cavity SCC (OR=0.71; 95% CI, 0.49–1.05), and present only for later stage cancers (OR=0.42; 95% CI, 0.26–0.66) as opposed to earlier stage cancers (OR=0.98; 95% CI, 0.66–1.46). Inverse associations were not particularly present or stronger among HPV-16 seropositive individuals or for HPV DNA positive OSCC.
There is an inverse association between history of allergies to dust, pollen or mold and OSCC. Whether the inverse association involves heightened immune surveillance, increased immune response to HPV or other antigen, or other carcinogenic mechanism, remains to be determined in more definitive studies.
allergies; oral squamous cell carcinoma; HPV; HSV
To examine the impact of cancer on work and education in a sample of adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer.
Patients and Methods
By using the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience Study (AYA HOPE)—a cohort of 463 recently diagnosed patients age 15 to 39 years with germ cell cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, sarcoma, and acute lymphocytic leukemia from participating Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registries—we evaluated factors associated with return to work/school after cancer diagnosis, a belief that cancer had a negative impact on plans for work/school, and reported problems with work/school after diagnosis by using descriptive statistics, χ2 tests, and multivariate logistic regression.
More than 72% (282 of 388) of patients working or in school full-time before diagnosis had returned to full-time work or school 15 to 35 months postdiagnosis compared with 34% (14 of 41) of previously part-time workers/students, 7% (one of 14) of homemakers, and 25% (five of 20) of unemployed/disabled patients (P < .001). Among full-time workers/students before diagnosis, patients who were uninsured (odds ratio [OR], 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.67; no insurance v employer-/school-sponsored insurance) or quit working directly after diagnosis (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.37; quit v no change) were least likely to return. Very intensive cancer treatment and quitting work/school were associated with a belief that cancer negatively influenced plans for work/school. Finally, more than 50% of full-time workers/students reported problems with work/studies after diagnosis.
Although most AYA patients with cancer return to work after cancer, treatment intensity, not having insurance, and quitting work/school directly after diagnosis can influence work/educational outcomes. Future research should investigate underlying causes for these differences and best practices for effective transition of these cancer survivors to the workplace/school after treatment.
Genital infection with the oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer and of a large fraction of vulvar cancers. The toll-like receptor (TLR) and the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways have been implicated in inflammation, autoimmune disease and cancer, but whether common nucleotide variation in these pathways is associated with the risk of cervical and vulvar cancers has received little study. Using data from a population-based case-control study of cervical and vulvar cancers, we genotyped 205 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and around 32 candidate gene regions within these pathways. Gene-based analyses were employed to estimate the associations between individual gene regions and the risk of cervical and vulvar cancers. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to assess the risk of cervical and vulvar cancers for each SNP. P-values were adjusted for multiple testing. A total of 876 cervical cancer cases, 517 vulvar cancer cases and 1,100 controls were included in the analysis. The TNF region was significantly associated with the risks of cervical cancer (gene-based P-value: 2.0×10−4) and vulvar cancer (gene-based P-value: 1.0×10−4). The rare allele (A) of SNP rs2239704 in the 5′ UTR of the LTA gene was significantly associated with increased risks of cervical cancer (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.15–1.50; adjusted P-value: 0.013) and vulvar cancer (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.30–1.75; adjusted P-value: 1.9×10−5). These findings add to the evidence of the importance of the immune system in the etiology of cervical and vulvar cancers.
cervical cancer; vulvar cancer; toll-like receptor; nuclear factor-κB; tumor necrosis factor
The incidence of oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancers have increased over the last twenty years which parallels increased use of marijuana among individuals born after 1950.
Pooled analysis of individual-level data from nine case-control studies from the U.S. and Latin America in the INHANCE consortium. Self-reported information on marijuana smoking, demographic, and behavioral factors was obtained from 1,921 oropharyngeal cases, 356 oral tongue cases, and 7,639 controls.
Compared with never marijuana smokers, ever marijuana smokers had an elevated risk of oropharyngeal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.47) and a reduced risk of oral tongue cancer (aOR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.75). The risk of oropharyngeal cancer remained elevated among never tobacco and alcohol users. The risk of oral tongue cancer decreased with increasing frequency (ptrend=0.005), duration (ptrend=0.002), and joint-years of marijuana use (ptrend=0.004), and was reduced among never users tobacco and alcohol users. Sensitivity analysis adjusting for potential confounding by HPV exposure attenuated the association of marijuana use with oropharyngeal cancer (aOR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.25), but had no effect on the oral tongue cancer association.
These results suggest that the association of marijuana use with Head and Neck Carcinoma may differ by tumor site.
The associations of marijuana use with oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancer are consistent with both possible pro- and anti-carcinogenic effects of cannabinoids. Additional work is needed to rule out various sources of bias, including residual confounding by HPV infection and misclassification of marijuana exposure.
marijuana; oropharynx; oral tongue; INHANCE; human papillomavirus
A history of diabetes is associated with an increased risk of several types of cancers. Whether diabetes is a risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC) has received little attention.
We pooled data from 12 case-control studies including 6,448 cases and 13,747 controls, and estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between diabetes and HNC, adjusted for age, education level, sex, race/ethnicity, study center, cigarette smoking, alcohol use and body mass index (BMI).
We observed a weak association between diabetes and the incidence of HNC overall (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.95–1.24). However, we observed a modest association among never smokers (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.22–2.07), and no association among ever smokers (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.83–1.11); likelihood ratio test for interaction p=0.001.
A history of diabetes was weakly associated with HNC overall, but we observed evidence of effect modification by smoking status, with a positive association among those who never smoked cigarettes.
This study suggests that glucose metabolism abnormalities may be a HNC risk factor in subgroups of the population. Prospective studies incorporating biomarkers are needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between diabetes and HNC risk, possibly providing new strategies in the prevention of HNC.
head and neck cancer; head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; diabetes; INHANCE
The Skin Cancer after Organ Transplant (SCOT) study was designed to investigate the link between genus beta human papillomavirus (HPV) and squamous cell skin cancer (SCSC). We focused on a population receiving immunosuppressive therapy for extended periods, transplant patients, as they are at extremely high risk for developing SCSC. Two complementary projects were conducted in the Seattle area: (i) a retrospective cohort with interview data from 2004 recipients of renal or cardiac transplants between 1995 and 2010 and (ii) a prospective cohort with interview data from 328 people on the transplant waiting lists between 2009 and 2011. Within the retrospective cohort, we developed a nested case–control study (172 cases and 337 control subjects) to assess risk of SCSC associated with markers of HPV in SCSC tumour tissue and eyebrow hair bulb DNA (HPV genotypes) and blood (HPV antibodies). In the prospective cohort, 135 participants had a 1-year post-transplant visit and 71 completed a 2-year post-transplant visit. In both arms of the cohort, we collected samples to assess markers of HPV infection such as acquisition of new types, proportion positive for each type, persistence of types at consecutive visits and number of HPV types detected. In the prospective cohort, we will also examine these HPV markers in relation to levels of cell-mediated immunity. The goal of the SCOT study is to use the data we collected to gain a more complete understanding of the role of immune suppression in HPV kinetics and of genus beta HPV types in SCSC. For more information, please contact the principal investigator through the study website: http://www.fhcrc.org/science/phs/cerc/The_SCOT_Study.html.
Squamous cell skin cancer (SCSC) disproportionately affects organ transplant recipients, and may be related to increased viral replication in the setting of immune suppression. We conducted a nested case–control study among transplant recipients to determine whether SCSC is associated with antibodies to cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPV), to genes associated with a rare genetic susceptibility to HPV (TMC6/TMC8), or to human polyomaviruses (HPyV). Cases (n = 149) had histologically confirmed SCSC, and controls (n = 290) were individually matched to cases on time since transplant, type of transplant, gender, and race. All subjects had serum drawn immediately prior to transplant surgery. Antibodies to 25 cutaneous HPVs and six HPyVs were assayed by detection of binding to virus-like particles, and 11 TMC6/8 variants were genotyped. After correction for multiple comparisons, only antibodies to HPV37 were associated with SCSC (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2–3.4). Common genetic variants of TMC6/8 were not associated with SCSC, but three variants in TMC8 (rs12452890, rs412611, and rs7208422) were associated with greater seropositivity for species 2 betapapillomaviruses among controls. This study suggests that some betaHPVs, but not polyomaviruses, may play a role in the excess risk of SCSC among transplant recipients.
Cutaneous human papillomavirus; epidemiology; organ transplant; polyomavirus; squamous cell skin cancer
Cigar and pipe smoking are considered risk factors for head and neck cancers, but the magnitude of effect estimates for these products has been imprecisely estimated. By using pooled data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium (comprising 13,935 cases and 18,691 controls in 19 studies from 1981 to 2007), we applied hierarchical logistic regression to more precisely estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking separately, compared with reference groups of those who had never smoked each single product. Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were stratified by ever cigarette smoking. We also considered effect estimates of smoking a single product exclusively versus never having smoked any product (reference group). Among never cigarette smokers, the odds ratio for ever cigar smoking was 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93, 3.34), and the odds ratio for ever pipe smoking was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.81). These odds ratios increased with increasing frequency and duration of smoking (Ptrend ≤ 0.0001). Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were not elevated among ever cigarette smokers. Head and neck cancer risk was elevated for those who reported exclusive cigar smoking (odds ratio = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.58, 4.73) or exclusive pipe smoking (odds ratio = 3.71, 95% CI: 2.59, 5.33). These results suggest that cigar and pipe smoking are independently associated with increased risk of head and neck cancers.
head and neck neoplasms; smoking
Several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between adult height and cancer incidence. The only study conducted among women on mouth and pharynx cancer risk, however, reported an inverse association. This study aims to investigate the association between height and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) within a large international consortium of HNC.
We analyzed pooled individual-level data from 24 case-control studies participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Odds Ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were estimated separately for men and women for associations between height and HNC risk. Educational level, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption were included in all regression models. Stratified analyses by HNC subsites were performed.
This project included 17,666 cases and 28,198 controls. We found an inverse association between height and HNC (adjusted OR per 10 cm height =0.91, 95% CI 0.86–0.95 for men; adjusted OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.79–0.93 for women). In men, the estimated OR did vary by educational level, smoking status, geographic area, and control source. No differences by subsites were detected.
Adult height is inversely associated with HNC risk. As height can be considered a marker of childhood illness and low energy intake, the inverse association is consistent with prior studies showing that HNC occur more frequently among deprived individuals. Further studies designed to elucidate the mechanism of such association would be warranted.
To explore the association between the presence of maternal heart disease and maternal, perinatal, and infant outcomes.
We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using Washington State birth certificates linked with hospital discharge records of mothers noted to have maternal congenital heart disease, ischemic heart disease, heart failure or pulmonary hypertension. Women who gave birth between 1987 and 2009 (n=2,171) were compared to a sample of mothers without these conditions (n=21,710). We described characteristics of pregnant women with heart disease over time. Logistic regression estimated the association between reported chronic maternal heart disease and small for gestational age (SGA) birth, as well as perinatal, post-neonatal and maternal death.
The proportion of births to women with reported heart disease increased 224% between the 1987-1994 and 2002-2009 calendar periods. Chronic maternal heart disease was associated with increased risk of SGA birth (62 additional SGA infants per 1,000 births, 95% CI 46-78, p <0.001), perinatal death (14 additional deaths per 1,000 births, 95% CI 8-20, p <0.001), postneonatal death (five additional deaths per 1,000 births, 95% CI 2-9, p<0.001) and maternal death (five additional deaths per 1,000 births, 95% CI 2-9, p<0.001).
The presence of chronic maternal heart disease is associated with elevated risk for poor maternal, perinatal, and postneonatal outcomes.
We propose that a recent change in the conception of the role of type 1 interferon and the identification of adventitial stem cells suggests a unifying hypothesis for scleroderma. This hypothesis begins with vasospasm. Vasospasm is fully reversible unless, as proposed here, the resulting ischemia leads to apoptosis and activation of type 1 interferon. The interferon, we propose, initiates immune amplification, including characteristic scleroderma-specific antibodies. We propose that the interferon also acts on adventitial stem cells, producing myofibroblasts, rarefaction, and intimal hyperplasia—three morphologic changes that characterize this disease. Regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5), a regulator of vasoactive G-protein–coupled receptors, is a cell type–specific marker of pericytes and scleroderma myofibroblasts. RGS5 may provide a key link between initial hyperplasia and fibrosis in this disease.
Type 1 interferon; Vasculopathy; Fibrosis; Adventitial stem cell; RGS5
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple common genetic variants associated with an increased risk of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). A previous GWAS reported a possible TGCT susceptibility locus on chromosome 1q23 in the UCK2 gene, but failed to reach genome-wide significance following replication. We interrogated this region by conducting a meta-analysis of two independent GWASs including a total of 940 TGCT cases and 1559 controls for 122 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 1q23 and followed up the most significant SNPs in an additional 2202 TGCT cases and 2386 controls from four case–control studies. We observed genome-wide significant associations for several UCK2 markers, the most significant of which was for rs3790665 (PCombined = 6.0 × 10−9). Additional support is provided from an independent familial study of TGCT where a significant over-transmission for rs3790665 with TGCT risk was observed (PFBAT = 2.3 × 10−3). Here, we provide substantial evidence for the association between UCK2 genetic variation and TGCT risk.
Given the important role of cell mediated immunity in viral clearance and control of premalignant lesions, we hypothesize that variation in the IL12/IL10 cytokine and cytokine receptor genes may influence cervical and vulvar cancer risk. We evaluated 76 tagSNPs from 7 candidate genes (IL10, IL12A, IL12B, IL10RA, IL10RB, IL12RB1, and IL12RB2) in case-parent sets (n=43 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), n=96 cervical adenocarcinoma, n=53 vulvar SCC), additional cases (n=356 cervical SCC, n=406 cervical adenocarcinoma, and n=473 vulvar SCC) and population based controls (1,111). We calculated log-additive odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between tagSNP and cancer risk using a pseudo-likelihood based method which combined genotype information on cases, parents, and population controls. After correction for multiple comparisons, we identified several statistically significant SNP associations. Cervical SCC risk was associated with the minor alleles of the IL10RA rs9610 3′ UTR SNP (OR=1.76, 95% CI= 1.15–2.68) and two synonymous IL12RB2 SNPs (rs4297265, OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.26–0.82; rs2229546, OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.21–0.87). Cervical adenocarcinoma risk was associated with the minor alleles of the IL10RA rs4252314 intronic SNP (OR=2.23, 95% CI = 1.26–3.96) and IL12RB1 rs11575934 non-synonymous SNP (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.12–2.05). Finally, the minor allele of the IL12B rs3181224 3′ UTR SNP was associated with a reduced risk of vulvar SCC (OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.12–0.74). These results raise the possibility that a shift in the balance of the immune response due to genetic variants in key cytokine genes could influence the development of cervical and vulvar cancer.
Cervical cancer; vulvar cancer; case-parent; interleukin 12; interleukin 10
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the central etiologic factor for cervical cancer, and prior studies suggested C. trachomatis may act as an HPV cofactor. We examined the C. trachomatis—cervical cancer association by serotype, histology, HPV type in the tumor, and other HPV cofactors. We conducted a population-based study in the Seattle-Puget Sound area of 302 women with invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 185 women with adenocarcinomas of the cervix (AC), and 318 HPV seropositive control women. The risk of SCC associated with antibodies to C. trachomatis was increased (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.2) but not for AC (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.6–1.5). This association was independent of HPV type in the SCC tumor tissue. There was an association between specific serotypes of C. trachomatis and SCC for 6 of the 10 serotypes: B (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.5–8.4), D (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.5), E (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4–3.9), G (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.1–7.9), I (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.5–11.7), and J (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.1), but not for the 4 types (C, F, H, and K) that were present at very low prevalence in this population. There was an increased risk of SCC, but not AC, associated with antibodies to C. trachomatis that was not serotype specific.
Chlamydia trachomatis; HPV; cervical cancer; histologic type; microimmunofluorescence
Limited research exists on the social information needs of adolescents and young adults (AYAs, aged 15–39 at diagnosis) with cancer.
The Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experiences (AYA HOPE) Study recruited 523 patients to complete surveys 6–14 months after cancer diagnosis. Participants reported information needs for talking about their cancer experience with family and friends (TAC) and meeting peer survivors (MPS). Multiple logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with each need.
Approximately 25% (118/477) and 43% (199/462) of participants reported a TAC or MPS need respectively. Participants in their 20s (vs. teenagers) were more likely to report a MPS need (p=0.03). Hispanics (vs. non-Hispanic whites) were more likely to report a TAC need (p=0.01). Individuals who did not receive but reported needing support groups were about 4 and 13 times as likely to report TAC and MPS needs respectively (p<0.05). Participants reporting high symptom burden were more likely to report TAC and MPS needs (p<0.01), and those reporting fair/poor quality of care were more likely to report a TAC need (p<0.01). Those reporting that cancer had an impact on several key relationships with family and friends were more likely to report social information needs.
Social information needs are higher in AYAs diagnosed in their 20s, in Hispanics, among those reporting high symptom burden and/or lower quality of care, and in individuals not in support groups. Efforts should be made to develop interventions for AYAs in most need of social information and support.
survivorship; social support; information needs; support group; peer support; communication
To identify a prognostic gene signature for HPV-negative OSCC patients.
Two gene expression datasets were used; a training dataset from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC) (n=97), and a validation dataset from the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) (n=71). We applied L1/L2-penalized Cox regression models to the FHCRC data on the 131–gene signature previously identified to be prognostic in OSCC patients to identify a prognostic model specific for high-risk HPV-negative OSCC patients. The models were tested with the MDACC dataset using a receiver operating characteristic analysis.
A 13-gene model was identified as the best predictor of HPV-negative OSCC-specific survival in the training dataset. The risk score for each patient in the validation dataset was calculated from this model and dichotomized at the median. The estimated 2-year mortality (± SE) of patients with high risk scores was 47.1 (±9.24)% compared with 6.35 (± 4.42)% for patients with low risk scores. ROC analyses showed that the areas under the curve for the age, gender, and treatment modality-adjusted models with risk score (0.78, 95%CI: 0.74-0.86) and risk score plus tumor stage (0.79, 95%CI: 0.75-0.87) were substantially higher than for the model with tumor stage (0.54, 95%CI: 0.48-0.62).
We identified and validated a 13-gene signature that is considerably better than tumor stage in predicting survival of HPV-negative OSCC patients. Further evaluation of this gene signature as a prognostic marker in other populations of patients with HPV-negative OSCC is warranted.
gene signature; prognosis; HPV-negative; OSCC
Examine lymphatic malformation lymphoid aggregates for the expression of tertiary lymphoid organ markers. Determine how lymphoid aggregate density relates to lymphatic malformation clinical features.
Methods and Results
Retrospective cohort study. Tissue and clinical data were reviewed from 29 patients in the Vascular Anomaly Database who represented the spectrum of head and neck lymphatic malformations and had >5 years of follow-up. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymphatic malformation tissue was immunohistochemically stained with antibodies for tertiary lymphoid organ markers, which included follicular and mature myeloid dendritic cells, high endothelial venules, segregated B and T-cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, and lymphoid homing chemokines (CXCL13, CCL21). Lymphoid aggregate density (count/mm2) was quantified by 2 independent, blinded reviewers. Lymphoid aggregate density and lymphatic malformation clinical features were characterized using analysis of variance. Larger lymphatic malformation tissue lymphoid aggregates stained consistently for tertiary lymphoid organ markers. In oral cavity and neck specimens from the same patients (n = 9), there were more tertiary lymphoid organ in oral cavity than in neck specimens (p = 0.0235). In lymphatic malformation neck tissue, de Serres stage 4 lymphatic malformations displayed the highest tertiary lymphoid organ density. No significant association was seen between tertiary lymphoid organ density and other clinical features.
This study demonstrates that some lymphoid aggregates within lymphatic malformations represent tertiary lymphoid organs. There was an association between tertiary lymphoid organ density and lymphatic malformation location. Further study is required to define the role of lymphoid neogenesis and tertiary lymphoid organ formation in lymphatic malformation pathogenesis.
Background: Associations between human leukocyte antigens (HLA) alleles and cervical cancer are largely representative of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the major histologic subtype. We evaluated the association between HLA class I (A, B, and C) and class II (DRB1 and DQB1) loci and risk of cervical adenocarcinoma (ADC), a less common but aggressive histologic subtype.
Methods: We pooled data from the Eastern and Western US Cervical Cancer studies, and evaluated the association between individual alleles and allele combinations and ADC (n = 630 ADC; n = 775 controls). Risk estimates were calculated for 11 a priori (based on known associations with cervical cancer regardless of histologic type) and 38 non a priori common alleles, as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age and study. In exploratory analysis, we compared the risk associations between subgroups with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA in ADC tumor tissues in the Western US study cases and controls.
Results: Three of the a priori alleles were significantly associated with decreased risk of ADC [DRB1*13:01 (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41–0.93), DRB1*13:02 (OR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.31–0.77), and DQB1*06:03 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42–0.95)]; one was associated with increased risk [B*07:02 (OR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.07–1.79)]. Among alleles not previously reported, DQB1*06:04 (OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27–0.78) was associated with decreased risk of ADC and remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons, and C*07:02 (OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.09–1.81) was associated with increased risk. We did not observe a difference by histologic subtype. ADC was most strongly associated with increased risk with B*07:02/C*07:02 alleles (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.01–1.76) and decreased risk with DRB1*13:02/DQB1*06:04 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.21–0.80).
Conclusion: Results suggest that HLA allele associations with cervical ADC are similar to those for cervical SCC. An intriguing finding was the difference in risk associated with several alleles restricted to HPV16 or HPV18-related tumors, consistent with the hypothesis that HLA recognition is HPV type-specific.
HLA class I; HLA class II; cervical adenocarcinoma; host genetics; HPV
We conducted a meta-analysis to identify new loci for testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) susceptibility. In the discovery phase, 931 affected individuals and 1,975 controls from three genome wide association studies (GWAS) were analyzed. Replication was conducted in six independent sample sets totaling 3,211 affected individuals and 7,591 controls. In the combined analysis, TGCT risk was significantly associated with markers at four novel loci: 4q22.2 in HPGDS (per allele odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95%CI 1.12–1.26, P = 1.11×10−8); 7p22.3 in MAD1L1 (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.14–1.29, P = 5.59×10−9); 16q22.3 in RFWD3 (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.18–1.34, P = 5.15×10−12); and 17q22 (rs9905704; OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.18–1.33; P = 4.32×10−13, and rs7221274; OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.12–1.28 P = 4.04×10−9), a locus which includes TEX14, RAD51C and PPM1E. The new TGCT susceptibility loci contain biologically plausible genes encoding proteins important for male germ cell development, chromosomal segregation and DNA damage response.
We examined levels of Pap testing and factors associated with screening participation among Cambodian refugees.
A community-based, in-person survey was conducted in Seattle during late 1997 and early 1998. Interviews were completed by 413 women; the estimated response rate was 73%. We classified respondents into four Pap testing stages of adoption: precontemplation/contemplation (never screened), relapse (ever screened but did not plan to be screened in the future), action (ever screened and planned to be screened in the future), and maintenance (recently screened and planned to be screened in the future). Bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to examine various factors.
About one-quarter (24%) of the respondents has never been screened, and a further 22% had been screened but did not plan to obtain Pap tests in the future. Fifteen percent were in the action stage and 39% were in the maintenance stage. The following factors were independently associated with cervical cancer screening stages: previous physician recommendation; younger age; beliefs about Pap testing for post-menopausal women, screening for sexually inactive women, and regular checkups; provider ethnicity; prenatal care in the US; and problems finding interpreters.
Our findings confirm low Pap testing rates among Cambodian immigrants, and suggest that targeted interventions should be multifaceted.
To investigate the potential role of vitamin or mineral supplementation on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), we analyzed individual-level pooled data from 12 case-control studies (7,002 HNC cases and 8,383 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. There were a total of 2,028 oral cavity cancer, 2,465 pharyngeal cancer, and 874 unspecified oral/pharynx cancer, 1,329 laryngeal cancer and 306 overlapping HNC cases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self reported ever use of any vitamins, multivitamins, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and calcium, beta-carotene, iron, selenium, and zinc supplements were assessed. We further examined frequency, duration and cumulative exposure of each vitamin or mineral when possible and stratified by smoking and drinking status. All ORs were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, study center, education level, and pack-years of smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking and fruit/vegetable intake. A decreased risk of HNC was observed with ever use of vitamin C (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.59-0.96) and with ever use of calcium supplement (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.42-0.97). The inverse association with HNC risk was also observed for 10 or more years of vitamin C use (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.97) and more than 365 tablets of cumulative calcium intake (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.16-0.83), but linear trends were not observed for the frequency or duration of any supplement intake. We did not observe any strong associations between vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer.
vitamin supplement; mineral supplement; head and neck cancer
Oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) are sexually transmitted and linked to several epithelial malignancies, but an association between HPV and colorectal neoplasia is not established. Previously, we reported a 3-fold increase in the odds of colorectal hyperplastic polyps associated with oncogenic HPV seropositivity in men, but detected no HPV DNA in colorectal tissues from these same men.
To test the reproducibility of our prior HPV antibody results and to explore the hypothesis that colorectal hyperplastic polyps may be associated with sexual behavior in men, we conducted a case-control study of hyperplastic polyps and antibodies to 8 oncogenic HPV types (including 16 and 18), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Study participants were men, ages 30–74 years, enrolled in the Minnesota Cancer Prevention Research Unit Polyp Study who had an index colonoscopy from 1991–1994 and received a diagnosis of hyperplastic polyps (n=97), or were polyp-free (n=184). Plasma was assessed for antibodies to the 8 oncogenic HPV types, HSV-2, and HCV using a bead-based multiplex assay.
The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the association between hyperplastic polyps and seropositivity to oncogenic HPV (all 8 types combined) was 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44–1.58; for HSV-2, OR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.48–1.99; and for HCV, OR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.11–3.26.
Our study suggested no association between colorectal hyperplastic polyps and antibodies to specific sexually transmitted infections in men.
Factors associated with sexually transmitted infections are unlikely to play a role in the etiology of colorectal hyperplastic polyps in men.
HPV; colorectal hyperplastic polyps; antibodies; sexually transmitted infections
The CD83 glycoprotein is a marker of dendritic cell maturation that may contribute to the T cell response to oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD83 influence the risk of HPV-related genital cancers has not been adequately studied. We investigated whether the common genetic variation of the CD83 region was associated with the risks of cervical and vulvar cancers in a population-based case–control study conducted in the Seattle-Puget Sound Region.
A total of 17 tagSNPs were genotyped in the CD83 region of 886 cervical cases, 517 vulvar cases and 1100 controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to assess the risk of cervical and vulvar cancers. The interaction between the tagSNPs and cigarette smoking was also explored.
TagSNPs in the CD83 chromosomal region were not associated with risk of either cervical or vulvar cancer. TagSNP rs853360 was associated with a decreased risk of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.66–0.98).
Our results do not suggest that the common genetic variation of CD83 is related to cervical or vulvar cancers. The association between tagSNP rs853360 and risk of cervical SCC is likely to be due to chance. If larger or pooled studies confirm our results, CD83 has little or no influence in the risk of HPV-related cancers.
Keywords: Human papillomavirus; Cervix; Vulva; Epidemiology; Genetics
For 3 decades, terms such as synthetic phenotype and contractile phenotype have been used to imply the existence of a specific mechanism for smooth muscle cell (SMC) responses to injury. In this issue of the JCI, Hendrix et al. offer a far more precise approach to examining the mechanisms of SMC responses to injury, focused not on general changes in phenotype but on effects of injury on a single promoter element, the CArG [CC(A/T)6GG] box, in a single gene encoding smooth muscle (SM) α-actin. Since CArG box structures are present in some, but not all, SMC genes, these data suggest that we may be progressing toward establishing a systematic, molecular classification of both SMC subsets and the response of SMCs to different injuries.
With recent advances in therapeutic applications of stem cells, cell engraftment has become a promising therapy for replacing injured myocardium after infarction. The survival and function of injected cells, however, will depend on the efficient vascularization of the new tissue. Here we describe the arteriogenic remodeling of the coronary vessels that supports vascularization of engrafted tissue postmyocardial infarction (post‐MI).
Methods and Results
Following MI, murine hearts were injected with a skeletal myoblast cell line previously shown to develop into large grafts. Microcomputed tomography at 28 days postengraftment revealed the 3‐dimensional structure of the newly formed conducting vessels. The grafts elicited both an angiogenic response and arteriogenic remodeling of the coronary arteries to perfuse the graft. The coronaries upstream of the graft also remodeled, showing an increase in branching, and a decrease in vascular density. Histological analysis revealed the presence of capillaries as well as larger vascular lumens within the graft. Some graft vessels were encoated by smooth muscle α‐actin positive cells, implying that vascular remodeling occurs at both the conducting arterial and microvascular levels.
Following MI and skeletal myoblast engraftment, the murine coronary vessels exhibit plasticity that enables both arteriogenic remodeling of the preexisting small branches of the coronary arteries and development of large and small smooth muscle encoated vessels within the graft. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these 2 processes suggests mechanisms to enhance the therapeutic vascularization in patients with myocardial ischemia.
coronary angiography; grafting; myocardial infarction; myocardial revascularization; vascular remodeling