Innate or acquired resistance to cancer therapeutics remains an important area of biomedical investigation that has clear ramifications for improving cancer specific death rates. Importantly, clues to key resistance mechanisms may lie in the well-orchestrated and highly conserved cellular and systemic responses to injury and stress. Many anti-neoplastic therapies typically rely on DNA damage, which engages potent DNA damage response signaling pathways that culminate in apoptosis or growth arrest at checkpoints to allow for damage repair. However, an alternative cellular response, senescence, can also be initiated when challenged with these internal/external pressures and in ideal situations acts as a self-protecting mechanism. Senescence-induction therapies are an attractive concept in that they represent a normal, highly conserved and commonly-invoked tumor-suppressing response to overwhelming genotoxic stress or oncogene activation. Yet, such approaches should ensure that senescence by-pass or senescence re-emergence does not occur, as emergent cells appear to have highly drug resistant phenotypes. Further, cell non-autonomous senescence responses may contribute to therapy-resistance in certain circumstances. Here we provide an overview of mechanisms by which cellular senescence plausibly contributes to therapy resistance and concepts by which senescence responses can be influenced to improve cancer treatment outcomes.
DNA damage response; oncogene induced senescence; microenvironment
The ability to interrogate circulating tumor cells (CTC) and disseminated tumor cells (DTC) is restricted by the small number detected and isolated (typically <10). To determine if a commercially available technology could provide a transcriptomic profile of a single prostate cancer (PCa) cell, we clonally selected and cultured a single passage of cell cycle synchronized C4-2B PCa cells. Ten sets of single, 5-, or 10-cells were isolated using a micromanipulator under direct visualization with an inverted microscope. Additionally, two groups of 10 individual DTC, each isolated from bone marrow of 2 patients with metastatic PCa were obtained. RNA was amplified using the WT-Ovation™ One-Direct Amplification System. The amplified material was hybridized on a 44K Whole Human Gene Expression Microarray. A high stringency threshold, a mean Alexa Fluor® 3 signal intensity above 300, was used for gene detection. Relative expression levels were validated for select genes using real-time PCR (RT-qPCR).
Using this approach, 22,410, 20,423, and 17,009 probes were positive on the arrays from 10-cell pools, 5-cell pools, and single-cells, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of gene detection on the single-cell analyses were 0.739 and 0.972 respectively when compared to 10-cell pools, and 0.814 and 0.979 respectively when compared to 5-cell pools, demonstrating a low false positive rate. Among 10,000 randomly selected pairs of genes, the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.875 between the single-cell and 5-cell pools and 0.783 between the single-cell and 10-cell pools. As expected, abundant transcripts in the 5- and 10-cell samples were detected by RT-qPCR in the single-cell isolates, while lower abundance messages were not. Using the same stringency, 16,039 probes were positive on the patient single-cell arrays. Cluster analysis showed that all 10 DTC grouped together within each patient.
A transcriptomic profile can be reliably obtained from a single cell using commercially available technology. As expected, fewer amplified genes are detected from a single-cell sample than from pooled-cell samples, however this method can be used to reliably obtain a transcriptomic profile from DTC isolated from the bone marrow of patients with PCa.
Prostate cancer; Single-cell; Transcriptome; Disseminated tumor cells
Clinicopathologic correlation studies are critically important for the field of Alzheimer disease (AD) research. Studies on human subjects with autopsy confirmation entail numerous potential biases that affect both their general applicability and the validity of the correlations. Many sources of data variability can weaken the apparent correlation between cognitive status and AD neuropathologic changes. Indeed, most persons in advanced old age have significant non-AD brain lesions that may alter cognition independently of AD. Worldwide research efforts have evaluated thousands of human subjects to assess the causes of cognitive impairment in the elderly, and these studies have been interpreted in different ways. We review the literature focusing on the correlation of AD neuropathologic changes (i.e. β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) with cognitive impairment. We discuss the various patterns of brain changes that have been observed in elderly individuals to provide a perspective for understanding AD clinicopathologic correlation and conclude that evidence from many independent research centers strongly supports the existence of a specific disease, as defined by the presence of Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Although Aβ plaques may play a key role in AD pathogenesis, the severity of cognitive impairment correlates best with the burden of neocortical neurofibrillary tangles.
Aging; Alzheimer disease; Amyloid; Dementia; Epidemiology; Neuropathology; MAPT; Neurofibrillary tangles
The current consensus criteria for the neuropathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), known as the National Institute on Aging/Reagan Institute of the Alzheimer Association Consensus Recommendations for the Postmortem Diagnosis of AD or NIA-Reagan Criteria , were published in 1997 (hereafter referred to as “1997 Criteria”). Knowledge of AD and the tools used for clinical investigation of cognitive impairment and dementia have advanced substantially since then and have prompted this update on the neuropathologic assessment of AD.
We present a practical guide for the implementation of recently revised National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association guidelines for the neuropathologic assessment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Major revisions from previous consensus criteria are: (i) recognition that AD neuropathologic changes may occur in the apparent absence of cognitive impairment, (ii) an “ABC” score for AD neuropathologic change that incorporates histopathologic assessments of amyloid β deposits (A), staging of neurofibrillary tangles (B), and scoring of neuritic plaques (C), and (iii) more detailed approaches for assessing commonly co-morbid conditions such as Lewy body disease, vascular brain injury, hippocampal sclerosis, and TAR DNA binding protein (TDP)-43 immunoreactive inclusions. Recommendations also are made for the minimum sampling of brain, preferred staining methods with acceptable alternatives, reporting of results, and clinico-pathologic correlations.
Although 5HT2A receptors mediate contractions of normal arteries to serotonin (5HT), in some cardiovascular diseases, other receptor subtypes contribute to the marked increase in serotonin contractions. We hypothesized that enhanced contractions of arteries from diabetics to 5HT are mediated by an increased contribution from multiple 5HT receptor subtypes. We compared responses to selective 5HT receptor agonists and expression of 5HT receptor isoforms (5HT1B, 5HT2A, and 5HT2B) in aorta from nondiabetic (ND) compared to type 2 diabetic mice (DB, BKS.Cg-Dock7m+/+Leprdb/J). 5HT, 5HT2A (TCB2 and BRL54443), and 5HT2B (norfenfluramine and BW723C86) receptor agonists produced concentration-dependent contractions of ND arteries that were markedly increased in DB arteries. Neither ND nor DB arteries contracted to a 5HT1B receptor agonist. MDL11939, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist, and LY272015, a 5HT2B receptor antagonist, reduced contractions of arteries from DB to 5HT more than ND. Expression of 5HT1B, 5HT2A, and 5HT2B receptor subtypes was similar in ND and DB. Inhibition of rho kinase decreased contractions to 5HT and 5HT2A and 5HT2B receptor agonists in ND and DB. We conclude that in contrast to other cardiovascular diseases, enhanced contraction of arteries from diabetics to 5HT is not due to a change in expression of multiple 5HT receptor subtypes.
Androgen receptor (AR) is reactivated in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) through mechanisms including marked increases in AR gene expression. We identify an enhancer in the AR second intron contributing to increased AR expression at low androgen levels in CRPC. Moreover, at increased androgen levels the AR binds this site and represses AR gene expression through recruitment of lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) and H3K4me1,2 demethylation. AR similarly represses expression of multiple genes mediating androgen synthesis, DNA synthesis and proliferation, while stimulating genes mediating lipid and protein biosynthesis. Androgen levels in CRPC appear adequate to stimulate AR activity on enhancer elements, but not suppressor elements, resulting in increased expression of AR and AR repressed genes that contribute to cellular proliferation.
prostate cancer; androgen receptor; androgen deprivation therapy; H3K4 methylation; LSD1
Relapse of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) that occurs after androgen deprivation therapy of primary prostate cancer can be mediated by reactivation of the androgen receptor (AR). One important mechanism mediating this AR reactivation is intratumoral conversion of the weak adrenal androgens DHEA and androstenedione into the AR ligands testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHEA and androstenedione are synthesized by the adrenals through the sequential actions of the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP11A1 and CYP17A1, so that CYP17A1 inhibitors such as abiraterone are effective therapies for CRPC. However, the significance of intratumoral CYP17A1 and de novo androgen synthesis from cholesterol in CRPC, and the mechanisms contributing to CYP17A1 inhibitor resistance/relapse, remain to be determined. We report that AR activity in castration-resistant VCaP tumor xenografts can be restored through CYP17A1-dependent de novo androgen synthesis, and that abiraterone treatment of these xenografts imposes selective pressure for increased intratumoral expression of CYP17A1, thereby generating a mechanism for development of resistance to CYP17A1 inhibitors. Supporting the clinical relevance of this mechanism, we found that intratumoral expression of CYP17A1 was markedly increased in tumor biopsies from CRPC patients after CYP17A1 inhibitor therapy. We further show that CRPC cells expressing a progesterone responsive T877A mutant AR are not CYP17A1 dependent, but that AR activity in these cells is still steroid dependent and mediated by upstream CYP11A1 dependent intraturmoral pregnenolone/progesterone synthesis. Together, our results indicate that CRPCs resistant to CYP17A1 inhibition may remain steroid dependent and therefore responsive to therapies that can further suppress de novo intratumoral steroid synthesis.
prostate cancer; androgen receptor; CYP17A1; steroid synthesis; androgen deprivation therapy
Individuals with antemortem preservation of cognition who show autopsy evidence of at least moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology suggest the possibility of brain reserve, that is, functional resistance to structural brain damage. This reserve would, however, only be relevant if the pathologic markers correlate well with dementia. Using data from the Nun Study (n = 498) and the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) Study (n = 323), we show that Braak staging correlates strongly with dementia status. Moreover, participants with severe (Braak stage V–VI) AD pathology who remained not demented represent only 12% (Nun Study) and 8% (ACT study) of nondemented subjects. Comparison of these subjects to those who were demented revealed that the former group was often significantly memory impaired despite not being classified as demented. Most of these nondemented participants showed only stage V neurofibrillary pathology and frontal tangle counts that were slightly lower than a comparable (Braak stage V) dementia group. In summary, these data indicate that, in individuals with AD-type pathology who do not meet criteria for dementia, neocortical neurofibrillary tangles are somewhat reduced and incipient cognitive decline is present. Our data provide a foundation for helping to define additional factors that may impair, or be protective of, cognition in older adults.
Adult Changes in Thought Study; Alzheimer disease; brain reserve; dementia; Nun Study; presymptomatic; preclinical
Abiraterone is a potent inhibitor of the steroidogenic enzyme CYP17A1 and suppresses tumor growth in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The effectiveness of abiraterone in reducing tumor androgens is not known, nor have mechanisms contributing to abiraterone resistance been established.
We treated human CRPC xenografts with abiraterone and measured tumor growth, tissue androgens, androgen receptor (AR) levels, and steroidogenic gene expression vs. controls.
Abiraterone suppressed serum PSA levels and improved survival in two distinct CRPC xenografts: median survival of LuCaP35CR improved from 17 to 39 days (HR 3.6, p=0.0014) and LuCaP23CR from 14 to 24 days (HR 2.5, p=0.0048). Abiraterone strongly suppressed tumor androgens, with testosterone (T) decreasing from 0.49 ± 0.22 to 0.03 ± 0.01 pg/mg (p<0.0001), and from 0.69 ± 0.36 to 0.03 ± 0.01 pg/mg (p=0.002) in abiraterone-treated 23CR and 35CR, respectively, with comparable decreases in tissue DHT. Treatment was associated with increased expression of full length AR (ARFL) and truncated AR variants (ARFL 2.3 fold, p=0.008 and ARdel567es 2.7 fold, p=0.036 in 23CR; ARFL 3.4 fold, p=0.001 and ARV7 3.1 fold, p=0.0003 in 35CR), and increased expression of the abiraterone target CYP17A1 (~2.1 fold, p=0.0001 and p=0.028 in 23CR and 35CR, respectively) and transcript changes in other enzymes modulating steroid metabolism.
These studies indicate that abiraterone reduces CRPC growth via suppression of intratumoral androgens and that resistance to abiraterone may occur through mechanisms that include upregulation of CYP17A1, and/or induction of AR and AR splice variants that confer ligand-independent AR transactivation.
castration resistant prostate cancer; CYP17A1; abiraterone; steroidogenesis; androgen receptor splice variant
Tumor development relies upon essential contributions from the tumor microenvironment and host immune alterations. These contributions may inform the plasma proteome in a manner that could be exploited for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. In this study, we employed a systems biology approach to characterize the plasma proteome response in the inducible HER2/neu mouse model of breast cancer during tumor induction, progression and regression. Mass spectrometry data derived from ∼ 1.6 million spectra identified protein networks involved in wound healing, microenvironment and metabolism that coordinately changed during tumor development. The observed alterations developed prior to cancer detection, increased progressively with tumor growth, and reverted toward baseline with tumor regression. Gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses suggested that the cancer-associated plasma proteome was derived from transcriptional responses in the non-cancerous host tissues as well as the developing tumor. The proteomic signature was distinct from a non-specific response to inflammation. Overall, the developing tumor simultaneously engaged a number of innate physiological processes, including wound repair, immune response, coagulation and complement cascades, tissue remodeling and metabolic homeostasis that were all detectable in plasma. Our findings offer an integrated view of tumor development with relevance to plasma-based strategies to detect and diagnose cancer.
Cognitively intact elderly research volunteers at the University of Kentucky have been recruited, followed longitudinally, and autopsied with extensive neuropathological evaluations since 1989. To date, the cohort has recruited 1,030 individuals with 552 participants being actively followed, 363 deceased, and 273 autopsied. An extensive database has been constructed with continuous updates that include textured clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and pathological information. The history, demographics, clinical observations, and pathological features of this research cohort are described. We also explain some of the evolving methodologies and the academic contributions that have been made due to this motivated group of older Kentuckians.
Aging; Alzheimer’s; autopsy; brain; dementia; Lewy bodies; longitudinal; neuropathology; neurocognition; neuritic plaques; neurofibrillary tangles
The National Institute on Aging Preclinical Alzheimer’s disease Workgroup (PADW) has issued a preliminary report with recommendations for classifying preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (pAD) according to 3 early disease stages. Here we examine the PADW recommendations in relation to neuropathological features in a large, consecutive series of cognitively intact elderly persons, autopsied within a year after cognitive testing (n = 126 cognitively intact patients with mean age 83.7 years at death). Subjects were grouped based on a hypothetical construct correlating pathological features with PADW stages. Many cognitively intact individuals were classifiable as pAD (53/126 or 43%), as expected based on epidemiological and biomarker studies. Of these, most (48%) were in “stage 3”, which corresponds to amyloid pathology with early neurodegeneration. As with prior studies, our data indicate that the development of neocortical neurofibrillary tangles is the key pathological event that is not observed in pAD cases: Braak stages III or IV pathology are hence not truly a substrate for “intermediate likelihood” that cognitive impairment is due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We also stress the importance of comorbid non-Alzheimer’s disease brain pathologies (hippocampal sclerosis, neocortical alpha-synucleinopathy, cerebrovascular disease, and brains with hippocampal neurofibrillary tangles but no cortical amyloid plaques) that can contribute to the development of cognitive impairment, or which may serve as confounds in the application of the PADW recommendations. While the final recommendations from the PADW working group have not yet been released, this preliminary analysis provides a perspective on those recommendations from a neuropathological point of view.
Nondemented; Biomarkers; MRI; CSF; Preclinical; Neuropathology; Normal
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial mechanism for the acquisition of migratory and invasive capabilities by epithelial cancer cells. By conducting quantitative proteomics in experimental models of human prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis, we observed strikingly decreased expression of EPLIN (epithelial protein lost in neoplasm; or LIM domain and actin binding 1, LIMA-1) upon EMT. Biochemical and functional analyses demonstrated that EPLIN is a negative regulator of EMT and invasiveness in PCa cells. EPLIN depletion resulted in the disassembly of adherens junctions, structurally distinct actin remodeling, and activation of β-catenin signaling. Microarray expression analysis identified a subset of putative EPLIN target genes associated with EMT, invasion and metastasis. By immunohistochemistry EPLIN downregulation was also demonstrated in lymph node metastases of human solid tumors including PCa, breast cancer, colorectal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. This study reveals a novel molecular mechanism for converting cancer cells into a highly invasive and malignant form, and has important implications in prognosing and treating metastasis at early stages.
EPLIN; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; prostate cancer; lymph node metastasis; cytoskeleton
Amyloidopathies cause neurodegeneration in a substantial portion of the elderly population. Improvements in long term health care have made elderly individuals a large and growing demographic group, marking these diseases as a major public health concern. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most studied form of neurodegenerative amyloidopathy. Although our understanding of AD is far from complete, several decades of research have advanced our knowledge to the point where it is conceivable that some form of disease modifying therapy may be available in the near future. These advances have been built on a strong mechanistic understanding of the disease from its underlying genetics, molecular biology and clinical pathology. Insights derived from the study of other neurodegenerative diseases, such as some forms of frontotemporal dementia, have been critical to this process. This knowledge has allowed researchers to construct animal models of the disease process that have paved the way towards the development of therapeutics. However, what was once thought to be a straightforward problem has evolved into a series of disappointing outcomes. Examination of pathways common to all neurodegenerative diseases, including the cellular mechanisms that clear misfolded proteins and their regulation, may be the best way to move forward.
Amyloid; amyloid-β peptide; amyloid-β precursor protein; neurodegeneration; protein misfolding; proteinopathies; Tau.
Preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (pAD) reflects neuropathological findings of AD in cognitively normal subjects. The present study represents an effort to determine if differences could be identified in the longitudinal patterns of cognitive performance in persons classified as pAD compared to those who did not meet criteria for AD at autopsy. We included 121 subjects who were cognitively normal from baseline through their last assessment before death and who underwent autopsy. Participants were classified into two groups: pathologically normal (PN; NIA-Reagan low or no-likelihood of AD, n=89) and preclinical AD (pAD; NIA-Reagan criteria of intermediate or high-likelihood of AD in the absence of clinical dementia symptoms, n=32) followed for a mean 7.5 years prior to death. Longitudinal rates and patterns of change in scores on a standard cognitive battery were compared between these two groups. While cognitive results at baseline and last evaluations revealed no clear cross sectional group differences after adjustment for age, APOE status, education, and gender, statistically significant differences between the pAD and PN groups in slope of decline were seen on a composite score of cognitive function. Further analyses showed three components of this score reached significance: constructional praxis, delayed recall of a word list, and category verbal fluency. Despite being clinically viewed as normal at enrollment and at the final exam, there are significant differences in rates of cognitive decline in participants classified as pAD compared to those without this pathology. Longitudinal changes in slope of decline in specific cognitive test measures can serve as non-invasive methods for the detection of pAD.
Alzheimer’s disease; cognition; normal; preclinical
Hippocampal sclerosis is a relatively common neuropathological finding (∼10% of individuals over the age of 85 years) characterized by cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus that is not explained by Alzheimer’s disease. Hippocampal sclerosis pathology can be associated with different underlying causes, and we refer to hippocampal sclerosis in the aged brain as hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. Much remains unknown about hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. We combined three different large autopsy cohorts: University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Centre, the Nun Study and the Georgia Centenarian Study to obtain a pool of 1110 patients, all of whom were evaluated neuropathologically at the University of Kentucky. We focused on the subset of cases with neuropathology-confirmed hippocampal sclerosis (n = 106). For individuals aged ≥95 years at death (n = 179 in our sample), each year of life beyond the age of 95 years correlated with increased prevalence of hippocampal sclerosis pathology and decreased prevalence of ‘definite’ Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Aberrant TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry was seen in 89.9% of hippocampal sclerosis positive patients compared with 9.7% of hippocampal sclerosis negative patients. TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry can be used to demonstrate that the disease is usually bilateral even when hippocampal sclerosis pathology is not obvious by haematoxylin and eosin stains. TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry was negative on brain sections from younger individuals (n = 10) after hippocampectomy due to seizures, who had pathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis. There was no association between cases with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing and apolipoprotein E genotype. Age of death and clinical features of hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing (with or without aberrant TAR DNA protein 43) were distinct from previously published cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration TAR DNA protein 43. To help sharpen our ability to discriminate patients with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing clinically, the longitudinal cognitive profile of 43 patients with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing was compared with the profiles of 75 controls matched for age, gender, education level and apolipoprotein E genotype. These individuals were followed from intake assessment, with 8.2 (average) longitudinal cognitive assessments. A neuropsychological profile with relatively high-verbal fluency but low word list recall distinguished the hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing group at intake (P < 0.015) and also 5.5–6.5 years before death (P < 0.005). This may provide a first step in clinical differentiation of hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing versus pure Alzheimer’s disease in their earliest stages. In summary, in the largest series of autopsy-verified patients with hippocampal sclerosis to date, we characterized the clinical and pathological features associated with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing.
biomarkers; PGRN; epilepsy; FTLD; cerebrovascular; stroke
The type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT activate influenza viruses and the SARS-coronavirus (TMPRSS2) in cell culture and may play an important role in viral spread and pathogenesis in the infected host. However, it is at present largely unclear to what extent these proteases are expressed in viral target cells in human tissues. Here, we show that both HAT and TMPRSS2 are coexpressed with 2,6-linked sialic acids, the major receptor determinant of human influenza viruses, throughout the human respiratory tract. Similarly, coexpression of ACE2, the SARS-coronavirus receptor, and TMPRSS2 was frequently found in the upper and lower aerodigestive tract, with the exception of the vocal folds, epiglottis and trachea. Finally, activation of influenza virus was conserved between human, avian and porcine TMPRSS2, suggesting that this protease might activate influenza virus in reservoir-, intermediate- and human hosts. In sum, our results show that TMPRSS2 and HAT are expressed by important influenza and SARS-coronavirus target cells and could thus support viral spread in the human host.
Mesothelial cells are critical in the pathogenesis of post-surgical intraabdominal adhesions as well as in the deterioration of the peritoneal membrane associated with long-term peritoneal dialysis. Mesothelial denudation is a pathophysiolocigally important finding in these processes. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) biology underlies aspects of mesothelial homeostasis as well as wound repair. The endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) moderate MMP activity.
Methods and Finding
By modifying human TIMP-1 through the addition of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, a recombinant protein was generated that efficiently focuses TIMP-1 on the cell surface. Treatment of primary mesothelial cells with TIMP-1-GPI facilitates their mobilization and migration leading to a dramatic increase in the rate of wound experimental closure. Mesothelial cells treated with TIMP-1-GPI showed a dose dependent increase in cell proliferation, reduced secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, TNF-α and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), but increased tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Treatment resulted in reduced expression and processing of latent TGF-β1.
TIMP-1-GPI stimulated rapid and efficient in vitro wound closure. The agent enhanced mesothelial cell proliferation and migration and was bioactive in the nanogram range. The application of TIMP-1-GPI may represent a new approach for limiting or repairing damaged mesothelium.
Mesenchymal stem (or stromal) cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic progenitor cells that can be obtained from bone marrow aspirates or adipose tissue, expanded and genetically modified in vitro, and then used for cancer therapeutic strategies in vivo. Here, we review available data regarding the application of MSC-based tumor-targeted therapy in gastrointestinal cancer, provide an overview of the general history of MSC-based gene therapy in cancer research, and discuss potential problems associated with the utility of MSC-based therapy such as biosafety, immunoprivilege, transfection methods, and distribution in the host.
We generated extensive transcriptional and proteomic profiles from a Her2-driven mouse model of breast cancer that closely recapitulates human breast cancer. This report makes these data publicly available in raw and processed forms, as a resource to the community. Importantly, we previously made biospecimens from this same mouse model freely available through a sample repository, so researchers can obtain samples to test biological hypotheses without the need of breeding animals and collecting biospecimens.
Twelve datasets are available, encompassing 841 LC-MS/MS experiments (plasma and tissues) and 255 microarray analyses of multiple tissues (thymus, spleen, liver, blood cells, and breast). Cases and controls were rigorously paired to avoid bias.
In total, 18,880 unique peptides were identified (PeptideProphet peptide error rate ≤1%), with 3884 and 1659 non-redundant protein groups identified in plasma and tissue datasets, respectively. Sixty-one of these protein groups overlapped between cancer plasma and cancer tissue.
Conclusions and clinical relevance
These data are of use for advancing our understanding of cancer biology, for software and quality control tool development, investigations of analytical variation in MS/MS data, and selection of proteotypic peptides for MRM-MS. The availability of these datasets will contribute positively to clinical proteomics.
Breast cancer; Her2; mouse; proteome; transcriptome
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to the clinical state between normal cognition and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), but persons diagnosed with MCI may progress to non-AD forms of dementia, remain MCI until death, or recover to normal cognition. Risk factors for these various clinical changes, which we term “transitions,” may provide targets for therapeutic interventions. Therefore, it is useful to develop new approaches to assess risk factors for these transitions. Markov models have been used to investigate the transient nature of MCI represented by amnestic single-domain and mixed MCI states, where mixed MCI comprised all other MCI subtypes based on cognitive assessments. The purpose of this study is to expand this risk model by including a clinically determined MCI state as an outcome. Analyses show that several common risk factors play different roles in affecting transitions to MCI and dementia. Notably, APOE-4 increases the risk of transition to clinical MCI but does not affect the risk for a final transition to dementia, and baseline hypertension decreases the risk of transition to dementia from clinical MCI.
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a molecularly heterogeneous disease that is intrinsically resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. While VEGF and mTOR targeted therapies have shown clinical activity, their effects are variable and short-lived, underscoring the need for improved treatment strategies for RCC. Here, we used quantitative phosphoproteomics and immunohistochemical profiling of 346 RCC specimens to determine that Src kinase signaling is elevated in RCC cells that retain wild type (WT) von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein expression. Correspondingly, VHL-WT RCC cell lines and xenografts were sensitized to the Src inhibitor dasatinib compared to VHL null cells. Forced expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) in VHL-WT RCC cells diminished Src signaling output by repressing transcription of the Src activator protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and conferred resistance to dasatinib. Our results suggest that a HIF-regulated VHL-PTP1B-Src signaling axis determines sensitivity of RCC to Src inhibitors and that stratification of RCC patients using antibody-based biomarker profiling may identify patients likely to respond to Src inhibitors in RCC clinical trials.
MicroRNA (miRNA) expression was assessed in human cerebral cortical gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in order to provide the first insights into the difference between GM and WM miRNA repertoires across a range of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. RNA was isolated separately from GM and WM portions of superior and middle temporal cerebral cortex (N = 10 elderly females, postmortem interval < 4 h). miRNA profiling experiments were performed using state-of-the-art Exiqon© LNA-microarrays. A subset of miRNAs that appeared to be strongly expressed according to the microarrays did not appear to be conventional miRNAs according to Northern blot analyses. Some well-characterized miRNAs were substantially enriched in WM as expected. However, most of the miRNA expression variability that correlated with the presence of early AD-related pathology was seen in GM. We confirm that downregulation of a set of miRNAs in GM (including several miR-15/107 genes and miR-29 paralogs) correlated strongly with the density of diffuse amyloid plaques detected in adjacent tissue. A few miRNAs were differentially expressed in WM, including miR-212 that is downregulated in AD and miR-424 which is upregulated in AD. The expression of certain miRNAs correlates with other miRNAs across different cases, and particular subsets of miRNAs are coordinately expressed in relation to AD-related pathology. These data support the hypothesis that patterns of miRNA expression in cortical GM may contribute to AD pathogenetically, because the aggregate change in miRNA expression observed early in the disease would be predicted to cause profound changes in gene expression.