In previously published studies, oncolytic adenovirus-mediated gene therapy has produced good results in targeting cancer cells. However, safety and efficacy, the two most important aspects in cancer therapy, remain serious challenges. The specific expression or deletion of replication related genes in an adenovirus has been frequently utilized to regulate the cancer cell specificity of a virus. Accordingly, in this study, we deleted 24 bp in E1A (bp924-bp947) and the entirety of E1B, including those genes encoding E1B 55kDa and E1B19kDa. We used the survivin promoter (SP) to control E1A in order to construct a new adenovirus vector named Ad.SP.E1A(Δ24).ΔE1B (briefly Ad.SPDD). HCCS1 (hepatocellular carcinoma suppressor 1) is a novel tumor suppressor gene that is able to specifically induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The expression cassette AFP-HCCS1-WPRE-SV40 was inserted into Ad.SPDD to form Ad.SPDD-HCCS1, enabling us to improve the safety and efficacy of oncolytic-mediated gene therapy for liver cancer.
Ad.SPDD showed a decreased viral yield and less toxicity in normal cells but enhanced toxicity in liver cancer cells, compared with the cancer-specific adenovirus ZD55 (E1B55K deletion). Ad.SPDD-HCCS1 exhibited a potent anti-liver-cancer ability and decreased toxicity in vitro. Ad.SPDD-HCCS1 also showed a measurable capacity to inhibit Huh-7 xenograft tumor growth on nude mice. The underlying mechanism of Ad.SPDD-HCCS1-induced liver cancer cell death was found to be via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.
These results demonstrate that Ad.SPDD-HCCS1 was able to elicit reduced toxicity and enhanced efficacy both in vitro and in vivo compared to a previously constructed oncolytic adenovirus. Ad.SPDD-HCCS1 could be a promising candidate for liver cancer therapy.
liver cancer; quadruple regulated adenovirus; HCCS1; mitochondrial apoptosis pathway
Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been increasingly trialed to treat a variety of diseases, the underlying mechanisms remain still elusive. In this study, human umbilical cord (UC)-derived MSCs were stimulated by hypoxia, and the membrane microvesicles (MVs) in the supernatants were collected by ultracentrifugation, observed under an electron microscope, and the origin was identified with the flow cytometric technique. The results showed that upon hypoxic stimulus, MSCs released a large quantity of MVs of ∼100 nm in diameter. The MVs were phenotypically similar to the parent MSCs, except that the majority of them were negative for the receptor of platelet-derived growth factor. DiI-labeling assay revealed that MSC-MVs could be internalized into human UC endothelial cells (UC-ECs) within 8 h after they were added into the culture medium. Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester-labeling technique and MTT test showed that MSC-MVs promoted the proliferation of UC-ECs in a dose-dependent manner. Further, MVs could enhance in vitro capillary network formation of UC-ECs in a Matrigel matrix. In a rat hindlimb ischemia model, both MSCs and MSC-MVs were shown to improve significantly the blood flow recovery compared with the control medium (P<0.0001), as assessed by laser Doppler imaging analysis. These data indicate that MV releasing is one of the major mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of MSC therapy by promoting angiogenesis.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by immune cells. Th22 cells are CD4+ T cells that secret IL-22 but not IL-17 or IFN-γ and are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease. The roles of Th22 cells in the pathophysiologic procedures of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the profile of Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells in ACS patients, including unstable angina (UA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients.
Design and Methods
In this study, 26 AMI patients, 16 UA patients, 16 stable angina (SA) patients and 16 healthy controls were included. The frequencies of Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells in AMI, UA, SA patients and healthy controls were examined by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of IL-22, IL-17 and IFN-γ were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells were significantly increased in AMI and UA patients compared with SA patients and healthy controls. Moreover, plasma IL-22 level was significantly elevated in AMI and UA patients. In addition, Th22 cells correlated positively with IL-22 as well as Th17 cells in AMI and UA patients.
Our findings showed increased frequencies of both Th22 and Th17 cells in ACS patients, which suggest that Th22 and Th17 cells may play a potential role in plaque destabilization and the development of ACS.
There are no available clinical tests that can accurately predict peanut allergy (PA) and/or anaphylaxis. This study is aimed at evaluating whether the component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) IgE and IgG4 tests can 1) distinguish PA from asymptomatic peanut sensitization; and 2) differentiate anaphylactic vs. non-anaphylactic PA.
This study included 20 non-atopic controls, 58 asymptomatically peanut-sensitized children, 55 non-anaphylactic and 53 anaphylactic PA cases from the Chicago Food Allergy Study. IgE and IgG4 to 103 allergens were measured using the ImmunoCAP ISAC technology, and were compared among each group of children. The random forest test was applied to estimate each allergen’s ability to predict PA and/or peanut anaphylaxis.
PA cases (with or without anaphylaxis) had significantly higher IgE reactivity to Ara h 1–3 (peanut allergens) and Gly m 5–6 (soy allergens) than asymptomatically-sensitized children (p<0.00001). Similar but more modest relationships were found for IgG4 to Ara h 2 (p<0.01). IgE to Ara h 2 was the major contributor to accurate discrimination between PA and asymptomatic sensitization. With an optimal cutoff point of 0.65 ISU-E, it conferred 99.1% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, and a 1.2% misclassification rate in the prediction of PA, which represented a higher discriminative accuracy than IgE to whole peanut extract (p=0.008). However, none of the IgE and/or IgG4 tests could significantly differentiate peanut anaphylaxis from non-anaphylactic PA.
IgE to Ara h 2 can efficiently differentiate clinical PA from asymptomatic peanut sensitization, which may represent a major step forward in the diagnosis of PA.
Ara h 2; Component-resolved diagnostics; Diagnostic performance; Peanut allergy; Peanut anaphylaxis
The purpose of the present work was to determine the mechanisms by which microemulsions (MEs) enhance the oral bioavailability of puerarin. The in situ perfusion method was used in rats to study the absorption mechanisms of an oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion (O/W-ME) and a water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion (W/O-ME). The possibility of lymphatic transport of the MEs was investigated using a chylomicron flow blocking approach. The results for the absorption mechanisms in the stomach and intestines indicated that the absorption characteristics of the O/W-ME and W/O-ME depend on the segment. The W/O-ME had higher internal membrane permeability than the O/W-ME. The results of the lymphatic transport analyses showed that both the O/W-ME and W/O-ME underwent lymphatic transport and that this pathway was a major contributor to the oral bioavailability of MEs. Furthermore, the type of ME can significantly affect the absorption of puerarin through the lymphatic system due to the oil content and the form of the microemulsion after oral administration. In conclusion, these data indicate that microemulsions are an effective and promising delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.
microemulsion; lymphatic transport; oral bioavailability; chylomicron
To investigate the effect of the H-2Kd gene on the lymphocyte membrane, we constructed a small interfering RNA (siRNA) that targets the H-2Kd gene and compared the cytotoxicity of mouse lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells with different H-2Kd expression states. H-2Kd-targeting siRNA was transfected into spleen lymphocytes of BALB/C mice. Flow cytometry (FCM) was then performed to examine the expression of the H-2Kd gene in the transfected and control cells. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the transfected cells toward the H22 and K562 cell lines was evaluated in vitro using the LDH release assay. H-2Kd-targeting siRNA significantly reduced the expression levels of the target protein, whereas pure transMessenger and non-silencing siRNA did not inhibit H-2Kd expression at the concentrations tested. The cytotoxicity of siRNA-treated LAK cells toward H22 and K562 cells was reduced significantly. The knockdown of H-2Kd gene expression by siRNA may be associated with LAK cell cytotoxicity toward neoplasm cell lines.
RNA interference; siRNA; Posttranslational gene silencing; Lymphokine-activated killer
To develop novel biomineral-binding liposomes (BBL) for the prevention of orthopedic implant associated osteomyelitis.
A biomineral-binding lipid, alendronate-tri(ethylene-glycol)-cholesterol conjugate (ALN-TEG-Chol), was synthesized through Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (a versatile click reaction). Mixing with other excipients, the new lipid was used to develop BBL. Thermodynamic behavior was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro biomineral-binding potential and kinetics were evaluated on hydroxyapatite (HA, a widely used material for orthopedic implant devices) particles. Oxacillin was encapsulated into BBL and used for in vitro evaluation in preventing Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.
DSC analysis showed that ALN-TEG-Chol could inhibit the phase transition of liposomes by reducing its cooperativity, yielding liposomes with thermodynamic stability similar to liposomes containing regular cholesterol. BBL showed fast and strong binding ability to HA. Oxacillin-loading BBL demonstrated significantly better preventive efficacy against bacteria colonization when challenged with S. aureus isolate, implying its potential in preventing orthopedic implant associated osteomyelitis.
In this proof of concept study, novel BBL has been successfully developed and validated for reducing the frequency of implantable device-related infections.
bisphosphonates; liposomes; orthopaedic implant; osteomyelitis; oxacillin
Waardenburg Syndrome (WS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary abnormalities of the eyes, hair, and skin. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene mutations account for about 15% of WS type II (WS2) cases. To date, fewer than 40 different MITF gene mutations have been identified in human WS2 patients, and few of these were of Chinese descent. In this study, we report clinical findings and mutation identification in the MITF gene of 20 Chinese WS2 patients from 14 families. A high level of clinical variability was identified. Sensorineural hearing loss (17/20, 85.0%) and heterochromia iridum (20/20, 100.0%) were the most commonly observed clinical features in Chinese WS2 patients. Five affected individuals (5/20, 25.0%) had numerous brown freckles on the face, trunk, and limb extremities. Mutation screening of the MITF gene identified five mutations: c.20A>G, c.332C>T, c.647_649delGAA, c.649A>G, and c.763C>T. The total mutational frequency of the MITF gene was 21.4% (3/14), which is significantly higher than the 15.0% observed in the fair-skinned WS2 population. Our results indicate that MITF mutations are relatively common among Chinese WS2 patients.
There is a strong research interest in identifying the surface roughness of the carotid arterial inner wall via texture analysis for early diagnosis of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of texture analysis methods for identifying arterial roughness in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Ultrasound images of common carotid arteries of 15 normal mice fed a normal diet and 28 apoE−/− mice fed a high-fat diet were recorded by a high-frequency ultrasound system (Vevo 2100, frequency: 40 MHz). Six different texture feature sets were extracted based on the following methods: first-order statistics, fractal dimension texture analysis, spatial gray level dependence matrix, gray level difference statistics, the neighborhood gray tone difference matrix, and the statistical feature matrix. Statistical analysis indicates that 11 of 19 texture features can be used to distinguish between normal and abnormal groups (p<0.05). When the 11 optimal features were used as inputs to a support vector machine classifier, we achieved over 89% accuracy, 87% sensitivity and 93% specificity. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the k-nearest neighbor classifier were 73%, 75% and 70%, respectively. The results show that it is feasible to identify arterial surface roughness based on texture features extracted from ultrasound images of the carotid arterial wall. This method is shown to be useful for early detection and diagnosis of atherosclerosis.
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of full robot-assisted gastrectomy with intracorporeal robot hand-sewn anastomosis in the treatment of gastric cancer.
METHODS: From September 2011 to March 2013, 110 consecutive patients with gastric cancer at the authors’ institution were enrolled for robotic gastrectomies. According to tumor location, total gastrectomy, distal or proximal subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy was fully performed by the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System. All construction, including Roux-en-Y jejunal limb, esophagojejunal, gastroduodenal and gastrojejunal anastomoses were fully carried out by the intracorporeal robot-sewn method. At the end of surgery, the specimen was removed through a 3-4 cm incision at the umbilicus trocar point. The details of the surgical technique are well illustrated. The benefits in terms of surgical and oncologic outcomes are well documented, as well as the failure rate and postoperative complications.
RESULTS: From a total of 110 enrolled patients, radical gastrectomy could not be performed in 2 patients due to late stage disease; 1 patient was converted to laparotomy because of uncontrollable hemorrhage, and 1 obese patient was converted due to difficult exposure; 2 patients underwent extra-corporeal anastomosis by minilaparotomy to ensure adequate tumor margin. Robot-sewn anastomoses were successfully performed for 12 proximal, 38 distal and 54 total gastrectomies. The average surgical time was 272.52 ± 53.91 min and the average amount of bleeding was 80.78 ± 32.37 mL. The average number of harvested lymph nodes was 23.1 ± 5.3. All specimens showed adequate surgical margin. With regard to tumor staging, 26, 32 and 46 patients were staged as I, II and III, respectively. The average hospitalization time after surgery was 6.2 d. One patient experienced a duodenal stump anastomotic leak, which was mild and treated conservatively. One patient was readmitted for intra-abdominal infection and was treated conservatively. Jejunal afferent loop obstruction occurred in 1 patient, who underwent re-operation and recovered quickly.
CONCLUSION: This technique is feasible and can produce satisfying postoperative outcomes. It is also convenience and reliable for anastomoses in gastrectomy. Full robotic hand-sewn anastomosis may be a minimally invasive technique for gastrectomy surgery.
Robotic surgery; Gastric cancer; Total gastrectomy; Esophagojejunal anastomosis
A systematic study was conducted on round spermatids (ROS) injection (ROSI) using the goat model. After ROSI, the oocytes were treated or not with ionomycin (ROSI+I and ROSI−I, respectively) and compared with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). After ROSI−I, most oocytes were arrested with premature chromatin condensation and few oocytes formed pronuclei. In contrast, most oocytes formed pronuclei after ROSI+I. Some ROS were observed to form asters that organized a dense microtubule network after ROSI+I, but after ROSI−I, no ROS asters were observed. Whereas most of the oocytes showed Ca2+ rises and a significant decline in maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities after ROSI+I, no such changes were observed after ROSI−I. Due to the lack of Ca2+ oscillations after ROSI−I, oocytes were injected with more ROS. Interestingly, different from the results observed in a single ROS injection, injection with four ROS effectively activated oocytes by inducing typical Ca2+ oscillations. Whereas ROSI+I oocytes and ICSI oocytes both showed extensive microtubule networks, no such a network was observed in parthenogenetic oocytes. Together, the results suggest that goat ROS is not able to trigger intracellular Ca2+ rises and thus to inhibit MPF and MAPK activities, but artificial activation improved fertilization and development of ROSI goat oocytes. Goat ROS can organize functional microtubular asters in activated oocytes. A ROS-derived factor(s) may be essential for organization of a functional microtubule network to unite pronuclei. Goat centrosome is of paternal origin because both ROS and sperm asters organized an extensive microtubule network after intra-oocyte injection.
Protein 4.1N belongs to the protein 4.1 superfamily that links transmembrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton. Recent evidence has shown that protein 4.1 is important in tumor suppression. However, the functions of 4.1N in the metastasis of breast cancer are largely unknown. In the present study, MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines with various metastatic abilities were employed. Protein 4.1N was found to be expressed in poorly metastatic MCF-7 and middle metastatic T-47D cell lines, and was predominantly associated with cell-cell junctions. However, no 4.1N expression was detected in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, re-expression of 4.1N in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited cell adhesion, migration and invasion. The results suggest that protein 4.1N is a negative regulator of cell metastasis in breast cancer.
breast cancer; protein 4.1 superfamily; protein 4.1N; metastasis
Copy number variations (CNVs) are one of the main contributors to genetic diversity in animals and are broadly distributed in the genomes of swine. Investigating the performance and evolutionary impacts of pig CNVs requires comprehensive knowledge of their structure and function within and between breeds. In the current study, 4 different programs (i.e., GADA, PennCNV, QuantiSNP, and cnvPartition) were used to analyze Porcine SNP60 genotyping data of 585 pigs from one Large White × Minzhu intercross population to detect copy number variant regions (CNVRs). Overlapping CNVRs recalled by at least 2 programs were used to construct a powerful and comprehensive CNVR map, which contained249 CNVRs (i.e., 70 gains, 43 losses, and 136 gains/losses) and covered 26.22% of the regions in the swine genome. Ten CNVRs, representing different predicted statuses, were selected for validation via quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR); 9/10 CNVRs (i.e., 90%) were validated. When being traced back to the F0 generation, 58 events were identified in only Minzhu F0 parents and 2 events were identified in only Large White F0 parents. A series of CNVR function analyses were performed. Some of the CNVRs functions were predicted, and several interesting CNVRs for meat quality traits and hematological parameters were obtained. A comprehensive and lower false rate genome-wide CNV map was constructed for Large White and Minzhu pig genomes in this study. Our results may provide an important basis for determining the relationship between CNVRs and important qualitative and quantitative traits. In addition, it can help to further understand genetic processes in pigs.
Recent success in the derivation of haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) from mouse via parthenogenesis and androgenesis has enabled genetic screening in mammalian cells and generation of gene-modified animals. However, whether haESCs can be derived from primates remains unknown. Here, we report the derivation of haESCs from parthenogenetic blastocysts of Macaca fascicularis monkeys. These cells, termed as PG-haESCs, are pluripotent and can differentiate to cells of three embryonic germ layers in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the haploidy of one monkey PG-haESC line (MPH1) is more stable compared with that of the other one (MPH2), as shown by the existence of haploid cells for more than 140 days without fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) enrichment of haploid cells. Importantly, transgenic monkey PG-haESC lines can be generated by lentivirus- and piggyBac transposon-mediated gene transfer. Moreover, genetic screening is feasible in monkey PG-haESCs. Our results demonstrate that PG-haESCs can be generated from monkeys, providing an ideal tool for genetic analyses in primates.
embryonic stem cell; haploid cells; monkey
In higher plants, seed storage proteins (SSPs) are frequently expressed from complex gene families, and allelic variation of SSP genes often affects the quality traits of crops. In common wheat, the Glu-D1 locus, encoding 1Dx and 1Dy SSPs, has multiple alleles. The Glu-D1d allele frequently confers superior end-use qualities to commercial wheat varieties. Here, we studied the haplotype structure of Glu-D1 genomic region and the origin of Glu-D1d. Using seven diagnostic DNA markers, 12 Glu-D1 haplotypes were detected among common wheat, European spelt wheat (T. spelta, a primitive hexaploid relative of common wheat), and Aegilops tauschii (the D genome donor of hexaploid wheat). By comparatively analyzing Glu-D1 haplotypes and their associated 1Dx and 1Dy genes, we deduce that the haplotype carrying Glu-D1d was likely differentiated in the ancestral hexaploid wheat around 10,000 years ago, and was subsequently transmitted to domesticated common wheat and T. spelta. A group of relatively ancient Glu-D1 haplotypes was discovered in Ae. tauschii, which may serve for the evolution of other haplotypes. Moreover, a number of new Glu-D1d variants were found in T. spelta. The main steps in Glu-D1d differentiation are proposed. The implications of our work for enhancing the utility of Glu-D1d in wheat quality improvement and studying the SSP alleles in other crop species are discussed.
A novel cationic microbubble (MB) for improvement of the DNA loading capacity and the ultrasound-mediated gene delivery efficiency has been developed; it has been prepared with commercial lipids and a stearic acid modified polyethylenimine 600 (Stearic-PEI600) polymer synthesized via acylation reaction of branched PEI600 and stearic acid mediated by N, N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI). The MBs’ concentration, size distribution, stability and zeta potential (ζ-potential) were measured and the DNA loading capacity was examined as a function of the amount of Stearic-PEI600. The gene transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity were also examined using breast cancer MCF-7 cells via the reporter plasmid pCMV-Luc, encoding the firefly luciferase gene. The results showed that the Stearic-PEI600 polymer caused a significant increase in magnitude of ζ-potential of MBs. The addition of DNA into cationic MBs can shift ζ-potentials from positive to negative values. The DNA loading capacity of the MBs grew linearly from (5±0.2) ×10−3 pg/µm2 to (20±1.8) ×10−3 pg/µm2 when Stearic-PEI600 was increased from 5 mol% to 30 mol%. Transfection of MCF-7 cells using 5% PEI600 MBs plus ultrasound exposure yielded 5.76±2.58×103 p/s/cm2/sr average radiance intensity, was 8.97- and 7.53-fold higher than those treated with plain MBs plus ultrasound (6.41±5.82) ×102 p/s/cm2/sr, (P<0.01) and PEI600 MBs without ultrasound (7.65±6.18) ×102 p/s/cm2/sr, (P<0.01), respectively. However, the PEI600 MBs showed slightly higher cytotoxicity than plain MBs. The cells treated with PEI600-MBs and plain MBs plus ultrasound showed 59.5±6.1% and 71.4±7.1% cell viability, respectively. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the novel cationic MBs were able to increase DNA loading capacity and gene transfection efficiency and could be potentially applied in targeted gene delivery and therapy.
Macrophages and dendritic cells are recognized as key players in the defense against mycobacterial infection. Recent research has confirmed that alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) also play important roles against mycobacterium infections. Thus, establishing a stable cattle AEC line for future endogenous immune research on bacterial invasion is necessary. In the present study, we first purified and immortalized type II AECs (AEC II cells) by transfecting them with a plasmid containing the human telomerase reverse trancriptase gene. We then tested whether or not the immortalized cells retained the basic physiological properties of primary AECs by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Finally, we tested the secretion capacity of immortalized AEC II cells upon stimulation by bacterial invasion. The cattle type II alveolar epithelial cell line (HTERT-AEC II) that we established retained lung epithelial cell characteristics: the cells were positive for surfactants A and B, and they secreted tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in response to bacterial invasion. Thus, the cell line we established is a potential tool for research on the relationship between AECs and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer (PCa) development. Although several dietary compounds have been tested in preclinical PCa prevention models, no agents have been identified that either prevent the progression of premalignant lesions or treat advanced disease. Momordica charantia, known as bitter melon in English, is a plant that grows in tropical areas worldwide and is both eaten as a vegetable and used for medicinal purposes. We have isolated a protein, designated as MCP30, from bitter melon seeds. The purified fraction was verified by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry to contain only 2 highly related single chain Type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), α-momorcharin and β-momorcharin. MCP30 induces apoptosis in PIN and PCa cell lines in vitro and suppresses PC-3 growth in vivo with no effect on normal prostate cells. Mechanistically, MCP30 inhibits histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC-1) activity and promotes histone-3 and -4 protein acetylation. Treatment with MCP30 induces PTEN expression in a prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and PCa cell lines resulting in inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. In addition, MCP30 inhibits Wnt signaling activity through reduction of nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and decreased levels of c-Myc and Cyclin-D1. Our data indicate that MCP30 selectively induces PIN and PCa apoptosis and inhibits HDAC-1 activity. These results suggest that Type I RIPs derived from plants are HDAC inhibitors that can be utilized in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.
ribosome inactivating protein; HDAC inhibitor; prostate cancer; tumor suppresive gene; dietary factors
As prokaryotic models for multicellular development, Stigmatellaaurantiaca and Myxococcus xanthus share many similarities in terms of social behaviors, such as gliding motility. Our current understanding of myxobacterial grouped-cell motilities comes mainly from the research on M. xanthus, which shows that filamentous type IV pili (TFP), composed of type IV pilin (also called PilA protein) subunits, are the key apparatus for social motility (S-motility). However, little is known about the pilin protein in S. aurantiaca. We cloned and sequenced four genes (pilASa1~4) from S. aurantiaca DSM17044 that are homologous to pilAMx (pilA gene in M. xanthus DK1622). The homology and similarities among PilASa proteins and other myxobacterial homologues were systematically analyzed. To determine their potential biological functions, the four pilASa genes were expressed in M. xanthus DK10410 (ΔpilAMx), which did not restore S-motility on soft agar or EPS production to host cells. After further analysis of the motile behaviors in a methylcellulose solution, the M. xanthus strains were categorized into three types. YL6101, carrying pilASa1, and YL6104, carrying pilASa4, produced stable but unretractable surface pili; YL6102, carrying pilASa2, produced stable surface pili and exhibited reduced TFP-dependent motility in methylcellulose; YL6103, carrying pilASa3, produced unstable surface pili. Based on these findings, we propose that pilASa2 might be responsible for the type IV pilin production involved in group motility in S. aurantiaca DSM17044. After examining the developmental processes, it was suggested that the expression of PilASa4 protein might have positive effects on the fruiting body formation of M. xanthus DK10410 cells. Moreover, the formation of fruiting body in M. xanthus cells with stable exogenous TFPSa were compensated by mixing them with S. aurantiaca DSM17044 cells. Our results shed some light on the features and functions of type IV pilin homologues in S. aurantiaca.
The increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) poses a serious public health problem worldwide. Effective prevention and intervention require improved understanding of the factors that contribute to MS. We analyzed data on a large twin cohort to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to MS and to major MS components and their inter-correlations: waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. We applied structural equation modeling to determine genetic and environmental structure of MS and its major components, using 1,617 adult female twin pairs recruited from rural China. The heritability estimate for MS was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.00–0.83) in this sample with low MS prevalence (4.4%). For MS components, heritability estimates were statistically significant and ranged from 0.13 to 0.64 highest for WC, followed by TG, SBP, DBP, HDL-C, and FPG. HDL-C was mainly influenced by common environmental factors (0.62, 95%CI: 0.58–0.62), while the other five MS components were largely influenced by unique environmental factors (0.32–0.44). Bivariate Cholesky decomposition analysis indicated that the clinical clustering of MS components may be explained by shared genetic and/or environmental factors. Our study underscores the importance of examining MS components as inter-correlated traits, and to carefully consider environmental and genetic factors in studying MS etiology.
metabolic syndrome; twin study; heritability; Chinese
Cancer-targeting dual-gene virotherapy (CTGVT-DG) is an important modification of CTGVT, in which two suitable genes are used to obtain an excellent antitumor effect. A key problem is to join the two genes to form one fused gene, and then to clone it into the oncolytic viral vector so that only one investigational new drug application, instead of two, is required for clinical use. Many linkers (e.g., internal ribosome entry site) are used to join two genes together, but they are not all equally efficacious. Here, we describe finding the best linker, that is, sequence encoding the four amino acids IETD, to join the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) gene and the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) gene to form TRAIL-IETD-Smac and inserting it into oncolytic viral vector ZD55 to construct ZD55-TRAIL-IETD-Smac, which matched ZD55-TRAIL plus ZD55-Smac in completely eliminating xenograft hepatoma. ZD55-TRAIL-IETD-Smac works by quantitative cleavage at IETD↓by inducing caspase-8; activation or inhibition of caspase-8 could up- or downregulate cleavage, respectively. The cleaved product, TRAIL-IETD, does not affect the function of TRAIL. Numerous experiments have shown that the combined use of ZD55-TRAIL plus ZD55-X could completely eradicate many xenograft tumors, and therefore the IETD is potentially a useful linker to construct many antitumor drugs, for example, ZD55-TRAIL-IETD-X, where X has a compensative or synergetic effect on TRAIL. We found that the antitumor effect of ZD55-IL-24-IETD-TRAIL also has an equivalent antitumor effect compared with the combined use of ZD55-IL-24 plus ZD55-TRAIL, because ZD55-IL-24 could also induce caspase-8. This means that IETD, as a two-gene linker, may have broad use.
Wang and colleagues identify the amino acid sequence IETD as the most effective linker to mediate cancer-targeting dual gene virotherapy. IETD-linked tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) were cloned into the ZD55 oncolytic viral vector. ZD55-TRAIL-IETD-Smac completely eliminated xenografted hepatomas in nude mice.
Whole-heart coronary MR angiography (MRA) is a promising method for non-invasive, radiation-free detection and exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD); however, the required imaging time and robustness of the technique are not yet satisfactory. We evaluated the value of whole-heart coronary MRA at 3.0T using a 32-channal cardiac coil, which reduces image acquisition times and hence allows to increase the clinical throughput.
Methods and Results
A total of 110 consecutive patients with suspected CAD referred for clinically indicated conventional coronary angiography were included in this prospective study. 32-channel receiver coils were used for 3.0T coronary MRA data acquisition. An ECG-triggered, navigator-gated, inversion-recovery prepared, segmented gradient-echo sequence was used for image acquisition with an acceleration factor of three in the phase-encoding direction using GRAPPA reconstruction. Acquisition of coronary MRA was successfully completed in 101 of 110 (92%) patients with average imaging time of 7.0 ± 1.8 min. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of coronary MRA on a patient-based analysis were 95.9% (47/49, 95% CI: 86.0% to 99.4%), 86.5% (45/52, 95% CI, 74.2% to 94.4%), 87.0% (47/54, 95% CI, 75.1% to 94.6%) and 95.7% (45/47, 95% CI, 85.4% to 99.4%), respectively.
Whole-heart coronary MRA at 3.0 T using a 32-channal cardiac coil allows high overall accuracy for detecting significant CAD with reduced imaging time. It has potential to be a robust and alternative technique for ruling out significant CAD.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: http://www.chictr.org. Unique identifier: ChiCTR-DDT-07000121.
magnetic resonance angiography; coronary arteries; 3.0 T
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of interankle systolic blood pressure difference (sIAND) and its influencing factors in community population.
This study included 2849 (65.1±9.4 y) subjects. Blood pressure (BPs) of four limbs was simultaneously measured with 4 electronic sphygmomanometers after 10 min rest in supine position. The difference of systolic BP (SBP) between two ankles was calculated as DETASBP. The criterion for abnormal sIAND was ≥10 mmHg of absolute DeltaSBP, in which the criterion for 1o sIAND was 10–19 mmHg and for 2o sIAND was ≥20 mmHg. Age, gender, smoking, hypertension, family histories of hypertension and diabetes were recorded. Fasting blood glucose and lipids, circumference of hip and waist, and body mass index (BMI) were measured.
The SBP was higher in the right ankle than in the left ankle (158.9±21.8 vs 157.3±21.6 mmHg, P<0.05) and mean DeltaSBP was 6.08±6.26 mmHg. Similar difference was found in both genders. The prevalence of abnormal was 18.5%, in which, the prevalence 1o sIAND was 15.3% and that of 2o sIAND was 3.1%. Multivariate regression analysis showed that age, waist circumference and blood glucose level were the positive factors for DeltaSBP. The normal upper limit for DeltaSBP was 16.7 mmHg in this population, the prevalence of sIAND by≥16 mmHg was 5.8%.
Aging, hypertension, obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism are positive factors for inter-ankle SBP difference.
Background: The aberrant activation of oncogenic signaling such as Ras/MAPK signaling is a frequent event in human cancers. In addition to genetic changes, epigenetic silencing of inhibitors in Ras/MAPK signaling contributes to the activation of Ras/MAPK signaling. Recently, ANXA6 has been shown to interact with Ras-GAP1 and inhibit Ras activation in human breast cancer. However, whether and how it is involved in human cancers remain unknown. Methods: Real-time PCR was used to determine ANXA6 expression in gastric cancer cells and primary gastric carcinomas. Next, we explored the methylation of ANXA6 promoter in cell lines and tumor tissues with methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite genomic sequencing. We also investigated the function of ANXA6 in gastric cancer cells with colony formation assay and western blotting analysis. Results: ANXA6 was down-regulated in gastric cancer cells and primary gastric carcinomas. Ectopic ANXA6 expression inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells and the activity of Ras/MAPK signaling. Its expression was restored after pharmaceutical demethylation. ANXA6 promoter was methylated in gastric cancer cell lines (6/6) and primary gastric carcinoma tissues (29/156). Interestingly, the knockdown of oncoprotein Yin Yang 1 (YY1) also restored ANXA6 expression and promoted the demethylation of ANXA6 promoter. However, ANXA6 methylation was not associated with clinical parameters such as differentiation, and TNM staging. Neither Kaplan-Meier Curve nor Cox regression analysis revealed a significant role of ANXA methylation to predict the survival of gastric cancer patients. Conclusions: We firstly reported that ANXA6 is epigenetically silenced through promoter methylation in human cancers and YY1 is important to initiate or maintain ANXA6 promoter methylation in gastric cancer cells. ANXA6 functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer cells through the inhibition of Ras/MAPK signaling. ANXA6 methylation is not a prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients.
ANXA6; methylation; gastric cancer; Ras signaling
Par-1 regulates the Hippo signaling pathway in Drosophila melanogaster by modifying the phosphorylation status of Hippo and also by inhibiting the interaction of Hippo and Salvador.
The evolutionarily conserved Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in organ size control by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Here, we reported the identification of Par-1 as a regulator of the Hpo signaling pathway using a gain-of-function EP screen in Drosophila melanogaster. Overexpression of Par-1 elevated Yorkie activity, resulting in increased Hpo target gene expression and tissue overgrowth, while loss of Par-1 diminished Hpo target gene expression and reduced organ size. We demonstrated that par-1 functioned downstream of fat and expanded and upstream of hpo and salvador (sav). In addition, we also found that Par-1 physically interacted with Hpo and Sav and regulated the phosphorylation of Hpo at Ser30 to restrict its activity. Par-1 also inhibited the association of Hpo and Sav, resulting in Sav dephosphorylation and destabilization. Furthermore, we provided evidence that Par-1-induced Hpo regulation is conserved in mammalian cells. Taken together, our findings identified Par-1 as a novel component of the Hpo signaling network.
An organism's organ size is determined by cell number, the size of each cell, and the distance between cells. All of these factors are controlled by the coordination of different cell signaling pathways and other mechanisms. The Hippo signaling pathway controls organ size by restricting the number of cells that make up the organ. Malfunction of this pathway leads to abnormal overgrowth, and is involved in a large number of human diseases and cancers. We identify here a component of the Hippo pathway, Par-1, which controls tissue growth by negatively regulating the Hippo pathway. We show that overexpression or depletion of Par-1 influences tissue growth in fruit flies via Hippo signaling. Then, by genetic and biochemical experiments, we show that Par-1 interacts with Hippo, regulating the Hippo Ser30 phosphorylation status to alter Hippo activity. In addition, we found that Par-1 regulates Hippo signaling via inhibition of the Hippo-Salvador association in a kinase-dependent fashion. We predict that Par-1 is a potential oncogene and that its regulatory role in Hippo signaling could be conserved.