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1.  Comparative Genomic Hybridization on Spotted Oligonucleotide Microarrays 
Recent advances in DNA microarray technology have enabled researchers to comprehensively characterize the complex genomes of higher eukaryotic organisms at an unprecedented level of detail. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (Array-CGH) has been widely used for detecting DNA copy number alterations on a genomic scale, where the mapping resolution is limited only by the number of probes on the DNA microarray. In this chapter, we present a validated protocol utilizing print-tip spotted HEEBO (Human Exonic Evidence Based Oligonucleotide) microarrays for conducting array-CGH using as little as 25 ng of genomic DNA from a wide variety of sources, including cultured cell lines and clinical specimens, with high spatial resolution and array-to-array reproducibility.
PMCID: PMC4209297  PMID: 19488869
DNA microarray; array-CGH; comparative genomic hybridization; HEEBO; post-processing; epoxysilane; whole-genome amplification
2.  4-1BB Signaling Activates the T Cell Factor 1 Effector/β-Catenin Pathway with Delayed Kinetics via ERK Signaling and Delayed PI3K/AKT Activation to Promote the Proliferation of CD8+ T Cells 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69677.
4-1BB (CD137), an inducible costimulatory molecule, strongly enhances the proliferation and effector function of CD8+ T cells. Since the serine/threonine kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), is involved in a variety of signaling pathways of cellular proliferation, migration, immune responses, and apoptosis, we examined whether 4-1BB signaling activates GSK-3/β-catenin signaling and downstream transcription factors to enhance the proliferation of CD8+ T cells. 4-1BB signaling induces rapid activation of ERK and IκB degradation, and shows delayed activation of AKT at 24 h post 4-1BB stimulation on anti-CD3 activated T cells. ERK and AKT signals were required for sustained β-catenin levels by inactivating GSK-3, which was also observed with delayed kinetics after 4-1BB stimulation. As a transcriptional partner of β-catenin, 4-1BB signaling decreased levels of FOXO1 and increased levels of stimulatory TCF1 in CD8+ T cells at 2–3 days but not at early time points after 4-1BB engagement. The enhanced proliferation of CD8+ T cells due to 4-1BB signaling was completely abolished by treatment with the TCF1/β-catenin inhibitor quercetin. These results show that 4-1BB signaling enhances the proliferation of activated CD8+ T cells by activating the TCF1/β-catenin axis via the PI3K/AKT/ERK pathway. As effects of 4-1BB on AKT, FOXO1, β-catenin and GSK-3β showed delayed kinetics it is likely that an intervening molecule induced by 4-1BB and ERK signaling in activated T cells is responsible for these effects. These effects were observed on CD8+ but not on CD4+ T cells. Moreover, 4-1BB appeared to be unique among several TNFRs tested in inducing increase in stimulatory over inhibitory TCF-1.
PMCID: PMC3708905  PMID: 23874982
3.  The effect of CyberKnife therapy on pulmonary function tests used for treating non-small cell lung cancer: a retrospective, observational cohort pilot study 
The current standard for treating operable early stage non-small cell lung cancer is surgical resection and for inoperable cases it is external beam radiotherapy. Lung functions are adversely affected with both the above treatments. CyberKnife treatment limits radiation damage by tracking targets moving with each breath. The effect of CyberKnife treatment on pulmonary function tests has not been well documented.
Lung cancer patients who underwent CyberKnife treatment and had pre- and post-treatment pulmonary function tests were included. Paired t-tests were conducted. We also conducted subgroup analysis.
Thirty-seven patients were included. Median age was 73 years. No statistical difference between mean pre- and post-CyberKnife pulmonary function tests was found.
We observed that CyberKnife better preserves lung function status compared to current standards of care. It has shown to have very minimal side effects.
PMCID: PMC3474144  PMID: 23091397
non-small cell lung cancer; radiation pneumonitis; radiotherapy; pulmonary function tests
4.  4-1BB Signaling Breaks the Tolerance of Maternal CD8+ T Cells That Are Reactive with Alloantigens 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e45481.
4-1BB (CD137, TNFRSF9), a member of the activation-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family, is a powerful T-cell costimulatory molecule. It generally enhances CD8+ T responses and even breaks the tolerance of CD8+ T cells in an antigen-specific manner. In the present study we found that it was expressed in the placentas of pregnant mice and that its expression coincided with that of the immunesuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Therefore, we investigated whether 4-1BB signaling is involved in fetal rejection using agonistic anti-4-1BB mAb and 4-1BB-deficient mice. Treatment with agonistic anti-4-1BB mAb markedly increased the rate of rejection of allogeneic but not syngeneic fetuses, and this was primarily dependent on CD8+ T cells. Complement component 3 (C3) seemed to be the effector molecule because 4-1BB triggering resulting in accumulation of C3 in the placenta, and this accumulation was also reversed by anti-CD8 mAb treatment. These findings demonstrate that 4-1BB triggering breaks the tolerance of CD8+ T cells to alloantigens in the placenta. Moreover, triggering 4-1BB protected the pregnant mice from Listeria monocytogenes (LM) infection, but led to rejection of semi-allogeneic fetuses. Therefore, given the cross-recognition of alloantigen by pathogen-reactive CD8+ T cells, the true function of 4-1BB may be to reverse the hypo-responsiveness of pathogen-reactive CD8+ T cells in the placenta in cases of infection, even if that risks losing the fetus.
PMCID: PMC3448654  PMID: 23029041
5.  Genomic and functional analysis identifies CRKL as an oncogene amplified in lung cancer 
Oncogene  2009;29(10):1421-1430.
DNA amplifications, leading to the overexpression of oncogenes, are a cardinal feature of lung cancer and directly contribute to its pathogenesis. To uncover novel such alterations, we performed an array-based comparative genomic hybridization survey of 128 non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and tumors. Prominent among our findings, we identified recurrent high-level amplification at cytoband 22q11.21 in 3% of lung cancer specimens, with another 11% of specimens exhibiting low-level gain spanning that locus. The 22q11.21 amplicon core contained eight named genes, only four of which were overexpressed (by transcript profiling) when amplified. Among these, CRKL encodes an adaptor protein functioning in signal transduction, best known as a substrate of the BCR-ABL kinase in chronic myelogenous leukemia. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of CRKL in lung cancer cell lines with (but not without) amplification led to significantly decreased cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, cell survival, and cell motility and invasion. In addition, overexpression of CRKL in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells led to EGF-independent cell growth. Our findings indicate that amplification and resultant overexpression of CRKL contributes to diverse oncogenic phenotypes in lung cancer, with implications for targeted therapy, and highlighting a role of adapter proteins as primary genetic drivers of tumorigenesis.
PMCID: PMC3320568  PMID: 19966867
CRKL; lung cancer; DNA amplification; genomic profiling; adapter protein
6.  Steroid Receptor Co-activator 3 (SRC-3) Expression in Lung Cancer and Its Role in Regulating Cancer Cell Survival and Proliferation 
Cancer research  2010;70(16):6477-6485.
Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) is a histone acetyltransferase and nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) co activator, located on 20q12, which is amplified in several epithelial cancers and well studied in breast cancer. However, its possible role in lung cancer pathogenesis is unknown. We found SRC-3 over-expressed in 27% of NSCLC patients (N=311) by immunohistochemistry, which correlated with poor disease-free (p=0.0015) and overall (p=0.0008) survival. Twenty-seven percent of NSCLCs exhibited SRC-3 gene amplification, and we found lung cancer cell lines expressed higher levels of SRC-3 than immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), which in turn expressed higher level of SRC-3 than cultured primary human HBECs. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of SRC-3 in high-expressing (but not low expressing) lung cancer cells significantly inhibited tumor cell growth and induced apoptosis. Finally, we found that SRC-3 expression is inversely correlated with gefitinib sensitivity and that SRC-3 knockdown results in EGFR-TKI-resistant lung cancers becoming more sensitive to gefitinib. Together these data suggest that SRC-3 may be an important oncogene and therapeutic target for lung cancer.
PMCID: PMC2922434  PMID: 20663904
7.  Design paper: A phase II study of Bevacizumab and Erlotinib in patients with non-Squamous non-small cell lung cancer that is refractory or relapsed after 1-2 previous Treatment (BEST) 
Trials  2011;12:120.
Combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab is a promising regimen in advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We are conducting a single arm phase II trial which aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this regime as a second- or third-line chemotherapy.
Key eligibility criteria were histologically or cytologically confirmed non-squamous NSCLC, stage III/IV or recurrent NSCLC not indicated radical chemoradiation, prior one or two regimen of chemotherapy, age 20 years or more, and performance status of two or less. The primary endpoint is objective response rate. The secondary endpoints include overall survival, progression-free survival, disease control rate and incidence of adverse events. This trial plans to accrue 80 patients based on a two-stage design employing a binomial distribution with an alternative hypothesis response rate of 35% and a null hypothesis threshold response rate of 20%. A subset analysis according to EGFR mutation status is planned.
We have presented the design of a single arm phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib in advanced non-squamous NSCLC patients. In particular we are interested in determining the merit of further development of this regimen and whether prospective patient selection using EGFR gene is necessary in future trials.
Trial registration
This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000004255 (
PMCID: PMC3113989  PMID: 21569411
8.  Comparative Profiling of Primary Colorectal Carcinomas and Liver Metastases Identifies LEF1 as a Prognostic Biomarker 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e16636.
We sought to identify genes of clinical significance to predict survival and the risk for colorectal liver metastasis (CLM), the most common site of metastasis from colorectal cancer (CRC).
Patients and Methods
We profiled gene expression in 31 specimens from primary CRC and 32 unmatched specimens of CLM, and performed Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) to identify genes differentially expressed between these two groups. To characterize the clinical relevance of two highly-ranked differentially-expressed genes, we analyzed the expression of secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1 or osteopontin) and lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF1) by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray (TMA) representing an independent set of 154 patients with primary CRC.
Supervised analysis using SAM identified 963 genes with significantly higher expression in CLM compared to primary CRC, with a false discovery rate of <0.5%. TMA analysis showed SPP1 and LEF1 protein overexpression in 60% and 44% of CRC cases, respectively. Subsequent occurrence of CLM was significantly correlated with the overexpression of LEF1 (chi-square p = 0.042), but not SPP1 (p = 0.14). Kaplan Meier analysis revealed significantly worse survival in patients with overexpression of LEF1 (p<0.01), but not SPP1 (p = 0.11). Both univariate and multivariate analyses identified stage (p<0.0001) and LEF1 overexpression (p<0.05) as important prognostic markers, but not tumor grade or SPP1.
Among genes differentially expressed between CLM and primary CRC, we demonstrate overexpression of LEF1 in primary CRC to be a prognostic factor for poor survival and increased risk for liver metastasis.
PMCID: PMC3044708  PMID: 21383983
9.  4-1BB functions as a survival factor in dendritic cells 
4-1BB (CD137) is expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and its biological function has remained largely unresolved. By comparing 4-1BB-intact (4-1BB+/+) and 4-1BB-deficient (4-1BB-/-) DCs, we found that 4-1BB was strongly induced on DCs during the maturation, and DC maturation was normal in the absence of 4-1BB. However, DC survival rate was low in the absence of 4-1BB, which was due to the decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL in 4-1BB-/- DCs compared with 4-1BB+/+ DCs after DC maturation. Consistent with these results, 4-1BB-/- DCs showed increased turnover rate in steady state and more severely decreased in spleen by injecting LPS compared with 4-1BB+/+ DCs. When OVA-pulsed DCs were adoptively transferred to recipient mice along with OVA-specific CD4+ T cells, 4-1BB-/- DCs did not properly migrate to the T cell zone in lymph node and poorly induced proliferation of CD4+ T cells although both DCs comparably expressed functional CCR7. Eventually 4-1BB-/- DCs generated reduced number of OVA-specific memory CD4+ T cells compared to 4-1BB+/+ DCs. To further assess the role of 4-1BB on DC longevity in vivo, 4-1BB+/+ and 4-1BB-/- C57BL/6 were administrated with Propionibacterium acnes that develops liver granuloma by recruiting DCs. Number and size of granuloma were reduced in the absence of 4-1BB, but inflammatory cytokine level was comparable between the mice, which implied that the granuloma might be reduced due to the decreased longevity of DCs. These results demonstrate that 4-1BB on DCs controls the duration, DC-T interaction and therefore, immunogenicity.
PMCID: PMC2681223  PMID: 19299708
Dendritic cells; apoptosis; T cells; costimulation; memory
10.  CAMK1D amplification implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in basal-like breast cancer 
Molecular oncology  2008;2(4):327-339.
Breast cancer exhibits clinical and molecular heterogeneity, where expression-profiling studies have identified five major molecular subtypes. The basal-like subtype, expressing basal epithelial markers and negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2, is associated with higher overall levels of DNA copy number alteration (CNA), specific CNAs (like gain on chromosome 10p), and poor prognosis. Discovering the molecular genetic basis of tumor subtypes may provide new opportunities for therapy. To identify the driver oncogene on 10p associated with basal-like tumors, we analyzed genomic profiles of 172 breast carcinomas. The smallest shared region of gain spanned just seven genes at 10p13, including calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID (CAMK1D), functioning in intracellular signaling but not previously linked to cancer. By microarray, CAMK1D was overexpressed when amplified, and by immunohistochemistry exhibited elevated expression in invasive carcinomas compared to carcinoma in situ. Engineered overexpression of CAMK1D in non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells led to increased cell proliferation, and molecular and phenotypic alterations indicative of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including loss of cell-cell adhesions and increased cell migration and invasion. Our findings identify CAMK1D as a novel amplified oncogene linked to EMT in breast cancer, and as a potential therapeutic target with particular relevance to clinically unfavorable basal-like tumors.
PMCID: PMC2653212  PMID: 19383354
Breast cancer; genomic profiling; DNA amplification; oncogene; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; EMT
11.  Combination Therapy with Cisplatin and Anti-4-1BB 
Cancer research  2008;68(18):7264-7269.
Anti-4-1BB and cisplatin showed synergistic anti-cancer effects in the CT-26 colon carcinoma model, producing complete regression in >60% of mice with either preventive or therapeutic treatment. The tumor-free mice formed long-lasting CD8+ T-dependent tumor-specific memory. Anti-4-1BB induced rapid repopulation of T and B cells from cisplatin-mediated lymphopenia and differentiation and expansion of IFN-γ+CD11c+CD8+ T cells. Cisplatin facilitated expansion of naïve, effector, and memory CD8+ T cells; combination therapy produced almost twice as many lymphoid cells as anti-4-1BB alone. Cisplatin increased 4-1BB on antigen-primed T cells and induced 4-1BB de novo on kidney tubular epithelium. Cross-linking of 4-1BB protected the T cells and kidney epithelium from cisplatin-mediated apoptosis by increasing expression of anti-apoptotic molecules. Thus cisplatin-induced 4-1BB provided a mechanism for amelioration of the lymphopenia and nephrotoxicity inherent in cisplatin treatment. We concluded that chemo-immunotherapy with anti-4-1BB and cisplatin is synergistic in tumor killing and prevention of organ-specific toxicity.
PMCID: PMC2551756  PMID: 18794112
12.  Genomic Profiling Identifies GATA6 as a Candidate Oncogene Amplified in Pancreatobiliary Cancer 
PLoS Genetics  2008;4(5):e1000081.
Pancreatobiliary cancers have among the highest mortality rates of any cancer type. Discovering the full spectrum of molecular genetic alterations may suggest new avenues for therapy. To catalogue genomic alterations, we carried out array-based genomic profiling of 31 exocrine pancreatic cancers and 6 distal bile duct cancers, expanded as xenografts to enrich the tumor cell fraction. We identified numerous focal DNA amplifications and deletions, including in 19% of pancreatobiliary cases gain at cytoband 18q11.2, a locus uncommonly amplified in other tumor types. The smallest shared amplification at 18q11.2 included GATA6, a transcriptional regulator previously linked to normal pancreas development. When amplified, GATA6 was overexpressed at both the mRNA and protein levels, and strong immunostaining was observed in 25 of 54 (46%) primary pancreatic cancers compared to 0 of 33 normal pancreas specimens surveyed. GATA6 expression in xenografts was associated with specific microarray gene-expression patterns, enriched for GATA binding sites and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity. siRNA mediated knockdown of GATA6 in pancreatic cancer cell lines with amplification led to reduced cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and colony formation. Our findings indicate that GATA6 amplification and overexpression contribute to the oncogenic phenotypes of pancreatic cancer cells, and identify GATA6 as a candidate lineage-specific oncogene in pancreatobiliary cancer, with implications for novel treatment strategies.
Author Summary
Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease, having among the lowest survival rates of any cancer. A better understanding of the molecular basis of pancreatic cancer may lead to improved rationale therapies. We report here the discovery of amplification (i.e. extra copies) of the GATA6 gene in many human pancreatic cancers. GATA6 is a regulator of gene expression and functions in the development of the normal pancreas. Our findings indicate that its amplification and aberrant overexpression contribute to pancreatic cancer development. GATA6 joins a growing list of cancer genes with key roles in normal human development but pathogenic roles in cancer when aberrantly expressed. Our discovery of GATA6 amplification provides a new foothold into understanding the pathogenic mechanisms underlying pancreatic cancer, and suggests new strategies for therapy by targeting GATA6 or the genes it regulates.
PMCID: PMC2413204  PMID: 18535672
13.  A Genome-Wide Screen for Promoter Methylation in Lung Cancer Identifies Novel Methylation Markers for Multiple Malignancies  
PLoS Medicine  2006;3(12):e486.
Promoter hypermethylation coupled with loss of heterozygosity at the same locus results in loss of gene function in many tumor cells. The “rules” governing which genes are methylated during the pathogenesis of individual cancers, how specific methylation profiles are initially established, or what determines tumor type-specific methylation are unknown. However, DNA methylation markers that are highly specific and sensitive for common tumors would be useful for the early detection of cancer, and those required for the malignant phenotype would identify pathways important as therapeutic targets.
Methods and Findings
In an effort to identify new cancer-specific methylation markers, we employed a high-throughput global expression profiling approach in lung cancer cells. We identified 132 genes that have 5′ CpG islands, are induced from undetectable levels by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine in multiple non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, and are expressed in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells. As expected, these genes were also expressed in normal lung, but often not in companion primary lung cancers. Methylation analysis of a subset (45/132) of these promoter regions in primary lung cancer (n = 20) and adjacent nonmalignant tissue (n = 20) showed that 31 genes had acquired methylation in the tumors, but did not show methylation in normal lung or peripheral blood cells. We studied the eight most frequently and specifically methylated genes from our lung cancer dataset in breast cancer (n = 37), colon cancer (n = 24), and prostate cancer (n = 24) along with counterpart nonmalignant tissues. We found that seven loci were frequently methylated in both breast and lung cancers, with four showing extensive methylation in all four epithelial tumors.
By using a systematic biological screen we identified multiple genes that are methylated with high penetrance in primary lung, breast, colon, and prostate cancers. The cross-tumor methylation pattern we observed for these novel markers suggests that we have identified a partial promoter hypermethylation signature for these common malignancies. These data suggest that while tumors in different tissues vary substantially with respect to gene expression, there may be commonalities in their promoter methylation profiles that represent targets for early detection screening or therapeutic intervention.
John Minna and colleagues report that a group of genes are commonly methylated in primary lung, breast, colon, and prostate cancer.
Editors' Summary
Tumors or cancers contain cells that have lost many of the control mechanisms that normally regulate their behavior. Unlike normal cells, which only divide to repair damaged tissues, cancer cells divide uncontrollably. They also gain the ability to move round the body and start metastases in secondary locations. These changes in behavior result from alterations in their genetic material. For example, mutations (permanent changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the cell's DNA) in genes known as oncogenes stimulate cells to divide constantly. Mutations in another group of genes—tumor suppressor genes—disable their ability to restrain cell growth. Key tumor suppressor genes are often completely lost in cancer cells. But not all the genetic changes in cancer cells are mutations. Some are “epigenetic” changes—chemical modifications of genes that affect the amount of protein made from them. In cancer cells, methyl groups are often added to CG-rich regions—this is called hypermethylation. These “CpG islands” lie near gene promoters—sequences that control the transcription of DNA into RNA, the template for protein production—and their methylation switches off the promoter. Methylation of the promoter of one copy of a tumor suppressor gene, which often coincides with the loss of the other copy of the gene, is thought to be involved in cancer development.
Why Was This Study Done?
The rules that govern which genes are hypermethylated during the development of different cancer types are not known, but it would be useful to identify any DNA methylation events that occur regularly in common cancers for two reasons. First, specific DNA methylation markers might be useful for the early detection of cancer. Second, identifying these epigenetic changes might reveal cellular pathways that are changed during cancer development and so identify new therapeutic targets. In this study, the researchers have used a systematic biological screen to identify genes that are methylated in many lung, breast, colon, and prostate cancers—all cancers that form in “epithelial” tissues.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers used microarray expression profiling to examine gene expression patterns in several lung cancer and normal lung cell lines. In this technique, labeled RNA molecules isolated from cells are applied to a “chip” carrying an array of gene fragments. Here, they stick to the fragment that represents the gene from which they were made, which allows the genes that the cells express to be catalogued. By comparing the expression profiles of lung cancer cells and normal lung cells before and after treatment with a chemical that inhibits DNA methylation, the researchers identified genes that were methylated in the cancer cells—that is, genes that were expressed in normal cells but not in cancer cells unless methylation was inhibited. 132 of these genes contained CpG islands. The researchers examined the promoters of 45 of these genes in lung cancer cells taken straight from patients and found that 31 of the promoters were methylated in tumor tissues but not in adjacent normal tissues. Finally, the researchers looked at promoter methylation of the eight genes most frequently and specifically methylated in the lung cancer samples in breast, colon, and prostate cancers. Seven of the genes were frequently methylated in both lung and breast cancers; four were extensively methylated in all the tumor types.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These results identify several new genes that are often methylated in four types of epithelial tumor. The observation that these genes are methylated in multiple independent tumors strongly suggests, but does not prove, that loss of expression of the proteins that they encode helps to convert normal cells into cancer cells. The frequency and diverse patterning of promoter methylation in different tumor types also indicates that methylation is not a random event, although what controls the patterns of methylation is not yet known. The identification of these genes is a step toward building a promoter hypermethylation profile for the early detection of human cancer. Furthermore, although tumors in different tissues vary greatly with respect to gene expression patterns, the similarities seen in this study in promoter methylation profiles might help to identify new therapeutic targets common to several cancer types.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
US National Cancer Institute, information for patients on understanding cancer
CancerQuest, information provided by Emory University about how cancer develops
Cancer Research UK, information for patients on cancer biology
Wikipedia pages on epigenetics (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit)
The Epigenome Network of Excellence, background information and latest news about epigenetics
PMCID: PMC1716188  PMID: 17194187
14.  Correction: A DNA microarray survey of gene expression in normal human tissues 
Genome Biology  2005;6(9):404.
A correction to A DNA microarray survey of gene expression in normal human tissues by R Shyamsundar, YH Kim, JP Higgins, K Montgomery, M Jorden, A Sethuraman, M van de Rijn, D Botstein, PO Brown and JR Pollack. Genome Biology 2005, 6:R22
PMCID: PMC1242207
15.  Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization Identifies Localized DNA Amplifications and Homozygous Deletions in Pancreatic Cancer1* 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2005;7(6):556-562.
Pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, is frequently associated with the amplification and deletion of specific oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs), respectively. To identify such novel alterations and to discover the underlying genes, we performed comparative genomic hybridization on a set of 22 human pancreatic cancer cell lines, using cDNA microarrays measuring ∼26,000 human genes (thereby providing an average mapping resolution of <60 kb). To define the subset of amplified and deleted genes with correspondingly altered expression, we also profiled mRNA levels in parallel using the same cDNA microarray platform. In total, we identified 14 high-level amplifications (38–4934 kb in size) and 15 homozygous deletions (46–725 kb). We discovered novel localized amplicons, suggesting previously unrecognized candidate oncogenes at 6p21, 7q21 (SMURF1, TRRAP), 11q22 (BIRC2, BIRC3), 12p12, 14q24 (TGFB3), 17q12, and 19q13. Likewise, we identified novel polymerase chain reaction-validated homozygous deletions indicating new candidate TSGs at 6q25, 8p23, 8p22 (TUSC3), 9q33 (TNC, TNFSF15), 10q22, 10q24 (CHUK), 11p15 (DKK3), 16q23, 18q23, 21q22 (PRDM15, ANKRD3), and Xp11. Our findings suggest candidate genes and pathways, which may contribute to the development or progression of pancreatic cancer.
PMCID: PMC1501288  PMID: 16036106
Pancreatic cancer; array CGH; comparative genomic hybridization; expression profiling; DNA amplification
16.  A DNA microarray survey of gene expression in normal human tissues 
Genome Biology  2005;6(3):R22.
A systematic survey of gene expression in 115 human tissue samples using cDNA microarrays provides a dataset that can be used as a baseline for comparison with expression in diseased tissue.
Numerous studies have used DNA microarrays to survey gene expression in cancer and other disease states. Comparatively little is known about the genes expressed across the gamut of normal human tissues. Systematic studies of global gene-expression patterns, by linking variation in the expression of specific genes to phenotypic variation in the cells or tissues in which they are expressed, provide clues to the molecular organization of diverse cells and to the potential roles of the genes.
Here we describe a systematic survey of gene expression in 115 human tissue samples representing 35 different tissue types, using cDNA microarrays representing approximately 26,000 different human genes. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis of the gene-expression patterns in these tissues identified clusters of genes with related biological functions and grouped the tissue specimens in a pattern that reflected their anatomic locations, cellular compositions or physiologic functions. In unsupervised and supervised analyses, tissue-specific patterns of gene expression were readily discernable. By comparative hybridization to normal genomic DNA, we were also able to estimate transcript abundances for expressed genes.
Our dataset provides a baseline for comparison to diseased tissues, and will aid in the identification of tissue-specific functions. In addition, our analysis identifies potential molecular markers for detection of injury to specific organs and tissues, and provides a foundation for selection of potential targets for selective anticancer therapy.
PMCID: PMC1088941  PMID: 15774023
17.  A New Mouse Gene, SRG3, Related to the SWI3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Is Required for Apoptosis Induced by Glucocorticoids in a Thymoma Cell Line 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1997;185(10):1827-1836.
We isolated a new mouse gene that is highly expressed in thymocytes, testis, and brain. This gene, SRG3, showed a significant sequence homology to SWI3, a yeast transcriptional activator, and its human homolog BAF155. SRG3 encodes 1,100 amino acids and has 33–47% identity with SWI3 protein over three regions. The SRG3 protein contains an acidic NH2 terminus, a myb-like DNA binding domain, a leucine-zipper motif, and a proline- and glutamine-rich region at its COOH terminus. Rabbit antiserum raised against a COOH-terminal polypeptide of the SRG3 recognized a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 155 kD. The serum also detected a 170-kD protein that seems to be a mouse homologue of human BAF170. Immunoprecipitation of cell extract with the antiserum against the mouse SRG3 also brought down a 195-kD protein that could be recognized by an antiserum raised against human SWI2 protein. The results suggest that the SRG3 protein associates with a mouse SWI2. The SRG3 protein is expressed about three times higher in thymocytes than in peripheral lymphocytes. The expression of anti-sense RNA to SRG3 mRNA in a thymoma cell line, S49.1, reduced the expression level of the SRG3 protein, and decreased the apoptotic cell death induced by glucocorticoids. These results suggest that the SRG3 protein is involved in the glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in the thymoma cell line. This implicates that the SRG3 may play an important regulatory role during T cell development in thymus.
PMCID: PMC2196310  PMID: 9151708

Results 1-17 (17)