A history of allergies is associated with a decreased risk of several types of cancers. Potential mechanisms include enhanced immune surveillance against tumor cells early in disease development and/or carcinogenic infectious agents. We tested whether allergies are inversely associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), accounting for factors that may modify the association, such as tumor site, stage, and HPV infection.
We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between allergy history (including different types of allergies) and OSCC, adjusted for potential confounders, among 400 cases and 613 controls. Analyses were also stratified by site, stage, and measures of HPV infection.
We observed a weak inverse association between history of any allergy and OSCC (OR=0.81, 95% CI, 0.61–1.08). This association was present only for allergies to airborne allergens (dust/pollen/mold); OR=0.67; 95% CI, 0.48–0.93. The inverse associations with airborne allergies were slightly stronger for oropharyngeal SCC (OR=0.56; 95% CI, 0.35–0.90) than for oral cavity SCC (OR=0.71; 95% CI, 0.49–1.05), and present only for later stage cancers (OR=0.42; 95% CI, 0.26–0.66) as opposed to earlier stage cancers (OR=0.98; 95% CI, 0.66–1.46). Inverse associations were not particularly present or stronger among HPV-16 seropositive individuals or for HPV DNA positive OSCC.
There is an inverse association between history of allergies to dust, pollen or mold and OSCC. Whether the inverse association involves heightened immune surveillance, increased immune response to HPV or other antigen, or other carcinogenic mechanism, remains to be determined in more definitive studies.
allergies; oral squamous cell carcinoma; HPV; HSV
Anion-exchange chromatography resolves human plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) into 5 subfractions, with increasing negative surface charge in the direction of L1 to L5. Unlike the harmless L1 to L4, the exclusively atherogenic L5 is rejected by the normal LDL receptor (LDLR) but endocytosed into vascular endothelial cells through the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). Analysis with SDS-PAGE and 2-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the protein framework of L1 was composed mainly of apolipoprotein (apo) B100, with an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.620. There was a progressively increased association of additional proteins, including apoE (pI 5.5), apoAI (pI 5.4), apoCIII (pI 5.1), and apo(a) (pI 5.5), from L1 to L5. LC/MSE was used to quantify protein distribution in all subfractions. On the basis of weight percentages, L1 contained 99% apoB-100 and trace amounts of other proteins. In contrast, L5 contained 60% apoB100 and substantially increased amounts of apo(a), apoE, apoAI, and apoCIII. The compositional characteristics contribute to L5’s electronegativity, rendering it unrecognizable by LDLR. LOX-1, which has a high affinity for negatively charged ligands, is known to mediate the signaling of proinflammatory cytokines. Thus, the chemical composition–oriented receptor selectivity hinders normal metabolism of L5, enhancing its atherogenicity through abnormal receptors, such as LOX-1.
low-density lipoprotein; apolipoproteins; electronegative; LDL receptor; LOX-1; atherosclerosis
To investigate the potential role of vitamin or mineral supplementation on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), we analyzed individual-level pooled data from 12 case-control studies (7,002 HNC cases and 8,383 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. There were a total of 2,028 oral cavity cancer, 2,465 pharyngeal cancer, and 874 unspecified oral/pharynx cancer, 1,329 laryngeal cancer and 306 overlapping HNC cases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self reported ever use of any vitamins, multivitamins, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and calcium, beta-carotene, iron, selenium, and zinc supplements were assessed. We further examined frequency, duration and cumulative exposure of each vitamin or mineral when possible and stratified by smoking and drinking status. All ORs were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, study center, education level, and pack-years of smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking and fruit/vegetable intake. A decreased risk of HNC was observed with ever use of vitamin C (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.59-0.96) and with ever use of calcium supplement (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.42-0.97). The inverse association with HNC risk was also observed for 10 or more years of vitamin C use (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.97) and more than 365 tablets of cumulative calcium intake (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.16-0.83), but linear trends were not observed for the frequency or duration of any supplement intake. We did not observe any strong associations between vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer.
vitamin supplement; mineral supplement; head and neck cancer
Childbearing at an older age has been associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer, but whether the association is independent of the number of births or other factors remains unclear. Individual-level data from 4 cohort and 13 case-control studies in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium were pooled. A total of 8,671 cases of endometrial cancer and 16,562 controls were included in the analysis. After adjustment for known risk factors, endometrial cancer risk declined with increasing age at last birth (Ptrend < 0.0001). The pooled odds ratio per 5-year increase in age at last birth was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.90). Women who last gave birth at 40 years of age or older had a 44% decreased risk compared with women who had their last birth under the age of 25 years (95% confidence interval: 47, 66). The protective association was similar across the different age-at-diagnosis groups and for the 2 major tumor histologic subtypes (type I and type II). No effect modification was observed by body mass index, parity, or exogenous hormone use. In this large pooled analysis, late age at last birth was independently associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer, and the reduced risk persisted for many years.
endometrial neoplasms; parity; reproductive history
Increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with the occurrence and severity of acute coronary syndrome. We investigated whether CRP can be generated in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) after exposure to the most electronegative subfraction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), L5, which is atherogenic to ECs. Because L5 and CRP are both ligands for the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), we also examined the role of LOX-1.
Methods and Results
Plasma LDL samples isolated from asymptomatic hypercholesterolemic (LDL cholesterol [LDL-C] levels, 154.6±20 mg/dL; n = 7) patients and normocholesterolemic (LDL-C levels, 86.1±21 mg/dL; P<0.001; n = 7) control individuals were chromatographically resolved into 5 subfractions, L1-L5. The L5 percentage (L5%) and the plasma L5 concentration ([L5] = L5% × LDL-C) in the patient and control groups were 8.1±2% vs. 2.3±1% (P<0.001) and 12.6±4 mg/dL vs. 1.9±1 mg/dL (P<0.001), respectively. In hypercholesterolemic patients treated with atorvastatin for 6 months (10 mg/day), [L5] decreased from 12.6±4 mg/dL to 4.5±1.1 mg/dL (P = 0.011; n = 5), whereas both [L5] and L5% returned to baseline levels in 2 noncompliant patients 3 months after discontinuation. In cultured human aortic ECs (HAECs), L5 upregulated CRP expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner up to 2.5-fold (P<0.01), whereas the least electronegative subfraction, L1, had no effect. DiI-labeled L1, internalized through the LDL receptor, became visible inside HAECs within 30 seconds. In contrast, DiI-labeled L5, internalized through LOX-1, became apparent after 5 minutes. L5-induced CRP expression manifested at 30 minutes and was attenuated by neutralizing LOX-1. After 30 minutes, L5 but not L1 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both L5-induced ROS and CRP production were attenuated by ROS inhibitor N-acetyl cysteine.
Our results suggest that CRP, L5, and LOX-1 form a cyclic mechanism in atherogenesis and that reducing plasma L5 levels with atorvastatin disrupts the vascular toxicity of L5.
Leptin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, crosses the blood-brain barrier to act on many regions of the CNS. It participates in the regulation of energy balance, inflammatory processes, immune regulation, synaptic formation, memory condensation, and neurotrophic activities. This review focuses on the newly identified actions of leptin on astrocytes. We first summarize the distribution of leptin receptors in the brain, with a focus on the hypothalamus where the leptin receptor is known to mediate essential feeding suppression activities, and on the hippocampus, where leptin facilitates memory, reduces neurodegeneration, and plays a dual role in seizures. We will then discuss regulation of the non-neuronal leptin system in obesity. Its relationship with neuronal leptin signaling is illustrated by in vitro assays in primary astrocyte culture and by in vivo studies on mice after pretreatment with a glial metabolic inhibitor or after cell-specific deletion of intracellular signaling leptin receptors. Overall, the glial leptin system shows robust regulation and plays an essential role in obesity. Strategies to manipulate this non-neuronal leptin signaling may have major clinical impact.
leptin; CNS; obesity; astrocytes; blood–brain barrier
Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on inflammation in colitis remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of LMWH on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, in which acute colitis progresses to chronic colitis, and to explore the potential mechanism involved in this process. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control, DSS, and DSS plus LMWH groups (n = 18). Disease activity was scored by a disease activity index (DAI). Histological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The mRNA levels of syndecan-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-10 were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of syndecan-1 was detected by immunohistochemistry. The serum syndecan-1 level was examined by a dot immunobinding assay. LMWH ameliorated the disease activity of colitis induced by DSS administration in mice. Colon destruction with the appearance of crypt damage, goblet cell loss, and a larger ulcer was found on day 12 after DSS administration, which was greatly relieved by the treatment of LMWH. LMWH upregulated syndecan-1 expression in the intestinal mucosa and reduced the serum syndecan-1 level on days 12 and 20 after DSS administration (P<0.05 vs. DSS group). In addition, LMWH significantly decreased the expression of both IL-1β and IL-10 mRNA on days 12 and 20 (P<0.05 vs. DSS group). LMWH has therapeutic effects on colitis by downregulating inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting syndecan-1 shedding in the intestinal mucosa.
African American (AA) women have a higher mortality from breast cancer (BC) compared to European American (EA) women. This may be due to the higher proportion of AA women with tumors that are diagnosed at more advanced stages and are characterized as being estrogen receptor negative (ER-)/ progesterone receptor negative (PR-). Our study sought to determine whether self-reported race and percent African ancestry were associated with BC tumor characteristics.
In a multi-center, population-based case-control study of BC, we determined percent African ancestry using ancestry informative markers (AIM) among women self-reporting race as AA or Black.
BC tumor characteristics were associated with self-reported race (including a 30% reduction in ER+/PR+ tumors [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6-0.9] and a 1.5-fold increased risk of high grade [95% CI: 1.2-1.9] for AA women compared to EA women). AIMs among AA women were not associated with BC tumor characteristics (AA women with ≥ 95% versus < 80% African ancestry, odds ratio [OR]=1.0 for ER+/PR+ [95% CI: 0.6-1.8] and OR=0.9 for high-grade tumors [95% CI: 0.6-1.4]). Similar findings were observed for BC stage.
While BC subtypes were associated with self-reported race, BC subtypes were not associated with percent African ancestry.
These study results suggest that subtle differences in percent African ancestry are less important than the overall presence of African ancestry in relation to BC tumor characteristics.
We investigated the association between diet and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. The INHANCE pooled data included 22 case-control studies with 14,520 cases and 22,737 controls. Center-specific quartiles among the controls were used for food groups and frequencies per week were used for single food items. A dietary pattern score combining high fruit and vegetable intake and low red meat intake, was created. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the dietary items on the risk of HNC were estimated with a two-stage random effects logistic regression model. An inverse association was observed for higher frequency intake of fruit (4th vs. 1st quartile OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.43–0.62, ptrend<0.01) and vegetables (OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.49–0.90, ptrend=0.01). Intake of red meat (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.13–1.74, ptrend=0.13) and processed meat (OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.14–1.65, ptrend<0.01) were positively associated with HNC risk. Higher dietary pattern scores, reflecting high fruit/vegetable and low red meat intake, were associated with reduced HNC risk (per score increment OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.84–0.97).
Diet; head and neck cancer; fruit and vegetable; red meat; processed meat
Racial differences in breast cancer risk, including the risks of hormone receptor subtypes of breast cancer, have been previously reported. We evaluated whether variation in genes related to estrogen metabolism (COMT, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, ESR1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, HSD17B1, SULT1A1, and UGT1A1) contributes to breast cancer risk and/or racial differences in risk within the CARE study, a multi-centered, population-based case–control study of breast cancer. Genetic variation was assessed as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), haplotypes, and SNP–hormone therapy (HT) interactions within a subset of 1,644 cases and 1,451 controls, including 949 Black women (493 cases and 456 controls), sampled from the CARE study population. No appreciable associations with breast cancer risk were detected for single SNPs or haplotypes in women overall. We detected SNP–HT interactions in women overall within CYP1B1 (rs1800440; phet = 0.003) and within CYP17A1 (rs743572; phet = 0.009) in which never users of HT were at a decreased risk of breast cancer, while investigated among racial groups, we detected evidence of an SNP–HT interaction with CYP1B1 in White women (p value = 0.02) and with CYP17A1 in Black women (p value = 0.04). This analysis suggests that HT use may modify the effect of variation in estrogen-related genes on breast cancer risk, which may affect Black and White women to a different extent.
Breast cancer; Genetic variation; Racial disparities; Gene–environment interactions; Hormone therapy
To determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) status on quality of life (QOL) in patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Since OSCC that are associated with high-risk HPV have an improved response to treatment and survival, we hypothesized that patients with these tumors would have better QOL trajectories.
Prospective cohort study.
Tertiary care academic medical center and two affiliated hospitals.
Subjects and Methods
Head and neck-specific QOL was determined using the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) scale version 4 in patients with newly diagnosed invasive OSSC (n=228).
Pre-treatment QOL was higher in patients with high-risk HPV-associated tumors compared to patients with HPV-negative or low-risk HPV-associated tumors (p=0.015). Patients with high-risk HPV-associated tumors had larger decreases in QOL from pre-treatment to immediate post-treatment compared to patients with HPV-negative or low-risk HPV-associated tumors (p=0.041). There was no association between HPV status and one year post-treatment QOL.
Among OSCC patients, high-risk HPV-associated tumors were associated with higher pre-treatment QOL and a larger decrease in QOL from pre-treatment to immediate post-treatment, suggesting that treatment intensity in this unique population may adversely affect QOL.
head and neck cancer; quality of life; epidemiology/outcomes research; head and neck surgery; human papillomavirus; oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma
Many carcinogens in tobacco smoke cause DNA damage, and some of that damage can be mitigated by the actions of DNA repair enzymes. In a case-control study nested within the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, a randomized chemoprevention trial in current and former heavy smokers, we examined whether lung cancer risk was associated with variation in 26 base excision repair, mismatch repair, and homologous recombination repair genes. Analyses were limited to Caucasians (744 cases, 1477 controls), and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for individual SNPs and common haplotypes, with adjustment for matching factors. Lung cancer associations were observed (p<0.05) with SNPs in MSH5 (rs3131379, rs707938), MSH2 (rs2303428), UNG (rs246079), and PCNA (rs25406). MSH5 rs3131379 is a documented lung cancer susceptibility locus in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs3117582 in BAT3, and we observed associations similar in magnitude to those in prior studies (per A allele OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.13-1.65). UNG was associated with lung cancer risk at the gene level (p=0.02), and the A allele of rs246079 was associated with an increased risk (per A allele OR 1.15, 95% CI1.01-1.31). We observed stronger associations with UNG rs246079 among individuals who carried the risk genotypes (AG/AA) for MSH5 rs3131379 (pinteraction= 0.038). Our results provide additional evidence to suggest that the MSH5/BAT3 locus is associated with increased lung cancer risk among smokers, and that associations with other SNPs may vary depending upon MSH5/BAT3 genotype. Future studies to examine this possibility are warranted.
Lung cancer; base excision repair; mismatch repair; homologous recombination repair; DNA repair; genetic polymorphism
Biochemical heterogeneity governs functional disparities among lipoproteins. We examined charge-defined VLDL subfractions in metabolic syndrome (MetS) to determine whether their increased electronegativity is associated with increased cytotoxicity and whether high concentrations of highly electronegative subfractions render VLDL harmful to the vascular endothelium.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Plasma VLDL of normal individuals (control subjects) (n = 13) and of those with MetS (n = 13) was resolved into subfractions with increasing negative charge (V1–V5) by anion-exchange chromatography. Human aortic endothelial cells were treated with V1–V5 or unfractionated VLDL.
Compared with the control subjects, individuals with MetS had a significantly higher percentage of V5 VLDL (V5/VLDL%) (34 ± 20 vs. 39 ± 11%, respectively; P < 0.05) and plasma V5 concentration ([V5]) (5.5 ± 4.4 vs. 15.2 ± 8.5 mg/dL, respectively; P < 0.001). Apolipoprotein (apo)B100 levels decreased and apoC levels increased from V1 to V5, indicating that V5 is apoC-rich VLDL. Regression analyses of all 26 individuals showed that [V5] was positively correlated with total cholesterol (P = 0.016), triglyceride (P < 0.000001), and V5/VLDL% (P = 0.002). Fasting plasma glucose, but not waist circumference, exhibited a positive trend (P = 0.058); plasma HDL cholesterol exhibited a weak inverse trend (P = 0.138). V5 (10 μg/mL) induced apoptosis in ~50% of endothelial cells in 24 h. V5 was the most rapidly (<15 min) internalized subfraction and induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in endothelial cells after 20 min. Unfractionated MetS VLDL, but not control VLDL, also induced ROS production and endothelial cell apoptosis.
In populations with increased risk of diabetes, the vascular endothelium is constantly exposed to VLDL that contains a high proportion of V5. The potential impact of V5-rich VLDL warrants further investigation.
Ischemic brain injury is associated with neuroinflammatory response, which essentially involves glial activation and neutrophil infiltration. Transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) contribute to ischemic neuroinflammatory processes and secondary brain injury by releasing proinflammatory mediators. Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (KRS) and kaempferol-3-O- glucoside (KGS) are primary flavonoids found in Carthamus tinctorius L. Recent studies demonstrated that KRS protected against ischemic brain injury. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Flavonoids have been reported to have antiinflammatory properties. Herein, we explored the effects of KRS and KGS in a transient focal stroke model.
Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 hours followed by 22 h reperfusion. An equimolar dose of KRS or KGS was administered i.v. at the beginning of reperfusion. The results showed that KRS or KGS significantly attenuated the neurological deficits, brain infarct volume, and neuron and axon injury, reflected by the upregulation of neuronal nuclear antigen-positive neurons and downregulation of amyloid precursor protein immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere. Moreover, KRS and KGS inhibited the expression of OX-42, glial fibrillary acidic protein, phosphorylated STAT3 and NF-κB p65, and the nuclear content of NF-κB p65. Subsequently, these flavonoids inhibited the expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, matrix metallopeptidase 9, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and myeloperoxidase.
Our findings suggest that postischemic treatment with KRS or KGS prevents ischemic brain injury and neuroinflammation by inhibition of STAT3 and NF-κB activation and has the therapeutic potential for the neuroinflammation-related diseases, such as ischemic stroke.
A history of diabetes is associated with an increased risk of several types of cancers. Whether diabetes is a risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC) has received little attention.
We pooled data from 12 case-control studies including 6,448 cases and 13,747 controls, and estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between diabetes and HNC, adjusted for age, education level, sex, race/ethnicity, study center, cigarette smoking, alcohol use and body mass index (BMI).
We observed a weak association between diabetes and the incidence of HNC overall (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.95–1.24). However, we observed a modest association among never smokers (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.22–2.07), and no association among ever smokers (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.83–1.11); likelihood ratio test for interaction p=0.001.
A history of diabetes was weakly associated with HNC overall, but we observed evidence of effect modification by smoking status, with a positive association among those who never smoked cigarettes.
This study suggests that glucose metabolism abnormalities may be a HNC risk factor in subgroups of the population. Prospective studies incorporating biomarkers are needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between diabetes and HNC risk, possibly providing new strategies in the prevention of HNC.
head and neck cancer; head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; diabetes; INHANCE
In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), metastasis to lymph nodes is associated with a 50% reduction in 5-year survival. To identify a metastatic gene set based on DNA copy number abnormalities (CNAs) of differentially expressed genes, we compared DNA and RNA of OSCC cells laser-microdissected from non-metastatic primary tumors (n = 17) with those from lymph node metastases (n = 20), using Affymetrix 250K Nsp single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and U133 Plus 2.0 arrays, respectively. With a false discovery rate (FDR)<5%, 1988 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed between primary and metastatic OSCC. Of these, 114 were found to have a significant correlation between DNA copy number and gene expression (FDR<0.01). Among these 114 correlated transcripts, the corresponding genomic regions of each of 95 transcripts had CNAs differences between primary and metastatic OSCC (FDR<0.01). Using an independent dataset of 133 patients, multivariable analysis showed that the OSCC–specific and overall mortality hazards ratio (HR) for patients carrying the 95-transcript signature were 4.75 (95% CI: 2.03–11.11) and 3.45 (95% CI: 1.84–6.50), respectively. To determine the degree by which these genes impact cell survival, we compared the growth of five OSCC cell lines before and after knockdown of over-amplified transcripts via a high-throughput siRNA–mediated screen. The expression-knockdown of 18 of the 26 genes tested showed a growth suppression ≥30% in at least one cell line (P<0.01). In particular, cell lines derived from late-stage OSCC were more sensitive to the knockdown of G3BP1 than cell lines derived from early-stage OSCC, and the growth suppression was likely caused by increase in apoptosis. Further investigation is warranted to examine the biological role of these genes in OSCC progression and their therapeutic potentials.
Neck lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To identify genes associated with this critical step of OSCC progression, we compared DNA copy number aberrations and gene expression differences between tumor cells found in metastatic lymph nodes versus those in non-metastatic primary tumors. We identified 95 transcripts (87 genes) with metastasis-specific genome abnormalities and gene expression. Tested in an independent cohort of 133 OSCC patients, the 95 gene signature was an independent risk factor of disease-specific and overall death, suggesting a disease progression phenotype. We knocked down the expression of over-amplified genes in five OSCC cell lines. Knockdown of 18 of the 26 tested genes suppressed the cell growth in at least one cell line. Interestingly, cell lines derived from late-stage OSCC were more sensitive to the knockdown of G3BP1 than cell lines derived from early-stage OSCC. The knockdown of G3BP1 increased programmed cell death in the p53-mutant but not wild-type OSCC cell lines. Taken together, we demonstrate that CNA–associated transcripts differentially expressed in carcinoma cells with an aggressive phenotype (i.e., metastatic to lymph nodes) can be biomarkers with both prognostic information and functional relevance. Moreover, results suggest that G3BP1 is a potential therapeutic target against late-stage p53-negative OSCC.
To evaluate the validity of fruit and vegetable intake, using three classification schemes, as it relates to plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations among Chinese women.
Intakes were calculated from an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Fruits and vegetables, botanical groups, and high-nutrient groups were evaluated. These three classification schemes were compared with plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations from blood drawn within one week of questionnaire completion.
Participants (n=2031) were drawn from women who participated in a case-control study of diet and breast diseases nested within a randomized trial of breast self-examination among textile workers (n=266,064)
Fruit intake was significantly (p<0.05) and positively associated with plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene, retinyl palmitate, and vitamin C. Fruit intake was inversely associated with γ-tocopherol and lutein+zeaxanthin concentrations. Vegetable consumption was significantly and positively associated with γ-tocopherol, and β-cryptoxanthin concentrations. Each botanical and high-nutrient group was also significantly associated with particular plasma nutrient concentrations. Fruit and vegetable intake and most plasma nutrient concentrations were significantly associated with season of interview.
These results suggest that the manner in which fruits and vegetables are grouped provides different plasma nutrient exposure information, which may be an important consideration when testing and generating hypotheses regarding disease risk in relation to diet. Interview season should be considered when evaluating associations of reported intake and plasma nutrients with disease outcomes.
fruit; vegetable; botanical; China
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia among older people. There are no effective medications currently available to prevent and treat AD and halt disease progression. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is the primary enzyme metabolizing the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the brain. We show here that inactivation of MAGL robustly suppressed production and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) associated with reduced expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in a mouse model of AD. MAGL inhibition also prevented neuroinflammation, decreased neurodegeneration, maintained integrity of hippocampal synaptic structure and function, and improved long-term synaptic plasticity, spatial learning and memory in AD animals. While the molecular mechanisms underlying MAGL inhibition-produced beneficial effects remain to be determined, our results suggest that MAGL, which regulates endocannabinoid and prostaglandin signaling, contributes to pathogenesis and neuropathology of AD and thus is a promising therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of AD.
Endocannabinoid; 2-arachidonoylglycerol; prostaglandin; β-amyloid; long-term potentiation; dendritic spines; astroglial cells; neurodegeneration; neuroinflammation; spatial learning and memory
The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cause degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membranes, and thus may play a key role in cancer development.
In our search for biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), we compared primary OSCC, oral dysplasia and control subjects with respect to: (1) expression of MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP12 in oral epithelial tissue using Affymetrix U133 2.0 Plus GeneChip arrays, followed by qRT-PCR for MMP1, and (2) determination of MMP1 and MMP3 concentrations in saliva.
MMP1 expression in primary OSCC (n=119) was >200-fold higher (p=7.16×10−40) compared with expression levels in non-neoplastic oral epithelium from controls (n=35). qRT-PCR results on 30 cases and 22 controls confirmed this substantial differential expression. The exceptional discriminatory power to separate OSCC from controls was validated in two independent testing sets (AUC%=100; 95% CI, 100-100 and AUC%=98.4; 95% CI, 95.6–100). Salivary concentrations of MMP1 and MMP3 in OSCC patients (33 stage I/II, 26 stage III/IV) were 6.2 times (95% CI, 3.32–11.73) and 14.8 times (95% CI, 6.75–32.56) higher, respectively, than in controls, and displayed an increasing trend with higher stage disease.
Tumor and salivary MMPs are robust diagnostic biomarkers of OSCC.
The capacity of MMP gene expression to identify OSCC provides support for further investigation into MMPs as potential markers for OSCC development. Detection of MMP proteins in saliva in particular may provide a promising means to detect and monitor OSCC non-invasively.
oral squamous cell carcinoma; matrix metalloproteinase; MMP; saliva; gene expression
The daily administered dose of progestin in continuous-combined estrogen-progestin therapy is provided to counteract the proliferative effect of estrogen on the postmenopausal endometrium. However, there remains some uncertainty as to whether use of such a combined regimen, over the long-term, is associated with an altered risk of endometrial cancer. We pooled data from four population-based case-control studies of endometrial cancer in western Washington State. Cases, ages 45–74, were diagnosed between 1985 and 2005. Using logistic regression with adjustment for confounding factors, women who had exclusively used continuous-combined estrogen-progestin therapy (90 endometrial cancer cases, 227 controls) were compared to women who had never used any type of hormone therapy (774 cases, 1116 controls). Associations with duration and recency of use were evaluated overall and within strata defined by body mass index. Long-term use of continuous-combined estrogen-progestin therapy (≥10 years) was associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer (OR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.21–0.66). This association was most pronounced in women with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.05–0.68). Associations did not differ according to recency of use. These results suggest that long duration of use of continuous-combined estrogen-progestin therapy is associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer risk.
endometrial cancer; hormone therapy; estrogen; progestin; body mass index
To evaluate the relationship between common genetic variation in genes involved in the biosynthesis and signaling of estrogen and progesterone and endometriosis risk.
Genetic polymorphism analysis.
Population-based case-control study conducted in Group Health Cooperative enrollees in Western Washington.
Women with newly diagnosed, surgically confirmed endometriosis between 1996 and 2001 (n=256), and age and reference year matched female controls without a history of endometriosis (n=567).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE
We evaluated the relationship between common genetic variation and endometriosis risk, using gene-based tests and single variant analysis of genetic polymorphisms in ESR1, ESR2, PGR, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, HSD17B1, HSD17B2, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, COMT and GSTM1.
The most consistent gene-based association with endometriosis risk was for CYP19A1 (p-value = 0.02). We did not find evidence for consistent significant associations between previously reported candidate SNPs in sex hormone-related genes and endometriosis risk.
In summary, we report increased endometriosis risk with CYP19A1 gene-based tests; replication of the association between endometriosis and this gene or gene region is necessary in a larger study population.
Population-based; case-control; endometriosis; genetic polymorphisms; sex hormone metabolic pathway; candidate genes
Apolipoprotein (Apo) levels are considered more reliable than plasma lipoprotein levels for predicting coronary artery disease (CAD). However, a unanimous Apo marker for CAD has not been identified. In the Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort (CCCC), we sought to identify a common Apo marker for predicting CAD in the general population.
We examined the cross-sectional association between Apo markers and CAD in the CCCC from 1990 to 2001. Among 3,602 subjects, 90 had angiographically proven CAD (>50% stenosis in ≥1 vessel), and 200 did not have CAD. These subjects were divided into the following 4 groups for analysis: normolipidemic (total cholesterol [TC] <200 mg/dL, triglyceride [TG] <150 mg/dL), hypertriglyceridemic (TC <200 mg/dL, TG ≥150 mg/dL), hypercholesterolemic (TC ≥200 mg/dL, TG <150 mg/dL), and hyperlipidemic (TC ≥200 mg/dL, TG ≥150 mg/dL).
Compatible with findings in other populations, our results showed that CAD patients in the CCCC had higher ApoB and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ApoAI concentrations than non-CAD subjects, but the differences were not significant in all groups. Plasma concentrations of ApoE and lipoprotein (a) were not consistently correlated with CAD. In contrast, the ratio of HDL-ApoCIII to very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-ApoCIII was the only universal determinant for CAD in the normolipidemic group (P=0.0018), the hypertriglyceridemic group (P=0.0001), the hypercholesterolemic group (P=0.0001), and the hyperlipidemic group (P=0.0001). Overall, a high HDL-ApoCIII/VLDL-ApoCIII ratio was observed in all CAD patients, including those with a normal lipid profile. In multivariate analyses, the HDL-ApoCIII/VLDL-ApoCIII ratio was the strongest predictor for CAD among all lipid factors investigated (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.46–2.84; P<0.0001).
A high HDL-ApoCIII to VLDL-ApoCIII ratio is a better marker for predicting CAD than are the conventional lipid markers or ApoAI and ApoB. High HDL-ApoCIII and low VLDL-ApoCIII values in CAD, irrespective of lipid variations, suggest that ApoCIII is markedly transported from VLDL to HDL in this disease. Measurement of plasma ApoCIII may improve CAD prediction in the general population.
Apolipoproteins; Coronary artery disease; Lipoproteins; Cardiovascular risk factors; Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort (CCCC) Study; High-density lipoprotein (HDL); Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL); Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII)
Oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are among the most common cancers worldwide, with approximately 60% 5-yr survival rate. To identify potential markers for disease progression, we used Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 arrays to examine the gene expression profiles of 167 primary tumor samples from OSCC patients, 58 uninvolved oral mucosae from OSCC patients and 45 normal oral mucosae from patients without oral cancer, all enrolled at one of the three University of Washington-affiliated medical centers between 2003 to 2008. We found 2,596 probe sets differentially expressed between 167 tumor samples and 45 normal samples. Among 2,596 probe sets, 71 were significantly and consistently up- or down-regulated in the comparison between normal samples and uninvolved oral samples and between uninvolved oral samples and tumor samples. Cox regression analyses showed that 20 of the 71 probe sets were significantly associated with progression-free survival. The risk score for each patient was calculated from coefficients of a Cox model incorporating these 20 probe sets. The hazard ratio (HR) associated with each unit change in the risk score adjusting for age, gender, tumor stage, and high-risk HPV status was 2.7 (95% CI: 2.0–3.8, p = 8.8E-10). The risk scores in an independent dataset of 74 OSCC patients from the MD Anderson Cancer Center was also significantly associated with progression-free survival independent of age, gender, and tumor stage (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.2, p = 0.008). Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed that the most prominent biological pathway represented by the 71 probe sets was the Integrin cell surface interactions pathway. In conclusion, we identified 71 probe sets in which dysregulation occurred in both uninvolved oral mucosal and cancer samples. Dysregulation of 20 of the 71 probe sets was associated with progression-free survival and was validated in an independent dataset.
Epidemiologic studies are consistent in finding that women who have had at least one birth are less likely to develop endometrial cancer. Less clear is whether timing of pregnancies during reproductive life influences risk, and the degree to which incomplete pregnancies are associated with a reduced risk.
We evaluated pregnancy history in relation to endometrial cancer risk using data from a series of four population-based endometrial cancer case-control studies of women 45–74 years of age (1,712 cases and 2,134 controls) during 1985–2005 in western Washington State. Pregnancy history and information on other potential risk factors were collected by in-person interviews.
Older age at first birth was associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer after adjustment for number of births and age at last birth (test for trend P = 0.004). The odds ratio comparing women at least 35 years of age at their first birth with those younger than 20 years was 0.34 (95% confidence interval = 0.14–0.84). Age at last birth was not associated with risk after adjustment for number of births and age at first birth (test for trend P = 0.830). Overall, a history of incomplete pregnancies was not associated with endometrial cancer risk to any appreciable degree.
In this study, older age at first birth was more strongly associated with endometrial cancer risk than was older age at last birth. To date, there remains some uncertainty in the literature on this issue.
Exposure to estrogens increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Certain estrogen metabolites can form bulky DNA adducts, which are removed via nucleotide excision repair (NER), and the ability to perform this repair might be related to endometrial cancer risk.
We examined 64 tag- and functional SNPs in the NER genes ERCC1, ERCC2 (XPD), ERCC3 (XPB), ERCC4 (XPF), ERCC5 (XPG), LIG1, XPA, and XPC in a population-based case-control study in Washington State, with 783 endometrial cancer cases and 795 controls.
The presence of ERCC5 rs4150386 C, LIG1 rs3730865 C, XPA rs2808667 T, or XPC rs3731127 T alleles was associated with risk of endometrial cancer, with respective age-, county- and reference year-adjusted per-allele odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 0.68 (0.53–0.87, p=0.002), 1.46 (1.02–2.10, p=0.04), 0.71 (0.52–0.97, p=0.03) and 1.57 (1.13–2.17, p=0.007).
Certain ERCC5, LIG1, XPA and XPC genotypes might influence endometrial cancer risk.
Because of multiple redundancies in DNA repair pathways (and therefore a low prior probability), and the large number of associations examined, false positive findings are likely. Further characterization of the relation between variation in NER genes and endometrial cancer risk is warranted.
Endometrial cancer; nucleotide excision repair; ERCC5; LIG1; XPC