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1.  Examination of ceramic restoration adhesive coverage in cusp-replacement premolar using acoustic emission under fatigue testing 
Background
This study investigates CAD/CAM ceramic cusp-replacing restoration resistance with and without buccal cusp replacement under static and dynamic cyclic loads, monitored using the acoustic emission (AE) technique.
Method
The cavity was designed in a typical MODP (mesial-occlusal-distal-palatal) restoration failure shape when the palatal cusp has been lost. Two ceramic restorations [without coverage (WOC) and with (WC) buccal cuspal coverage with 2.0 mm reduction in cuspal height] were prepared to perform the fracture and fatigue tests with normal (200 N) and high (600 N) occlusal forces. The load versus AE signals in the fracture and fatigue tests were recorded to evaluate the restored tooth failure resistance.
Results
The results showed that non-significant differences in load value in the fracture test and the accumulated number of AE signals under normal occlusal force (200 N) in the fatigue test were found between with and without buccal cuspal coverage restorations. The first AE activity occurring for the WOC restoration was lower than that for the WC restoration in the fracture test. The number of AE signals increased with the cyclic load number. The accumulated number of AE signals for the WOC restoration was 187, higher than that (85) for the WC restoration under 600 N in the fatigue test.
Conclusion
The AE technique and fatigue tests employed in this study were used as an assessment tool to evaluate the resistances in large CAD/CAM ceramic restorations. Non-significant differences in the tested fracture loads and accumulated number of AE signals under normal occlusal force (200 N) between different restorations indicated that aggressive treatment (with coverage preparation) in palatal cusp-replacing ceramic premolars require more attention for preserving and protecting the remaining tooth.
doi:10.1186/1475-925X-13-165
PMCID: PMC4273487  PMID: 25495010
Cuspal-coverage; Ceramic; Acoustic emission; Fatigue; CAD/CAM
2.  The Feasibility of Using CT-Guided ROI for Semiquantifying Striatal Dopamine Transporter Availability in a Hybrid SPECT/CT System 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:879497.
A hybrid SPECT/CT system provides accurate coregistration of functional and morphological images. CT-guided region of interest (ROI) for semiquantifying striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability may be a feasible method. We therefore assessed the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of manual SPECT and CT-guided ROI methods and compared their semiquantitative data with data from MRI-guided ROIs. We enrolled twenty-eight patients who underwent Tc-99m TRODAT-1 brain SPECT/CT and brain MRI. ROIs of the striatal, caudate, putamen, and occipital cortex were manually delineated on the SPECT, CT, and MRI. ROIs from CT and MRI were transferred to the coregistered SPECT for semiquantification. The striatal, caudate, and putamen nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) were calculated. Using CT-guided ROIs had higher intra- and interobserver concordance correlation coefficients, closer Bland-Altman biases to zero, and narrower limits of agreement than using manual SPECT ROIs. The correlation coefficients of striatal, caudate, and putamen BPND were good between manual SPECT and MRI-guided ROI methods and even better between CT-guided and MRI-guided ROI methods. Conclusively, CT-guided ROI delineation for semiquantifying striatal DAT availability in a hybrid SPECT/CT system is highly reproducible, and the semiquantitative data correlate well with data from MRI-guided ROIs.
doi:10.1155/2014/879497
PMCID: PMC4233671  PMID: 25531005
3.  Review Analysis of the Association between the Prevalence of Activated Brown Adipose Tissue and Outdoor Temperature 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:793039.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for regulating body weight. Environmental temperature influences BAT activation. Activated BAT is identifiable using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). 18F-FDG PET/CT scans done between June 2005 and May 2009 in our institution in tropical southern Taiwan and BAT studies from PubMed (2002–2011) were reviewed, and the average outdoor temperatures during the study periods were obtained. A simple linear regression was used to analyze the association between the prevalence of activated BAT (P) and the average outdoor temperature (T). The review analysis for 9 BAT studies (n = 16, 765) showed a significant negative correlation (r = −0.741, P = 0.022) between the prevalence of activated BAT and the average outdoor temperature. The equation of the regression line is P(%) = 6.99 − 0.20 × T  (°C). The prevalence of activated BAT decreased by 1% for each 5°C increase in average outdoor temperature. In a neutral ambient temperature, the prevalence of activated BAT is low and especially rare in the tropics. There is a significant linear negative correlation between the prevalence of activated BAT and the average outdoor temperature.
doi:10.1100/2012/793039
PMCID: PMC3349155  PMID: 22593707

Results 1-3 (3)