G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are important regulatory proteins for many G protein-coupled receptors, but little is known about GRK4 pharmacogenetics. We hypothesized three nonsynonymous GRK4 SNPs, R65L (rs2960306), A142V (rs1024323) and A486V (rs1801058) would be associated with blood pressure response to atenolol, but not hydrochlorothiazide, and would be associated with long term cardiovascular outcomes (all cause, death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke) in participants treated with an atenolol-based versus verapamil-SR-based antihypertensive strategy. GRK4 SNPs were genotyped in 768 hypertensive participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) trial. In Caucasians and African Americans, increasing copies of the variant 65L-142V haplotype were associated with significantly reduced atenolol-induced diastolic blood pressure lowering (−9.1 ± 6.8 vs −6.8 ± 7.1 vs −5.3 ± 6.4 mmHg in participants with 0, 1 and 2 copies of 65L-142V respectively; p=0.0088). 1460 participants with hypertension and coronary artery disease from the INternational VErapamil SR / Trandolapril STudy (INVEST) were genotyped and variant alleles of all three GRK4 SNPs were associated with increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in an additive fashion, with 486V homozygotes reaching statistical significance (Odds ratio 2.29 [1.48–3.55], p=0.0002). These effects on adverse cardiovascular outcomes were independent of antihypertensive treatment. These results suggest the presence of GRK4 variant alleles may be important determinants of blood pressure response to atenolol and risk for adverse cardiovascular events. The associations with GRK4 variant alleles were stronger in patients who were also ADRB1 389R-homozygotes, suggesting a potential interaction between these two genes.
hypertension; GRK4; atenolol; beta-blocker; outcomes; ADRB1; pharmacogenetics
Certain cardiovascular drugs have adverse effects on glucose homeostasis which may lead to important long-term implications for increased risks for adverse outcomes. Thiazide diuretics, niacin, and β-adrenergic blockers impair glucose homeostasis. However, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have demonstrated beneficial metabolic effects. The newer vasodilating β-blocking agents and calcium antagonists appear to be metabolically neutral. These considerations, in addition to meticulous attention to blood pressure control and lifestyle changes, have the potential to beneficially modify glycemia and long-term risks. These considerations have particular importance in younger patients who may also have prediabetes or the metabolic syndrome and who are likely to require therapy over the course of decades.
metabolic syndrome; prediabetes; thiazide diuretic; dysglycemia; glucose homeostasis
Blood pressure reduction is associated with significant reduction in adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Certain blood pressure lowering drugs have adverse effects on glucose homeostasis, and have been associated with development of both pre-diabetes and diabetes during use. There is controversy over the significance of diabetes that develops during treatment with antihypertensives and whether the benefits of blood pressure reduction offset the hazards of dysglycemia that can lead to diabetes. Many hypertension treatment guidelines have recently undergone revisions to include consideration for the metabolic effects of antihypertensive drugs, particularly in high risk populations. This review summarizes the data related to the benefits of blood pressure reduction as well as the adverse metabolic effects and new onset diabetes associated with some antihypertensive medications.
Hypertension; Diabetes; Pre Diabetes; Thiazide Diuretics; β blockers; New Onset Diabetes; Cardiovascular Outcomes
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been defined in different ways. However, key components common to most definitions are a constellation of risk factors including abdominal adiposity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A major mediator of MetS appears to be insulin resistance, which relates to the development of the vascular and metabolic dysfunctions that precede overt cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Evidence suggests that the mechanisms underlying the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with MetS begin with subclinical organ damage. Therapy for MetS targets individual components of the syndrome and includes lifestyle interventions, lipid-modifying therapy, and antihypertensive agents, particularly those that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system. Results of trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have demonstrated reductions in new-onset diabetes and cardiovascular events in a wide range of patients. Clinical trials to investigate further the role of these drugs in the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes in patients with MetS are currently under way. The purpose of this paper is to review the MetS from the perspective of the cardiology workforce with the hope that a better understanding of the links between MetS and cardiovascular disease could lead to improved management of persons at risk.
renin-angiotensin system; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; angiotensin receptor blocker; cardiovascular disease; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes mellitus
We aimed to determine how single and combination antihypertensive therapy alters risk for diabetes mellitus (DM).Thiazide diuretics (TD), β blockers (BB), and renin–angiotensin system blockers (RASB) impact DM risk while calcium channel blockers (CCB) are neutral. DM risk associated with combinations is unclear.
Methods and Results
We enrolled nondiabetic patients from Kaiser Permanente Northwest with a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) <126 mg/dL between 1997 and 2010. DM cases were defined by a FPG ≥126 mg/dL, random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL, HbA1c ≥7.0%, or new DM prescription (index date). We used incidence density sampling to match 10 controls per case on the date of follow‐up glucose test (to reduce detection bias), in addition to age and date of cohort entry. Exposure to antihypertensive class was assessed during the 30 days prior to index date. Our cohort contained 134 967 patients and had 412 604 glucose tests eligible for matching. A total of 9097 DM cases were matched to 90 495 controls (median age 51 years). Exposure to TD (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.41 to 1.68) or BB (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.28) was associated with an increased DM risk, while CCB and RASB exposure was not. TD+BB combination resulted in the fully combined diabetogenic risk of both agents (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.20; interaction OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.22). In contrast, combination of RASB with either TD or BB showed significant negative interactions, resulting in a smaller DM risk than TD or BB monotherapy.
Diabetogenic potential of combination therapy should be considered when prescribing antihypertensive therapy.
β blockers; diabetes; diabetogenic; drug interactions; hypertension; RAS blockers; thiazide diuretics
Antihypertensive drugs are among the most commonly prescribed drugs for chronic disease worldwide. The response to antihypertensive drugs varies substantially between individuals and important factors such as race that contribute to this heterogeneity are poorly understood. In this study we use metabolomics, a global biochemical approach to investigate biochemical changes induced by the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker atenolol in Caucasians and African Americans. Plasma from individuals treated with atenolol was collected at baseline (untreated) and after a 9 week treatment period and analyzed using a GC-TOF metabolomics platform. The metabolomic signature of atenolol exposure included saturated (palmitic), monounsaturated (oleic, palmitoleic) and polyunsaturated (arachidonic, linoleic) free fatty acids, which decreased in Caucasians after treatment but were not different in African Americans (p<0.0005, q<0.03). Similarly, the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate was significantly decreased in Caucasians by 33% (p<0.0001, q<0.0001) but was unchanged in African Americans. The contribution of genetic variation in genes that encode lipases to the racial differences in atenolol-induced changes in fatty acids was examined. SNP rs9652472 in LIPC was found to be associated with the change in oleic acid in Caucasians (p<0.0005) but not African Americans, whereas the PLA2G4C SNP rs7250148 associated with oleic acid change in African Americans (p<0.0001) but not Caucasians. Together, these data indicate that atenolol-induced changes in the metabolome are dependent on race and genotype. This study represents a first step of a pharmacometabolomic approach to phenotype patients with hypertension and gain mechanistic insights into racial variability in changes that occur with atenolol treatment, which may influence response to the drug.
Thiazides and β-blockers cause adverse metabolic effects (AMEs), but whether these effects share predictors with blood pressure (BP) response is unknown. We aimed to determine whether AMEs are correlated with BP response in uncomplicated hypertensives.
In a multicenter, open-label, parallel-group trial, we enrolled 569 persons, aged 17–65, with random assignment to 9 weeks of daily hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or atenolol monotherapy, followed by 9 weeks of add-on therapy with the alternate agent. Measurements included home BP, averaged over 1 week, weight and fasting levels of serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and uric acid (UA) before and after monotherapy and after add-on therapy.
Increases in UA correlated with reductions in systolic BP (SBP) (r = −0.18; P = 0.003) and diastolic BP (DBP) (r = −0.20; P = 0.001) following HCTZ monotherapy and add-on therapy (r = −0.27 and r = −0.21, respectively; both P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, race, gender, and baseline body mass index (BMI), only the correlation between UA and DBP response became nonsignificant. Reductions in HDL correlated with systolic response following atenolol monotherapy (r = 0.18; P = 0.002) and with systolic and diastolic response following add-on therapy (r = 0.30 and r = 0.24, respectively; both P < 0.0001). These correlations remained significant after covariate adjustment. BP responses were not correlated with changes in glucose, LDL, triglycerides, or weight following either therapy.
BP response correlated with changes in UA following HCTZ therapy and HDL following atenolol therapy. No other significant correlations were observed between BP response and AMEs, suggesting that these effects generally do not share predictors. Patients should be monitored for AMEs, regardless of BP response.
thiazide diuretics; atenolol; β-blockers; blood pressure; hydrochlorothiazide; hypertension; metabolic effects
We investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system in women with signs and symptoms of ischemia without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Although microvascular dysfunction has been suggested to explain this syndrome and recently was found to predict adverse outcomes, the mechanisms and treatments remain unclear.
In a substudy within the Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation, 78 women with microvascular dysfunction (coronary flow reserve [CFR] <3.0 following adenosine) and no obstructive CAD were randomly assigned to either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACE-I) with quinapril or a placebo treatment group. The primary efficacy parameter was CFR at 16 weeks adjusted for baseline characteristics and clinical site. The secondary response variable was freedom from angina symptoms assessed using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire.
A total of 61 women completed the 16-week treatment period with repeat CFR measurements, and treatment was well tolerated. For the primary outcome, at 16 weeks CFR improved more with ACE-I than placebo (p<0.02). For the secondary outcome of symptom improvement, ACE-I treatment (p=0.037) and CFR increase (p=0.008) both contributed.
Microvascular function improves with ACE-I therapy in women with signs and symptoms of ischemia without obstructive CAD. This improvement is associated with reduction in angina. The beneficial response of the coronary microvasculature was limited to women with lower baseline CFR values, suggesting that the renin-angiotensin system may be more involved among women with more severe microvascular defects.
Due to time-dependent confounding by blood pressure and differential loss to follow-up, it is difficult to estimate the effectiveness of aggressive versus conventional antihypertensive combination therapies in non-randomized comparisons.
We utilized data from 22,576 hypertensive coronary artery disease patients, prospectively enrolled in the INternational VErapamil-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST). Our post-hoc analyses did not consider the randomized treatment strategies, but instead defined exposure time-dependently as aggressive treatment (≥3 concomitantly used antihypertensive medications) versus conventional treatment (≤2 concomitantly used antihypertensive medications). Study outcome was defined as time to first serious cardiovascular event (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or all-cause death). We compared hazard ratio (HR) estimates for aggressive vs. conventional treatment from a Marginal Structural Cox Model (MSCM) to estimates from a standard Cox model. Both models included exposure to antihypertensive treatment at each follow-up visit, demographics, and baseline cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure. The MSCM further adjusted for systolic blood pressure at each follow-up visit, through inverse probability of treatment weights.
2,269 (10.1%) patients experienced a cardiovascular event over a total follow-up of 60,939 person-years. The HR for aggressive treatment estimated by the standard Cox model was 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.87-1.07). The equivalent MSCM, which was able to account for changes in systolic blood pressure during follow-up, estimated a HR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.71-0.92).
Using a MSCM, aggressive treatment was associated with a lower risk for serious cardiovascular outcomes compared to conventional treatment. In contrast, a standard Cox model estimated similar risks for aggressive and conventional treatments.
Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00133692
Blood pressure; Hypertension; Time-dependent confounding; Marginal structural models
Microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD) is associated with symptoms, signs of ischemia, and adverse outcomes in women without macrovascular obstructive coronary artery disease (M-CAD). Although, MCD can be quantified using coronary flow reserve (CFR), treatment is poorly defined.
Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibition acutely improves MCD in these women.
The subjects were 23 symptomatic women (age 54±11 years) participating in an ancillary study of the Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) with baseline CFR ≤3.0 (Doppler flow wire and intracoronary adenosine) and without M-CAD. CFR was re-measured 45 minutes after PDE-5 inhibition (100 mg oral sildenafil). The primary measure of interest was change in CFR adjusted for baseline variables.
The relationship between log2 transformed CFR post–PDE-5 inhibition (adjusted) and baseline was different from the line of identity (slope: 0.55 vs. 1.0, P=0.008; intercept: 0.73 vs. 0.0, P=0.01), indicating that PDE-5 inhibition improves CFR and the lower the baseline CFR, the greater the response. Among women with baseline CFR ≤2.5 (N=11), CFR increased from 2.1±0.2 to 2.7±0.6 (P=0.006). For women with baseline CFR >2.5 (N=12), CFR did not change (3.1±0.3 to 3.0±0.6; P=0.70).
For women with symptoms and signs of ischemia and no M-CAD, PDE-5 inhibition is associated with acute improvement in CFR and the effect concentrates among those with CFR ≤2.5. If these acute effects are sustained, then PDE-5 inhibition would provide a rational strategy for management of MCD in symptomatic women without M-CAD. The longer-term effects warrant study in a randomized trial using a sustained acting PDE-5 inhibitor.
Women; Microvascular coronary dysfunction; Coronary flow reserve; Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition
Liver X receptor-α (LXRA) is a nuclear receptor that regulates genes important in cholesterol homeostasis and inflammation. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LXRA gene have been previously associated with metabolic phenotypes (dyslipidemia and elevated BMI). Metabolic dysregulation is a major contributor to coronary disease; therefore, we assessed LXRA in INVEST-GENES, a genetic-substudy of a large clinical trial in patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease.
Seven tag SNPs in the LXRA gene region (NR1H3) were selected for study: rs11039149, rs12221497, rs2279238, rs7120118, rs326213, rs11039159 and rs10501321. 1059 subjects were genotyped from the INVEST-GENES case-control set (Verapamil-SR or Atenolol based treatment strategies), comprised of 297 cases frequency matched approximately 2.5:1 with event-free controls by sex and race. The primary outcome was defined as first occurrence of all-cause death, nonfatal MI, or nonfatal stroke. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression.
Three of the seven SNPs were associated with significant effects on the primary outcome in Non-Blacks. The variant G allele of rs11039149 and the variant A allele of rs12221497 were associated with reduced risk of experiencing the primary outcome (OR: 0.62, CI: 0.45-0.85, P=0.003 and OR: 0.60, CI: 0.39-0.91, P=0.016 respectively). The rs2279238 genotype was associated with a significant increase in risk for the primary outcome (OR: 1.42, CI: 1.03-1.95, P=0.03). Furthermore, there was a significant genotype-treatment strategy interaction for carriers of the variant T allele of rs2279238 (OR for Verapamil SR strategy compared to Atenolol: 2.86, CI: 1.50-5.46, P=0.0015). Diplotype analyses revealed that the SNPs are rarely co-inherited and support the directionally opposite effects of the SNPs on the primary outcome.
LXRA genotypes were associated with variable risk for cardiovascular outcomes and pharmacogenetic effect in INVEST-GENES. These novel findings suggest LXRA is a genetic/pharmacogenetic target that should be further explored.
LXRA; Nuclear Receptor; Pharmacogenetics; Polymorphisms; Cardiovascular Disease; Hypertension; Atenolol; Verapamil
While numerous SNPs in Chromosome 9p21 have been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and incident MI in Caucasians, there are limited and conflicting reports on the association of this locus with prognosis in Caucasians with existing CAD and no reports in blacks or Hispanics. We investigated the hypothesis that 9p21 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with documented CAD.
Methods and Results
We studied the association of 155 chromosome 9p21 SNPs with adverse outcomes among hypertensive CAD patients of multiple races/ethnicities in INVEST GENES (the INternational VErapamil SR Trandolapril STudy GENetic Substudy, n= 1,460, n = 5,979 for 2 SNPs) and with replication testing of 4 SNPs in the INFORM (INvestigation oF Outcomes from acute coronary syndRoMe; n=714) study of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. In INVEST, the haplotype comprised of the risk allele for the widely reported 9p21 SNPs was associated with better prognosis in Caucasians (OR, 95% CI: 0.72, 0.57–0.92, p = 0.0085) but not blacks (1.21, 0.68–1.24, p = 0.52) or Hispanics (0.96, 0.65–1.44, p=0.86). A less commonly reported LD block was associated with worse prognosis in INVEST among both Caucasians (OR=1.52 (1.20–1.93), p = 0.0006) and African Americans (OR = 4.11 (1.55–10.88), p = 0.004).
Our findings suggest previously reported chromosome 9p21 SNPs, which predict incident CAD, are not associated with higher risk for adverse outcomes in patients with established CAD. The less commonly reported LD block warrants further investigation.
chromosome 9p21; cardiovascular outcomes; genetic polymorphisms; INVEST; INFORM
To determine whether office, home, ambulatory daytime and nighttime blood pressure (BP) responses to antihypertensive drug therapy measure the same signal and which method provides greatest power to identify genetic predictors of BP response.
We analyzed office, home, ambulatory daytime and nighttime BP responses in hypertensive adults randomized to atenolol (N = 242) or hydrochlorothiazide (N = 257) in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses Study. Since different measured BP responses may have different predictors, we tested the "same signal" model by using linear regression methods to determine whether known predictors of BP response depend on the method of BP measurement. We estimated signal-to-noise ratios and compared power to identify a genetic polymorphism predicting BP response measured by each method separately and by weighted averages of multiple methods.
After adjustment for pretreatment BP level, known predictors of BP response including plasma renin activity, race, and sex were independent of the method of BP measurement. Signal-to-noise ratios were more than 2-fold greater for home and ambulatory daytime BP responses than for office and ambulatory nighttime BP responses and up to 11-fold greater for weighted averages of all four methods. Power to identify a genetic polymorphism predicting BP response was directly related to the signal-to-noise ratio and, therefore, greatest with the weighted averages.
Since different methods of measuring BP response to antihypertensive drug therapy measure the same signal, weighted averages of the BP responses measured by multiple methods minimize measurement error and optimize power to identify genetic predictors of BP response.
hypertension; blood pressure monitoring; antihypertensive drug therapy; beta-blocker; thiazide diuretic; plasma renin activity
The G-protein coupled receptor kinases GRK2 and GRK5 are important regulators of beta-adrenergic signaling. This study characterized single nucleotide polymorphisms in the GRK2 gene (ADRBK1)and determined if these and a GRK5 Gln41Leu polymorphism affect the blood pressure (BP)response to atenolol or hydrochlorothiazide or adverse cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensives.
ADRBK1 regions were sequenced for 48 individuals. Putative functional SNPs were tested for mRNA expression differences in 96 lymphoblastoid cell line samples and 12 leukocyte samples from hypertensives. BP response to atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide by ADRBK1 SNPs and GRK5 Gln41Leuwas tested in 418patients from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) using linear regression. The influence of ADRBK1 SNPs and GRK5 Gln41Leuon death, myocardial infarction or stroke in treated hypertensive patients was evaluated in a case-control cohort (1:3) of the International Verapamil SR/Trandolapril Study GENEtic Substudy (INVEST GENES) using logistic regression models.
A novel ADRBK1 promoter SNP was not associated with differential GRK2 expression. GRK5 Leu41 decreased the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes independent of treatment strategy(adjusted odds ratio 0.535, 95% confidence interval 0.313 – 0.951, P = 0.0222)but was not associated with BP response to antihypertensive medication. An ADRBK1 SNP (rs1894111G>A) showed a signal for association with systolic and diastolic BP(SBP, DBP) response to hydrochlorothiazide in whites(DBP: −11.29±3.74 mmHg (G/A) vs. −4.26±4.79 mmHg (G/G), P = 0.0034 and SBP: −18.37±14.90 mmHg (G/A), −8.11±7.55 mmHg (G/G), P = 0.0191).
The GRK5 Leu41 allele protects from adverse cardiovascular outcomes in treated hypertensives.
GRK5; GRK2; ADRBK1; polymorphism; hypertension; beta-blocker; atenolol; diuretic; hydrochlorothiazide
Hypertension and diabetes mellitus frequently occur together, leading to increased complications and mortality in patients with both these conditions. Blood pressure (BP) goals for patients with diabetes have consistently been more aggressive than for patients without diabetes. Although the benefits of lowering BP are well documented, data to support this more aggressive goal are lacking. In fact, lowering BP might not always be better. We review the available evidence regarding BP treatment in patients with hypertension and diabetes from randomized clinical trials, as well as available observational data. We also consider evidence related to the J-shaped curve, which reflects the relationship between BP and outcomes in patients with diabetes, and make recommendations for treatment of BP on the basis of a patient’s individual risk, as opposed to on the basis of aggressive BP targets recommended by global guidelines. In the future, a personalized approach will maximize the benefits from treatment.
Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are among the most commonly used antihypertensives and have been available for over 50 years. However, the mechanism by which these drugs chronically lower blood pressure is poorly understood. Possible mechanisms include direct endothelial- or vascular smooth muscle-mediated vasodilation and indirect compensation to acute decreases in cardiac output. In addition, thiazides are associated with adverse metabolic effects, particularly hyperglycemia, and the mechanistic underpinnings of these effects are also poorly understood. Thiazide-induced hypokalemia, as well as other theories to explain these metabolic disturbances, including increased visceral adiposity, hyperuricemia, decreased glucose metabolism and pancreatic β-cell hyperpolarization, may play a role. Understanding genetic variants with differential responses to thiazides could reveal new mechanistic candidates for future research to provide a more complete understanding of the blood pressure and metabolic response to thiazide diuretics.
chlorthalidone; epithelial sodium channel; hydrochlorothiazide; hypertension; metabolic syndrome; pharmacogenetics; potassium; sodium–chloride cotransporter; thiazide
We assessed adverse metabolic effects (AMEs) of atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) among hypertensive patients with and without abdominal obesity using data from a randomized, open-label study of hypertensive patients without evidence of cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Intervention included randomization to HCTZ 25mg or atenolol 100mg monotherapy followed by their combination. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and uric acid were measured at baseline and after mono-and combination therapy. Outcomes included new occurrence of and predictors for new cases of glucose ≥ 100mg/dl (impaired fasting glucose [IFG]), triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dl, HDL ≤ 40mg/dl for men or ≤ 50mg/dl for women, or new onset diabetes according to presence or absence of abdominal obesity. Abdominal obesity was present in 167/395 (58%). Regardless of strategy, in those with abdominal obesity, 20% had IFG at baseline compared with 40% at end of study (p<0.0001). Proportion with triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl increased from 33% at baseline to 46% at end of study (p<0.01). New onset diabetes occurred in 13 (6%) with and in 4 (2%) without abdominal obesity. Baseline levels of glucose, triglyceride and HDL predicted adverse outcomes and predictors for new onset diabetes after monotherapy in those with abdominal obesity included HCTZ strategy (OR 47, 95% CI 2.55-862), female sex (OR 31.3, 95% CI 2.10-500) and uric acid (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.35-7.50). Development of AME, including new onset diabetes associated with short term exposure to HCTZ and atenolol was more common in those with abdominal obesity.
atenolol; hydrochlorothiazide; abdominal obesity; metabolic syndrome; new onset diabetes; hypertension
Our understanding of the growing population of very old patients (aged ≥80 years) with coronary artery disease and hypertension is limited, particularly the relationship between blood pressure and adverse outcomes.
This was a secondary analysis of the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST), which involved 22,576 clinically stable hypertensive coronary artery disease patients aged ≥50 years. The patients were grouped by age in 10-year increments (aged ≥80, n = 2180; 70–<80, n = 6126; 60–<70, n = 7602; <60, n =6668). Patients were randomized to either verapamil SR- or atenolol-based treatment strategies, and primary outcome was first occurrence of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke.
At baseline, increasing age was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, lower diastolic blood pressure, and wider pulse pressure (P <.001). Treatment decreased systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure for each age group. However, the very old retained the widest pulse pressure and the highest proportion (23.6%) with primary outcome. The adjusted hazard ratio for primary outcomes showed a J-shaped relationship among each age group with on-treatment systolic and diastolic pressures. The systolic pressure at the hazard ratio nadir increased with increasing age, highest for the very old (140 mm Hg). However, diastolic pressure at the hazard ratio nadir was only somewhat lower for the very old (70 mm Hg). Results were independent of treatment strategy.
Optimal management of hypertension in very old coronary artery disease patients may involve targeting specific systolic and diastolic blood pressures that are higher and somewhat lower, respectively, compared with other age groups.
Age; Blood pressure control; Coronary artery disease; Elderly; Epidemiology; Hypertension
Hypertension guidelines advocate treating systolic blood pressure (BP) to less than 130 mm Hg for patients with diabetes mellitus; however, data are lacking for the growing population who also have coronary artery disease (CAD).
To determine the association of systolic BP control achieved and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in a cohort of patients with diabetes and CAD.
Design, Setting, and Patients
Observational subgroup analysis of 6400 of the 22 576 participants in the International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril Study (INVEST). For this analysis, participants were at least 50 years old and had diabetes and CAD. Participants were recruited between September 1997 and December 2000 from 862 sites in 14 countries and were followed up through March 2003 with an extended follow-up through August 2008 through the National Death Index for US participants.
Patients received first-line treatment of either a calcium antagonist or β-blocker followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, a diuretic, or both to achieve systolic BP of less than 130 and diastolic BP of less than 85 mm Hg. Patients were categorized as having tight control if they could maintain their systolic BP at less than 130 mm Hg; usual control if it ranged from 130 mm Hg to less than 140 mm Hg; and uncontrolled if it was 140 mm Hg or higher.
Main Outcome Measures
Adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including the primary outcomes which was the first occurrence of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke.
During 16 893 patient-years of follow-up, 286 patients (12.7%) who maintained tight control, 249 (12.6%) who had usual control, and 431 (19.8%) who had uncontrolled systolic BP experienced a primary outcome event. Patients in the usual-control group had a cardiovascular event rate of 12.6% vs a 19.8% event rate for those in the uncontrolled group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25–1.71; P<.001). However, little difference existed between those with usual control and those with tight control. Their respective event rates were 12.6% vs 12.7% (adjusted HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.93–1.32; P=.24). The all-cause mortality rate was 11.0% in the tight-control group vs 10.2% in the usual-control group (adjusted HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.99–1.45; P=.06); however, when extended follow-up was included, risk of all-cause mortality was 22.8% in the tight control vs 21.8% in the usual control group (adjusted HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01–1.32; P=.04).
Tight control of systolic BP among patients with diabetes and CAD was not associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes compared with usual control.
The optimal blood pressure (BP) to prevent major adverse outcomes (death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) for patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease who have undergone previous revascularization is unknown but might be influenced by the type of revascularization procedure. We analyzed data from the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy, focusing on the relation between BP and the outcomes of 6,166 previously revascularized patients, using the 16,410 nonrevascularized patients as a reference group. The previous revascularization strategy consisted of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, 45.2%), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, 42.1%), or both (CABG+PCI, 12.8%). Patients who had undergone both CABG+PCI and CABG-only had a greater adverse outcome risk (adjusted hazard ratio 1.27% and 1.20%, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.53 and 1.07 to 1.35, respectively). The risk was similar for PCI-only patients (adjusted hazard ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 1.19). The relations between the adjusted hazard ratio and on-treatment BP appeared J-shaped for each revascularization strategy, accentuated for PCI and diastolic BP (DBP), but excepting CABG only and DBP for which the relation was linear and positive. In conclusion, major adverse outcomes were more frequent in patients with coronary artery disease who had undergone previous CABG, with or without PCI, compared to those with previous PCI only. This likely reflected more severe vascular disease. The relation to systolic BP was J-shaped for each strategy. Among those patients with previous CABG only, the linear relation with DBP suggested that more complete revascularization might attenuate hypoperfusion at a low DBP. The management of BP might, therefore, require modification of targets according to the revascularization strategy to improve outcomes.
CYP19A1 encodes aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens, and may play a role in variation in outcomes among men and women with cardiovascular disease. We sought to examine genetic variation in CYP19A1 for its potential role in sex differences in cardiovascular disease outcomes.
Caucasian individuals from two independent populations were assessed: 1) a prospective cohort of patients with acute coronary syndromes with 3-year mortality follow-up (n = 568) and 2) a nested case-control study from a randomized, controlled trial of hypertension patients with stable coronary disease in which the primary outcome was death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) or nonfatal stroke (n = 619). Six CYP19A1 SNPs were genotyped (-81371 C>T, -45965 G>C, M201T, R264C, 80 A>G, and +32226 G>A). The sex*genotype interaction term was assessed for the primary outcome and compared by genotype in men and women when a significant interaction term was identified.
We identified a significant interaction between -81371 C>T and sex (p = 0.025) in the ACS population. The variant allele was associated with a 78% increase in mortality in men (HR 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.94) and a nonsignificant 42% decrease in mortality among women (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.22-1.54). We identified a similar association in the hypertensive CAD group, the -81371 C>T*sex interaction term was p<0.0001, with an associated 65% increase in death, MI, or stroke (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.00-2.73) in men and a 69% decrease (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.16-0.6) in women.
Using two independent populations, this study is the first to document a significant interaction between CYP19A1 genotype and sex on cardiovascular outcomes. These findings could illuminate potential mechanisms of sex differences in cardiovascular disease outcomes.
To evaluate whether the level of systemic exposure to atenolol explains observed interindividual differences in adverse metabolic responses.
Open-label, prospective, pharmacokinetic pilot substudy of the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) study.
General clinical research center.
Fifteen hypertensive adults (mean age 46 ± 8.9 yrs) who were enrolled in the PEAR study.
Patients received atenolol therapy for at least 8 weeks, with 5 of those weeks at a dosage of 100 mg/day, and then underwent a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test during a pharmacokinetic study visit.
Measurements and Main Results
Twenty-hour plasma atenolol concentrations were measured during the pharmacokinetic visit. Glucose and insulin levels were measured during the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test, and fasting plasma lipid, glucose, and insulin levels were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of atenolol treatment. A significant association was noted between atenolol area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and change in fasting glucose level when adjusted for covariates (p=0.0025); the effect was strongest in women. No significant relationship was noted between plasma atenolol concentration and glucose AUC during oral glucose tolerance testing (r=0.08, p=0.78), nor between atenolol AUC and change in triglyceride levels (r=0.13, p=0.63).
Higher plasma atenolol exposure may be a risk factor for an increase in fasting plasma glucose level during atenolol treatment. These findings require confirmation in a larger sample.
hypertension; β-blockers; atenolol; adverse metabolic effect; oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT; plasma lipid levels; glucose
Hypertension is a common risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Guidelines suggest treating PAD patients to a blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg; therefore, our objective was to explore whether attainment of this target blood pressure is associated with improved outcomes. We performed a post hoc analysis of the INternational VErapamil-SR/Trandolapril STudy, a randomized clinical trial, which included hypertensive patients with concomitant PAD and coronary artery disease. There were 2699 PAD patients followed for a mean of 2.7 years (60 970 patient-years). The primary outcome, all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, occurred in 16.3% of PAD patients versus 9.2% without PAD (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.26 [95% CI: 1.13 to 1.40]; P<0.0001). The primary outcome occurred least frequently among PAD patients treated to an average systolic blood pressure of 135 to 145 mm Hg and an average diastolic blood pressure of 60 to 90 mm Hg. PAD patients displayed a J-shape relationship with systolic blood pressure and the primary outcome, although individuals without PAD did not. PAD patients may require a different target blood pressure than those without PAD.
peripheral vascular disease; peripheral arterial disease; coronary artery disease; hypertension prognosis; calcium antagonist; β-blocker
To determine whether changes in serum glucose, serum potassium, and plasma insulin levels are correlated in a cohort of hypertensive patients.
Prespecified subgroup analysis of results from a prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study.
Primary care clinics at three tertiary care medical centers.
Community-based ambulatory population of 202 patients (age range 17–65 yrs) with a new diagnosis of hypertension, untreated hypertension, or known hypertension, who were previously treated with fewer than three antihypertensive drugs and had no evidence of cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus.
Monotherapy with oral hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 or 25 mg/day for 9 weeks.
Measurements and Main Results
Fasting serum glucose, serum potassium, and plasma insulin levels were obtained at baseline (before hydrochlorothiazide therapy was started) and after 9 weeks of therapy. Significant elevations were noted in fasting serum glucose (mean ± SD 3.42 ± 10.38 mg/dl, p<0.0001) and plasma insulin (2.35 ± 9.47 μIU/ml, p<0.0001) levels, and a significant reduction in serum potassium level (0.30 ± 0.44 mEq/L, p<0.0001) was noted. No significant correlation was observed between changes in fasting serum glucose and potassium levels (r = 0.022, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.120–0.164, p=0.757) or between changes in serum potassium and plasma insulin levels (r = −0.112, 95% CI −0.256–0.037, p=0.140). Changes in serum glucose levels did not differ significantly between patients maintaining serum potassium levels of 4.0 mEq/L or greater and those with levels below 4.0 mEq/L.
Changes in serum potassium and serum glucose levels were not correlated in individuals receiving hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy; thus maintenance of normal potassium levels may not attenuate the risk of thiazide diuretic–induced hyperglycemia.
thiazide diuretics; hyperglycemia; hypokalemia; thiazide-induced hyperglycemia; hydrochlorothiazide.