Though aspirin is a well-established antiplatelet agent, the mechanisms of aspirin resistance remain poorly understood. Metabolomics allows for measurement of hundreds of small molecules in biological samples enabling detailed mapping of pathways involved in drug response. We defined the metabolic signature of aspirin exposure in subjects from the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study. Many metabolites, including known aspirin catabolites, changed upon exposure to aspirin and pathway enrichment analysis identified purine metabolism as significantly affected by drug exposure. Further, purines were associated with aspirin response and poor responders had higher post-aspirin adenosine and inosine than good responders (N=76;p<4×10-3 both). Using our established “pharmacometabolomics-informs-pharmacogenomics” approach we identified genetic variants in adenosine kinase (ADK) associated with aspirin response. Combining metabolomics and genomics allowed for more comprehensive interrogation of mechanisms of variation in aspirin response - an important step toward personalized treatment approaches for cardiovascular disease.
clopidogrel; genetics; genotype; platelet function; ticagrelor; editorials
To identify novel genes influencing blood pressure response to thiazide diuretic therapy for hypertension, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of ≈1.1 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in a combined sample of 424 European Americans with primary hypertension treated with hydrochlorothiazide from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses Study (N=228) and the Genetic Epidemiology of Responses to Antihypertensive Study (N=196). Polymorphisms associated with blood pressure response at p<10-5 were tested for replication of the associations in independent samples of hydrochlorothiazide-treated European hypertensives. The rs16960228 polymorphism in protein kinase C, alpha replicated for same-direction association with diastolic blood pressure response in the Nordic Diltiazem Study (N=420) and the Genetics of Drug Responsiveness in Essential Hypertension Study (N=206), and the combined four-study meta-analysis p-value achieved genome-wide significance (p=3.3 × 10-8). Systolic/diastolic blood pressure responses were consistently greater in carriers of the rs16960228 A allele than in GG homozygotes (4/4 mmHg greater) across study samples. The rs2273359 polymorphism in the GNAS-EDN3 region also replicated for same-direction association with systolic blood pressure response in the Nordic Diltiazem Study, and the combined three-study meta-analysis p-value approached genome-wide significance (p=5.5 × 10-8). The findings document clinically-important effects of genetic variation at novel loci on blood pressure response to a thiazide diuretic, which may be a basis for individualization of antihypertensive drug therapy and identification of new drug targets.
Hypertension; high blood pressure; antihypertensive therapy/diuretics; hydrochlorothiazide; genomics; pharmacogenomics; protein kinase C
Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable determinant of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ∼50 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture variation in ∼2100 candidate genes for cardiovascular phenotypes in 61 619 individuals of European ancestry from cohort studies in the USA and Europe. We identified novel associations between rs347591 and SBP (chromosome 3p25.3, in an intron of HRH1) and between rs2169137 and DBP (chromosome1q32.1 in an intron of MDM4) and between rs2014408 and SBP (chromosome 11p15 in an intron of SOX6), previously reported to be associated with MAP. We also confirmed 10 previously known loci associated with SBP, DBP, MAP or PP (ADRB1, ATP2B1, SH2B3/ATXN2, CSK, CYP17A1, FURIN, HFE, LSP1, MTHFR, SOX6) at array-wide significance (P < 2.4 × 10−6). We then replicated these associations in an independent set of 65 886 individuals of European ancestry. The findings from expression QTL (eQTL) analysis showed associations of SNPs in the MDM4 region with MDM4 expression. We did not find any evidence of association of the two novel SNPs in MDM4 and HRH1 with sequelae of high BP including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or stroke. In summary, we identified two novel loci associated with BP and confirmed multiple previously reported associations. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, some of which may eventually provide new targets for therapeutic intervention.
Aspirin or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel is standard therapy for patients at increased risk for cardiovascular events. However, the genetic determinants of variable response to aspirin (alone and in combination with clopidogrel) are not known.
Methods and Results
We measured ex-vivo platelet aggregation before and after DAPT in individuals (n=565) from the Pharmacogenomics of Antiplatelet Intervention (PAPI) Study and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of drug response. Significant findings were extended by examining genotype and cardiovascular outcomes in two independent aspirin-treated cohorts: 227 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients, and 1,000 patients of the International VErapamil SR/trandolapril Study (INVEST) GENEtic Substudy (INVEST-GENES). GWAS revealed a strong association between single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 1q23 and post-DAPT platelet aggregation. Further genotyping revealed rs12041331 in the platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1) gene to be most strongly associated with DAPT response (P=7.66×10−9). In Caucasian and African American patients undergoing PCI, A-allele carriers of rs12041331 were more likely to experience a cardiovascular event or death compared to GG homozygotes (hazard ratio = 2.62, 95%CI 0.96-7.10, P=0.059 and hazard ratio = 3.97, 95%CI 1.10-14.31, P=0.035 respectively). In aspirin-treated INVEST-GENES patients, rs12041331 A-allele carriers had significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction compared to GG homozygotes (OR=2.03, 95%CI 1.01-4.09, P=0.048).
Common genetic variation in PEAR1 may be a determinant of platelet response and cardiovascular events in patients on aspirin, alone and in combination with clopidogrel.
Clinical Trial Registration Information
clinicaltrials.gov; Identifiers: NCT00799396 and NCT00370045
pharmacogenomics; platelets; percutaneous coronary intervention; PEAR1; CYP2C19
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NEDD4L may influence the ability of the NEDD4L protein to reduce epithelial sodium channel expression. A variant in NEDD4L, rs4149601, was associated with antihypertensive response and cardiovascular outcomes during treatment with thiazide diuretics and β-blockers in a Swedish population. We sought to further evaluate associations between NEDD4L polymorphisms, blood pressure response and cardiovascular outcomes with thiazide diuretics and β-blockers.
Four SNPs, rs4149601, rs292449, rs1008899 and rs75982813, were genotyped in 767 patients from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) clinical trial and association was assessed with blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol. One SNP, rs4149601, was also genotyped in 1345 patients from the International Verapmil SR Trandolapril Study (INVEST), and association was examined with adverse cardiovascular outcomes relative to hydrochlorothiazide treatment.
Significant associations or trends were found between rs4149601, rs292449, rs75982813 and rs1008899 and decreases in blood pressure in whites on hydrochlorothiazide, and a significant association was observed with increasing copies of the GC rs4149601-rs292449 haplotype and greater blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide in whites (P = 0.0006 and 0.006, SBP and DBP, respectively). Significant associations were also seen with rs4149601 and an increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in whites not treated with hydrochlorothiazide [P = 0.022, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 10.65 (1.18–96.25)].
NEDD4L rs4149601, rs292449 and rs75982813 may be predictors for blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide in whites, and NEDD4L rs4149601 may be a predictor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in whites not treated with hydrochlorothiazide.
epithelial sodium channel; hypertension; International Verapamil SR Trandolapril Study; neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 4 like; Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses; pharmacogenetics
To estimate the cost-effectiveness of genotype-guided selection of antiplatelet therapy compared with selecting clopidogrel or prasugrel irrespective of genotype.
Decision model based on event occurrence in the Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel–Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TRITON-TIMI) 38.
Simulated cohort of patients with acute coronary syndrome scheduled to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), consisting of three arms: those receiving genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel or prasugrel, those receiving clopidogrel regardless of genotype, and those receiving prasugrel regardless of genotype.
Measurements and Main Results
All three arms of the model incorporated the probability that patients would experience a cardiovascular event (death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke), a bleeding event (major or minor bleeding), or no event while receiving antiplatelet therapy during the 15 months after the scheduled PCI. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 genotype determined antiplatelet drug selection in the genotyping group. Cost-effectiveness was expressed as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for each event avoided in the genotype-guided therapy arm versus the other two arms. Genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy was dominant, or more effective and less costly, when compared with the selection of clopidogrel (ICER –$6760 [95% confidence interval (CI) –$6720 to –$6790]) or prasugrel (ICER –$11,710 [95% CI –$11,480 to –$11,950]) for all patients with-out regard to genotype. Genotype-guided therapy that included generic clopidogrel was dominant to prasugrel for all patients (ICER –$27,160 [95% CI –$27,890 to –$26,420]). Cost savings were not evident when genotype-guided therapy that included generic clopidogrel was compared with generic clopidogrel for all patients (ICER $2300 [95% CI $2290 to $2320]).
Genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy selection may be more cost-effective and may provide more clinical value due to fewer adverse outcomes.
clopidogrel; prasugrel; cytochrome P450 2C19; pharmacogenomics; cost-effectiveness
To date, 39 SNPs have been associated with blood pressure (BP) or hypertension (HTN) in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Caucasians. Our hypothesis is that the loci/SNPs associated with BP/HTN are also associated with BP response to antihypertensive drugs.
Methods and Results
We assessed the association of these loci with BP response to atenolol or hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy in 768 hypertensive participants in the Pharmacogenomics Responses of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) study. Linear regression analysis was performed in Caucasians for each SNP in an additive model adjusting for baseline BP, age, gender and principal components for ancestry. Genetic scores were constructed to include SNPs with nominal associations and empirical p values were determined by permutation test. Genotypes of 37 loci were obtained from Illumina 50K cardiovascular or Omni1M GWAS chips. In Caucasians, no SNPs reached Bonferroni-corrected alpha of 0.0014, six reached nominal significance (p<0.05) and 3 were associated with atenolol BP response at p < 0.01. The genetic score of the atenolol BP lowering alleles was associated with response to atenolol (p =3.3*10−6 for SBP; p=1.6*10−6 for DBP). The genetic score of the HCTZ BP lowering alleles was associated with response to HCTZ (p = 0.0006 for SBP; p = 0.0003 for DBP). Both risk score p values were < 0.01 based on the empirical distribution from the permutation test.
These findings suggest selected signals from hypertension GWAS may predict BP response to atenolol and HCTZ when assessed through risk scoring.
beta-blocker; diuretics; hypertension; pharmacogenetics; polymorphisms blood pressure
A recent genome-wide analysis discovered an association between a haplotype (from rs317689/rs315135/rs7297610) on Chromosome 12q15 and blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide in African-Americans. Our aim was to replicate this association and investigate possible functional mechanisms. We observed similar associations between this haplotype and hydrochlorothiazide response in an independent sample of 746 Caucasians and African-Americans randomized to hydrochlorothiazide or atenolol treatment. The haplotype association was driven by variation at rs7297610, where C/C genotypes were associated with greater mean (systolic: 3.4mmHg, P=0.0275; diastolic: 2.5mmHg, P=0.0196) responses to hydrochlorothiazide vs. T-allele carriers. Such an association was absent in atenolol-treated participants, supporting this as hydrochlorothiazide-specific. Expression analyses in hydrochlorothiazide-treated African-Americans showed differential leukocyte YEATS4 expression between rs7297610 genotype groups at baseline (P=0.024), and reduced expression in C/C genotypes (P=0.009), but not in T-carriers. Our data confirm previous genome-wide findings at 12q15 and suggest differential YEATS4 expression could underpin rs7297610-associated HCTZ response variability, which may have future implications for guiding thiazide treatment.
hydrochlorothiazide; hypertension; pharmacogenomics; blood pressure; YEATS4; diuretics
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are important regulatory proteins for many G protein-coupled receptors, but little is known about GRK4 pharmacogenetics. We hypothesized three nonsynonymous GRK4 SNPs, R65L (rs2960306), A142V (rs1024323) and A486V (rs1801058) would be associated with blood pressure response to atenolol, but not hydrochlorothiazide, and would be associated with long term cardiovascular outcomes (all cause, death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke) in participants treated with an atenolol-based versus verapamil-SR-based antihypertensive strategy. GRK4 SNPs were genotyped in 768 hypertensive participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) trial. In Caucasians and African Americans, increasing copies of the variant 65L-142V haplotype were associated with significantly reduced atenolol-induced diastolic blood pressure lowering (−9.1 ± 6.8 vs −6.8 ± 7.1 vs −5.3 ± 6.4 mmHg in participants with 0, 1 and 2 copies of 65L-142V respectively; p=0.0088). 1460 participants with hypertension and coronary artery disease from the INternational VErapamil SR / Trandolapril STudy (INVEST) were genotyped and variant alleles of all three GRK4 SNPs were associated with increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in an additive fashion, with 486V homozygotes reaching statistical significance (Odds ratio 2.29 [1.48–3.55], p=0.0002). These effects on adverse cardiovascular outcomes were independent of antihypertensive treatment. These results suggest the presence of GRK4 variant alleles may be important determinants of blood pressure response to atenolol and risk for adverse cardiovascular events. The associations with GRK4 variant alleles were stronger in patients who were also ADRB1 389R-homozygotes, suggesting a potential interaction between these two genes.
hypertension; GRK4; atenolol; beta-blocker; outcomes; ADRB1; pharmacogenetics
Overcoming racial differences in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) outcomes is a strategic goal for US healthcare. Genetic polymorphisms in the adrenergic pathway appear to explain some outcome differences by race in other cardiovascular diseases treated with β-adrenergic receptor-blockade (BB). Whether these genetic variants are associated with survival among ACS patients treated with BB, and if this differs by race, is unknown.
BB after ACS is a measure of quality care, but the effectiveness across racial groups, is less clear.
A prospective cohort of 2,673 ACS patients (2,072 Caucasian; 601 African Americans) discharged on BB from 22 U.S. hospitals were followed for 2 years. Subjects were genotyped for polymorphisms in ADRB1, ADRB2, ADRA2C, and GRK5. We used proportional hazards regression to model the effect of genotype on mortality, stratified by race and adjusted for baseline factors.
The overall 2-year mortality rate was 7.5% for Caucasians and 16.7% for African Americans. The prognosis associated with different genotypes in these BB-treated patients differed by race. In Caucasians, ADRA2C 322-325 deletion (D) carriers had significantly lower mortality as compared with homozygous individuals lacking the deletion (HR 0.46; CI 0.21, 0.99; p=0.047; race-by-genotype interaction p= 0.053). In African Americans, the ADRB2 16R allele was associated with significantly increased mortality (HR for RG vs. GG =2.10; CI 1.14, 3.86; RR vs. GG =2.65; CI 1.38, 5.08; p=0.013; race-by-genotype interaction p=0.096).
Adrenergic pathway polymorphisms are associated with mortality in ACS patients receiving BB in a race-specific manner. Understanding the mechanism by which different genes impact post-ACS mortality differently in Caucasian and African Americans may illuminate opportunities to improve BB therapy in these groups.
Antihypertensive drugs are among the most commonly prescribed drugs for chronic disease worldwide. The response to antihypertensive drugs varies substantially between individuals and important factors such as race that contribute to this heterogeneity are poorly understood. In this study we use metabolomics, a global biochemical approach to investigate biochemical changes induced by the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker atenolol in Caucasians and African Americans. Plasma from individuals treated with atenolol was collected at baseline (untreated) and after a 9 week treatment period and analyzed using a GC-TOF metabolomics platform. The metabolomic signature of atenolol exposure included saturated (palmitic), monounsaturated (oleic, palmitoleic) and polyunsaturated (arachidonic, linoleic) free fatty acids, which decreased in Caucasians after treatment but were not different in African Americans (p<0.0005, q<0.03). Similarly, the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate was significantly decreased in Caucasians by 33% (p<0.0001, q<0.0001) but was unchanged in African Americans. The contribution of genetic variation in genes that encode lipases to the racial differences in atenolol-induced changes in fatty acids was examined. SNP rs9652472 in LIPC was found to be associated with the change in oleic acid in Caucasians (p<0.0005) but not African Americans, whereas the PLA2G4C SNP rs7250148 associated with oleic acid change in African Americans (p<0.0001) but not Caucasians. Together, these data indicate that atenolol-induced changes in the metabolome are dependent on race and genotype. This study represents a first step of a pharmacometabolomic approach to phenotype patients with hypertension and gain mechanistic insights into racial variability in changes that occur with atenolol treatment, which may influence response to the drug.
Thiazides and β-blockers cause adverse metabolic effects (AMEs), but whether these effects share predictors with blood pressure (BP) response is unknown. We aimed to determine whether AMEs are correlated with BP response in uncomplicated hypertensives.
In a multicenter, open-label, parallel-group trial, we enrolled 569 persons, aged 17–65, with random assignment to 9 weeks of daily hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or atenolol monotherapy, followed by 9 weeks of add-on therapy with the alternate agent. Measurements included home BP, averaged over 1 week, weight and fasting levels of serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and uric acid (UA) before and after monotherapy and after add-on therapy.
Increases in UA correlated with reductions in systolic BP (SBP) (r = −0.18; P = 0.003) and diastolic BP (DBP) (r = −0.20; P = 0.001) following HCTZ monotherapy and add-on therapy (r = −0.27 and r = −0.21, respectively; both P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, race, gender, and baseline body mass index (BMI), only the correlation between UA and DBP response became nonsignificant. Reductions in HDL correlated with systolic response following atenolol monotherapy (r = 0.18; P = 0.002) and with systolic and diastolic response following add-on therapy (r = 0.30 and r = 0.24, respectively; both P < 0.0001). These correlations remained significant after covariate adjustment. BP responses were not correlated with changes in glucose, LDL, triglycerides, or weight following either therapy.
BP response correlated with changes in UA following HCTZ therapy and HDL following atenolol therapy. No other significant correlations were observed between BP response and AMEs, suggesting that these effects generally do not share predictors. Patients should be monitored for AMEs, regardless of BP response.
thiazide diuretics; atenolol; β-blockers; blood pressure; hydrochlorothiazide; hypertension; metabolic effects
pharmacogenomics; stakeholders; healthcare system
Leukocyte count has been associated with blood pressure, hypertension, and hypertensive complications. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the CXCL5 gene, which encodes the neutrophilic chemokine ENA-78, are associated with blood pressure in cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free adults and that these polymorphisms are functional.
Methods and results
A total of 192 community-dwelling participants without CVD or risk equivalents were enrolled. Two CXCL5 polymorphisms (−156 G > C (rs352046) and 398 G > A (rs425535)) were tested for associations with blood pressure. Allele-specific mRNA expression in leukocytes was also measured to determine whether heterozygosity was associated with allelic expression imbalance. In −156 C variant carriers, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 7 mmHg higher than in −156 G/G wild-type homozygotes (131 ± 17 vs. 124 ± 14 mmHg; P = 0.008). Similarly, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 4 mmHg higher in −156 C variant carriers (78 ± 11 vs. 74 ± 11 mmHg; P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis of SBP, age, sex, body mass index, and the −156 G > C polymorphism were identified as significant variables. Age, sex, and the −156 G > C SNP were further associated with DBP, along with white blood cells. Allelic expression imbalance and significantly higher circulating ENA-78 concentrations were noted for variant carriers.
CXCL5 gene polymorphisms are functional and associated with variable blood pressure in CVD-free individuals. The role of CXCL5 as a hypertension- and CVD-susceptibility gene should be further explored.
CXCL5; ENA-78; Blood pressure; Hypertension; Leukocytes
While numerous SNPs in Chromosome 9p21 have been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and incident MI in Caucasians, there are limited and conflicting reports on the association of this locus with prognosis in Caucasians with existing CAD and no reports in blacks or Hispanics. We investigated the hypothesis that 9p21 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with documented CAD.
Methods and Results
We studied the association of 155 chromosome 9p21 SNPs with adverse outcomes among hypertensive CAD patients of multiple races/ethnicities in INVEST GENES (the INternational VErapamil SR Trandolapril STudy GENetic Substudy, n= 1,460, n = 5,979 for 2 SNPs) and with replication testing of 4 SNPs in the INFORM (INvestigation oF Outcomes from acute coronary syndRoMe; n=714) study of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. In INVEST, the haplotype comprised of the risk allele for the widely reported 9p21 SNPs was associated with better prognosis in Caucasians (OR, 95% CI: 0.72, 0.57–0.92, p = 0.0085) but not blacks (1.21, 0.68–1.24, p = 0.52) or Hispanics (0.96, 0.65–1.44, p=0.86). A less commonly reported LD block was associated with worse prognosis in INVEST among both Caucasians (OR=1.52 (1.20–1.93), p = 0.0006) and African Americans (OR = 4.11 (1.55–10.88), p = 0.004).
Our findings suggest previously reported chromosome 9p21 SNPs, which predict incident CAD, are not associated with higher risk for adverse outcomes in patients with established CAD. The less commonly reported LD block warrants further investigation.
chromosome 9p21; cardiovascular outcomes; genetic polymorphisms; INVEST; INFORM
Nearly one-third of the United States adult population suffers from hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), one of the most commonly used medications to treat hypertension, has variable efficacy. The renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) provides a mechanism for fine-tuning sodium excretion, and is a major regulator of blood pressure homeostasis. DOT1L, MLLT3, SIRT1, and SGK1 encode genes in a pathway that controls methylation of the histone H3 globular domain at lysine 79 (H3K79), thereby modulating expression of the ENaCα subunit. This study aimed to determine the role of variation in these regulatory genes on blood pressure response to HCTZ, and secondarily, untreated blood pressure.
We investigated associations between genetic variations in this candidate pathway and HCTZ blood pressure response in two separate hypertensive cohorts (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00246519 and NCT00005520). In a secondary, exploratory analysis, we measured associations between these same genetic variations and untreated blood pressure. Associations were measured by linear regression, with only associations with P ≤ 0.01 in one cohort and replication by P ≤ 0.05 in the other cohort considered significant.
In one cohort, a polymorphism in DOT1L (rs2269879) was strongly associated with greater systolic (P = 0.0002) and diastolic (P = 0.0016) blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide in Caucasians. However, this association was not replicated in the other cohort. When untreated blood pressure levels were analyzed, we found directionally similar associations between a polymorphism in MLLT3 (rs12350051) and greater untreated systolic (P < 0.01 in both cohorts) and diastolic (P < 0.05 in both cohorts) blood pressure levels in both cohorts. However, when further replication was attempted in a third hypertensive cohort and in smaller, normotensive samples, significant associations were not observed.
Our data suggest polymorphisms in DOT1L, MLLT3, SIRT1, and SGK1 are not likely associated with blood pressure response to HCTZ. However, a possibility exists that rs2269879 in DOT1L could be associated with HCTZ response in Caucasians. Additionally, exploratory analyses suggest rs12350051 in MLLT3 may be associated with untreated blood pressure in African-Americans. Replication efforts are needed to verify roles for these polymorphisms in human blood pressure regulation.
Pharmacogenomics; Pharmacogenetics; hydrochlorothiazide; hypertension; blood pressure; DOT1L; SIRT1; MLLT3; SGK1; histone methylation
To determine whether office, home, ambulatory daytime and nighttime blood pressure (BP) responses to antihypertensive drug therapy measure the same signal and which method provides greatest power to identify genetic predictors of BP response.
We analyzed office, home, ambulatory daytime and nighttime BP responses in hypertensive adults randomized to atenolol (N = 242) or hydrochlorothiazide (N = 257) in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses Study. Since different measured BP responses may have different predictors, we tested the "same signal" model by using linear regression methods to determine whether known predictors of BP response depend on the method of BP measurement. We estimated signal-to-noise ratios and compared power to identify a genetic polymorphism predicting BP response measured by each method separately and by weighted averages of multiple methods.
After adjustment for pretreatment BP level, known predictors of BP response including plasma renin activity, race, and sex were independent of the method of BP measurement. Signal-to-noise ratios were more than 2-fold greater for home and ambulatory daytime BP responses than for office and ambulatory nighttime BP responses and up to 11-fold greater for weighted averages of all four methods. Power to identify a genetic polymorphism predicting BP response was directly related to the signal-to-noise ratio and, therefore, greatest with the weighted averages.
Since different methods of measuring BP response to antihypertensive drug therapy measure the same signal, weighted averages of the BP responses measured by multiple methods minimize measurement error and optimize power to identify genetic predictors of BP response.
hypertension; blood pressure monitoring; antihypertensive drug therapy; beta-blocker; thiazide diuretic; plasma renin activity
The G-protein coupled receptor kinases GRK2 and GRK5 are important regulators of beta-adrenergic signaling. This study characterized single nucleotide polymorphisms in the GRK2 gene (ADRBK1)and determined if these and a GRK5 Gln41Leu polymorphism affect the blood pressure (BP)response to atenolol or hydrochlorothiazide or adverse cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensives.
ADRBK1 regions were sequenced for 48 individuals. Putative functional SNPs were tested for mRNA expression differences in 96 lymphoblastoid cell line samples and 12 leukocyte samples from hypertensives. BP response to atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide by ADRBK1 SNPs and GRK5 Gln41Leuwas tested in 418patients from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) using linear regression. The influence of ADRBK1 SNPs and GRK5 Gln41Leuon death, myocardial infarction or stroke in treated hypertensive patients was evaluated in a case-control cohort (1:3) of the International Verapamil SR/Trandolapril Study GENEtic Substudy (INVEST GENES) using logistic regression models.
A novel ADRBK1 promoter SNP was not associated with differential GRK2 expression. GRK5 Leu41 decreased the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes independent of treatment strategy(adjusted odds ratio 0.535, 95% confidence interval 0.313 – 0.951, P = 0.0222)but was not associated with BP response to antihypertensive medication. An ADRBK1 SNP (rs1894111G>A) showed a signal for association with systolic and diastolic BP(SBP, DBP) response to hydrochlorothiazide in whites(DBP: −11.29±3.74 mmHg (G/A) vs. −4.26±4.79 mmHg (G/G), P = 0.0034 and SBP: −18.37±14.90 mmHg (G/A), −8.11±7.55 mmHg (G/G), P = 0.0191).
The GRK5 Leu41 allele protects from adverse cardiovascular outcomes in treated hypertensives.
GRK5; GRK2; ADRBK1; polymorphism; hypertension; beta-blocker; atenolol; diuretic; hydrochlorothiazide
Polymorphisms (SNPs) within the regulatory β2 subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNB2) may contribute to variable treatment response to antihypertensive drugs and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.
Methods and Results
SNPs in CACNB2 from 60 ethnically diverse individuals were identified and characterized. Three common SNPs (rs2357928, rs7069292 and rs61839258) and a GWAS identified intronic SNP (rs11014166) were genotyped for a clinical association study in 5,598 hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease randomized to a beta-blocker (BB) or a calcium channel blocker (CCB) treatment strategy in INVEST-GENES. Reporter gene assays were conducted on the promoter SNP showing association with clinical outcomes. Twenty-one novel SNPs were identified. A promoter A>G SNP (rs2357928) was found to have significant interaction with treatment strategy for adverse cardiovascular outcomes (p for interaction = 0.002). In Caucasians, rs2357928 GG patients randomized to CCB were more likely to experience adverse outcome than those randomized to BB treatment strategy, with adjusted hazard ratio (CCB vs. BB) of 2.35 (1.19-4.66), p = 0.014. There was no evidence for such treatment difference in AG (1.16, 0.75-1.79, p = 0.69) and AA individuals (0.63, 0.36-1.11, p = 0.11). This finding was consistent in Hispanics and African Americans. CACNB2 rs11014166 showed similar pharmacogenetic effect in Hispanics, but not in Caucasians or African Americans. Reporter assay analysis of rs2357928 showed a significant increase in promoter activity for the G allele compared to the A allele.
These data suggest genetic variation within CACNB2 may influence treatment related outcomes in high risk hypertensive patients.
Clinical Trial Registration Information
Clinical trial identifier: NCT00133692, URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct/gui/show/NCT00133692).
Genetic variations; CACNB2; hypertension; cardiovascular outcomes; INVEST-GENES
UCP2 −866G > A (rs659366) has been implicated in cardiometabolic disease and represents a novel candidate gene for β-blocker response, particularly among patients with diabetes. We assessed the function of −866G > A and its role as a modifier of β-blocker treatment outcomes by diabetes status in an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cohort.
ACS patients with genetic samples and 12 months of follow-up for cardiac rehospitalizations or death (n = 468) were assessed. The influence of −866G > A on β-blocker treatment outcomes was evaluated in those with diabetes and without. To assess functional correlates of −866G > A, we compared uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) expression in the skeletal muscle of obese participants by genotype and compared the activity of UCP2 luciferase promoters with −866G and −866A alleles.
An interaction between −866G > A and β-blocker treatment was found in individuals with diabetes (P = 0.002) but not those without (P = 0.79). Among G/G individuals with diabetes, discharge β-blocker use was associated with an 80% reduction in cardiac rehospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.20; 95% confidence interval: 0.04–1.02). In contrast, among A-carrier patients with diabetes, there was an 11-fold increase in cardiac rehospitalizations with discharge β-blocker therapy (adjusted hazard ratio: 11.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.28-108.2). Promoter activity assays showed that −866G had greater cyclic AMP response element binding protein-responsiveness compared with −866A, and compared with −866A carriers G/G individuals exhibited increased UCP2 expression in the skeletal muscle.
We identified a significant interaction between −866G > A and β-blocker response among ACS patients with diabetes. Furthermore, −866G conferred greater gene transcriptional activity than −866A in cell lines and in obese patients. These findings may help us gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial and detrimental effects of β-blockers in those with diabetes.
acute coronary syndromes; gene-environment interaction; pharmacogenetics; type 2 diabetes
We assessed adverse metabolic effects (AMEs) of atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) among hypertensive patients with and without abdominal obesity using data from a randomized, open-label study of hypertensive patients without evidence of cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Intervention included randomization to HCTZ 25mg or atenolol 100mg monotherapy followed by their combination. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and uric acid were measured at baseline and after mono-and combination therapy. Outcomes included new occurrence of and predictors for new cases of glucose ≥ 100mg/dl (impaired fasting glucose [IFG]), triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dl, HDL ≤ 40mg/dl for men or ≤ 50mg/dl for women, or new onset diabetes according to presence or absence of abdominal obesity. Abdominal obesity was present in 167/395 (58%). Regardless of strategy, in those with abdominal obesity, 20% had IFG at baseline compared with 40% at end of study (p<0.0001). Proportion with triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl increased from 33% at baseline to 46% at end of study (p<0.01). New onset diabetes occurred in 13 (6%) with and in 4 (2%) without abdominal obesity. Baseline levels of glucose, triglyceride and HDL predicted adverse outcomes and predictors for new onset diabetes after monotherapy in those with abdominal obesity included HCTZ strategy (OR 47, 95% CI 2.55-862), female sex (OR 31.3, 95% CI 2.10-500) and uric acid (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.35-7.50). Development of AME, including new onset diabetes associated with short term exposure to HCTZ and atenolol was more common in those with abdominal obesity.
atenolol; hydrochlorothiazide; abdominal obesity; metabolic syndrome; new onset diabetes; hypertension
CYP19A1 encodes aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens, and may play a role in variation in outcomes among men and women with cardiovascular disease. We sought to examine genetic variation in CYP19A1 for its potential role in sex differences in cardiovascular disease outcomes.
Caucasian individuals from two independent populations were assessed: 1) a prospective cohort of patients with acute coronary syndromes with 3-year mortality follow-up (n = 568) and 2) a nested case-control study from a randomized, controlled trial of hypertension patients with stable coronary disease in which the primary outcome was death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) or nonfatal stroke (n = 619). Six CYP19A1 SNPs were genotyped (-81371 C>T, -45965 G>C, M201T, R264C, 80 A>G, and +32226 G>A). The sex*genotype interaction term was assessed for the primary outcome and compared by genotype in men and women when a significant interaction term was identified.
We identified a significant interaction between -81371 C>T and sex (p = 0.025) in the ACS population. The variant allele was associated with a 78% increase in mortality in men (HR 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.94) and a nonsignificant 42% decrease in mortality among women (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.22-1.54). We identified a similar association in the hypertensive CAD group, the -81371 C>T*sex interaction term was p<0.0001, with an associated 65% increase in death, MI, or stroke (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.00-2.73) in men and a 69% decrease (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.16-0.6) in women.
Using two independent populations, this study is the first to document a significant interaction between CYP19A1 genotype and sex on cardiovascular outcomes. These findings could illuminate potential mechanisms of sex differences in cardiovascular disease outcomes.
Age and race categories or renin profiling have been recommended to predict blood pressure responses to monotherapy with a β-blocker or thiazide diuretic. Whether these or other characteristics predict blood pressure responses when the drugs are administered as add-on therapy is uncertain.
We evaluated predictors of blood pressure response in 363 men and women ≤65 years of age with primary hypertension (152 blacks, 211 whites), 86 of whom (24%) were untreated and 277 of whom (76%) were withdrawn from previous antihypertensive drugs before randomization to either atenolol followed by addition of hydrochlorothiazide (N = 180) or hydrochlorothiazide followed by addition of atenolol (N = 183). Responses were determined by home blood pressure averages before and after each drug administration. Race, age, plasma renin activity, and other characteristics including pretreatment blood pressure levels were incorporated into linear regression models to quantify their contributions to prediction of blood pressure responses.
Plasma renin activity and pretreatment blood pressure level consistently contributed to prediction of systolic and diastolic responses to each drug administered as mono- and as add-on therapy. Higher plasma renin activity was consistently associated with greater blood pressure responses to atenolol and lesser responses to hydrochlorothiazide. The predictive effects of plasma renin activity were statistically independent of race, age, and other characteristics.
Plasma renin activity and pretreatment blood pressure level predict blood pressure responses to atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide administered as mono- and as add-on therapy in men and women ≤65 years of age.
antihypertensive drug therapy; blood pressure; hypertension; plasma renin activity; thiazide diuretic; β-blocker