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1.  A One Health overview, facilitating advances in comparative medicine and translational research 
Table of contents
A1 One health advances and successes in comparative medicine and translational research
Cheryl Stroud
A2 Dendritic cell-targeted gorilla adenoviral vector for cancer vaccination for canine melanoma
Igor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Jeffrey N. Bryan, David T. Curiel
A3 Viroimmunotherapy for malignant melanoma in the companion dog model
Jeffrey N. Bryan, David Curiel, Igor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Hans Rindt, Carol Reinero, Carolyn J. Henry
A4 Of mice and men (and dogs!): development of a commercially licensed xenogeneic DNA vaccine for companion animals with malignant melanoma
Philip J. Bergman
A5 Successful immunotherapy with a recombinant HER2-expressing Listeria monocytogenes in dogs with spontaneous osteosarcoma paves the way for advances in pediatric osteosarcoma
Nicola J. Mason, Josephine S. Gnanandarajah, Julie B. Engiles, Falon Gray, Danielle Laughlin, Anita Gaurnier-Hausser, Anu Wallecha, Margie Huebner, Yvonne Paterson
A6 Human clinical development of ADXS-HER2
Daniel O’Connor
A7 Leveraging use of data for both human and veterinary benefit
Laura S. Treml
A8 Biologic replacement of the knee: innovations and early clinical results
James P. Stannard
A9 Mizzou BioJoint Center: a translational success story
James L. Cook
A10 University and industry translational partnership: from the lab to commercialization
Marc Jacobs
A11 Beyond docking: an evolutionarily guided OneHealth approach to drug discovery
Gerald J. Wyckoff, Lee Likins, Ubadah Sabbagh, Andrew Skaff
A12 Challenges and opportunities for data applications in animal health: from precision medicine to precision husbandry
Amado S. Guloy
A13 A cloud-based programmable platform for health
Harlen D. Hays
A14 Comparative oncology: One Health in action
Amy K. LeBlanc
A15 Companion animal diseases bridge the translational gap for human neurodegenerative disease
Joan R. Coates, Martin L. Katz, Leslie A. Lyons, Gayle C. Johnson, Gary S. Johnson, Dennis P. O’Brien
A16 Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy
Dongsheng Duan
A17 Polycystic kidney disease: cellular mechanisms to emerging therapies
James P. Calvet
A18 The domestic cat as a large animal model for polycystic kidney disease
Leslie A. Lyons, Barbara Gandolfi
A19 The support of basic and clinical research by the Polycystic Kidney Disease Foundation
David A. Baron
A20 Using naturally occurring large animal models of human disease to enable clinical translation: treatment of arthritis using autologous stromal vascular fraction in dogs
Mark L. Weiss
A21 Regulatory requirements regarding clinical use of human cells, tissues, and tissue-based products
Debra A. Webster
A22 Regenerative medicine approaches to Type 1 diabetes treatment
Francis N. Karanu
A23 The zoobiquity of canine diabetes mellitus, man’s best friend is a friend indeed-islet transplantation
Edward J. Robb
A24 One Medicine: a development model for cellular therapy of diabetes
Robert J. Harman
PMCID: PMC4996801  PMID: 27558513
2.  An Inversion Disrupting FAM134B Is Associated with Sensory Neuropathy in the Border Collie Dog Breed 
G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics  2016;6(9):2687-2692.
Sensory neuropathy in the Border Collie is a severe neurological disorder caused by the degeneration of sensory and, to a lesser extent, motor nerve cells with clinical signs starting between 2 and 7 months of age. Using a genome-wide association study approach with three cases and 170 breed matched controls, a suggestive locus for sensory neuropathy was identified that was followed up using a genome sequencing approach. An inversion disrupting the candidate gene FAM134B was identified. Genotyping of additional cases and controls and RNAseq analysis provided strong evidence that the inversion is causal. Evidence of cryptic splicing resulting in novel exon transcription for FAM134B was identified by RNAseq experiments. This investigation demonstrates the identification of a novel sensory neuropathy associated mutation, by mapping using a minimal set of cases and subsequent genome sequencing. Through mutation screening, it should be possible to reduce the frequency of or completely eliminate this debilitating condition from the Border Collie breed population.
PMCID: PMC5015927  PMID: 27527794
FAM134B; GWAS; canine; genome sequencing; sensory neuropathy
3.  A KCNJ10 mutation previously identified in the Russell group of terriers also occurs in Smooth-Haired Fox Terriers with hereditary ataxia and in related breeds 
Hereditary ataxias with similar phenotypes were reported in the Smooth-Haired Fox Terrier, the Jack Russell Terrier and the Parson Russell Terrier. However, segregation analyses showed differing inheritance modes in these breeds. Recently, molecular genetic studies on the Russell group of terriers found independent mutations in KCNJ10 and CAPN1, each associated with a specific clinical subtype of inherited ataxia. The aim of this study was to clarify whether or not Smooth-Haired Fox Terriers with hereditary ataxia and dogs of other related breeds harbor either of the same mutations. A sub goal was to update the results of KCNJ10 genotyping in Russell group terriers.
Three Smooth-Haired Fox Terriers with hereditary ataxia and two Toy Fox Terriers with a similar phenotype were all homozygous for the KCNJ10 mutation. The same mutation was also found in a heterozygous state in clinically unaffected Tenterfield Terriers (n = 5) and, in agreement with previous studies, in Jack Russell Terriers, Parson Russell Terriers, and Russell Terriers.
A KCNJ10 mutation, previously associated with an autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia in Jack Russell Terriers, Parson Russell Terriers, and Russell Terriers segregates in at least three more breeds descended from British hunting terriers. Ataxic members of two of these breeds, the Smooth-Haired Fox Terrier and the Toy Fox Terrier, were homozygous for the mutation, strengthening the likelihood that this genetic defect is indeed the causative mutation for the disease known as “hereditary ataxia” in Fox Terriers and “spinocerebellar ataxia with myokymia, seizures or both” in the Russell group of terriers.
PMCID: PMC4445810  PMID: 25998802
Dog; Spinocerebellar ataxia; Myokymia; Smooth-Haired Fox Terrier; Toy Fox Terrier; Jack Russell Terrier; Parson Russell Terrier; Russell Terrier; Tenterfield Terrier; KCNJ10
4.  A rare homozygous MFSD8 single-base-pair deletion and frameshift in the whole genome sequence of a Chinese Crested dog with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 
BMC Veterinary Research  2015;10:960.
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are heritable lysosomal storage diseases characterized by progressive neurological impairment and the accumulation of autofluorescent storage granules in neurons and other cell types. Various forms of human neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis have been attributed to mutations in at least 13 different genes. So far, mutations in the canine orthologs of 7 of these genes have been identified in DNA from dogs with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. The identification of new causal mutations could lead to the establishment of canine models to investigate the pathogenesis of the corresponding human neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and to evaluate and optimize therapeutic interventions for these fatal human diseases.
Case presentation
We obtained blood and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brain sections from a rescue dog that was reported to be a young adult Chinese Crested. The dog was euthanized at approximately 19 months of age as a consequence of progressive neurological decline that included blindness, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. A diagnosis of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis was made based on neurological signs, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and fluorescence microscopic and electron microscopic examination of brain sections. We isolated DNA from the blood and used it to generate a whole genome sequence with 33-fold average coverage. Among the 7.2 million potential sequence variants revealed by aligning the sequence reads to the canine genome reference sequence was a homozygous single base pair deletion in the canine ortholog of one of 13 known human NCL genes: MFSD8:c.843delT. MFSD8:c.843delT is predicted to cause a frame shift and premature stop codon resulting in a truncated protein, MFSD8:p.F282Lfs13*, missing its 239 C-terminal amino acids. The MFSD8:c.843delT allele is absent from the whole genome sequences of 101 healthy canids or dogs with other diseases. The genotyping of archived DNA from 1478 Chinese Cresteds did not identify any additional MFSD8:c.843delT homozygotes and found only one heterozygote.
We conclude that the neurodegenerative disease of the Chinese Crested rescue dog was neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and that homozygosity for the MFSD8:c.843delT sequence variant was very likely to be the molecular-genetic cause of the disease.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12917-014-0181-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4298050  PMID: 25551667
MFSD8; Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis; Chinese Crested; Whole genome sequence
5.  A Novel Mutation in CLCN1 Associated with Feline Myotonia Congenita 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109926.
Myotonia congenita (MC) is a skeletal muscle channelopathy characterized by inability of the muscle to relax following voluntary contraction. Worldwide population prevalence in humans is 1∶100,000. Studies in mice, dogs, humans and goats confirmed myotonia associated with functional defects in chloride channels and mutations in a skeletal muscle chloride channel (CLCN1). CLCN1 encodes for the most abundant chloride channel in the skeletal muscle cell membrane. Five random bred cats from Winnipeg, Canada with MC were examined. All cats had a protruding tongue, limited range of jaw motion and drooling with prominent neck and proximal limb musculature. All cats had blepharospasm upon palpebral reflex testing and a short-strided gait. Electromyograms demonstrated myotonic discharges at a mean frequency of 300 Hz resembling the sound of a ‘swarm of bees’. Muscle histopathology showed hypertrophy of all fiber types. Direct sequencing of CLCN1 revealed a mutation disrupting a donor splice site downstream of exon 16 in only the affected cats. In vitro translation of the mutated protein predicted a premature truncation and partial lack of the highly conserved CBS1 (cystathionine β-synthase) domain critical for ion transport activity and one dimerization domain pivotal in channel formation. Genetic screening of the Winnipeg random bred population of the cats' origin identified carriers of the mutation. A genetic test for population screening is now available and carrier cats from the feral population can be identified.
PMCID: PMC4214686  PMID: 25356766
6.  Canine Hereditary Ataxia in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters Is Associated with a Defect in the Autophagy Gene Encoding RAB24  
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(2):e1003991.
Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters suffer from a juvenile onset, autosomal recessive form of canine hereditary ataxia primarily affecting the Purkinje neuron of the cerebellar cortex. The clinical and histological characteristics are analogous to hereditary ataxias in humans. Linkage and genome-wide association studies on a cohort of related Old English Sheepdogs identified a region on CFA4 strongly associated with the disease phenotype. Targeted sequence capture and next generation sequencing of the region identified an A to C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located at position 113 in exon 1 of an autophagy gene, RAB24, that segregated with the phenotype. Genotyping of six additional breeds of dogs affected with hereditary ataxia identified the same polymorphism in affected Gordon Setters that segregated perfectly with phenotype. The other breeds tested did not have the polymorphism. Genome-wide SNP genotyping of Gordon Setters identified a 1.9 MB region with an identical haplotype to affected Old English Sheepdogs. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural evaluation of the brains of affected dogs from both breeds identified dramatic Purkinje neuron loss with axonal spheroids, accumulation of autophagosomes, ubiquitin positive inclusions and a diffuse increase in cytoplasmic neuronal ubiquitin staining. These findings recapitulate the changes reported in mice with induced neuron-specific autophagy defects. Taken together, our results suggest that a defect in RAB24, a gene associated with autophagy, is highly associated with and may contribute to canine hereditary ataxia in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters. This finding suggests that detailed investigation of autophagy pathways should be undertaken in human hereditary ataxia.
Author Summary
Neurodegenerative diseases are one of the most important causes of decline in an aging population. An important subset of these diseases are known as the hereditary ataxias, familial neurodegenerative diseases that affect the cerebellum causing progressive gait disturbance in both humans and dogs. We identified a mutation in RAB24, a gene associated with autophagy, in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters with hereditary ataxia. Autophagy is a process by which cell proteins and organelles are removed and recycled and its critical role in maintenance of the continued health of cells is becoming clear. We evaluated the brains of affected dogs and identified accumulations of autophagosomes within the cerebellum, suggesting a defect in the autophagy pathway. Our results suggest that a defect in the autophagy pathway results in neuronal death in a naturally occurring disease in dogs. The autophagy pathway should be investigated in human hereditary ataxia and may represent a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases.
PMCID: PMC3916225  PMID: 24516392
8.  A reversal learning task detects cognitive deficits in a Dachshund model of late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 
Genes, brain, and behavior  2011;10(7):798-804.
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are autosomal recessive lysosomal storage diseases characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and by accumulation of autofluorescent storage material in the central nervous system and other tissues. One of the most prominent clinical signs of NCL is progressive decline in cognitive function. We previously described a frame shift mutation of TPP1 in miniature long-haired Dachshunds which causes an early-onset form of NCL analogous to classical late-infantile onset NCL (CLN2) in children. Dogs homozygous for the TPP1 mutation exhibit progressive neurological signs similar to those exhibited by human patients. In order to establish biomarkers for evaluating the efficacy of ongoing therapeutic studies in this canine model, we characterized phenotypic changes in 13 dogs through 9 months of age. Cognitive function was assessed using a T-maze reversal learning task. Cognitive dysfunction was detected in affected dogs as early as 6 months of age and worsened as the disease progressed. Physical and neurological examination, funduscopy, and electroretinography (ERG) were performed at regular intervals. Only changes in ERG responses revealed signs of disease progression earlier than the reversal learning task. In the later stages of the disease clinical signs of visual and motor deficits became evident. The visual and motor deficits were not severe enough to affect the performance of dogs in the T-maze. Declining performance on the reversal learning task is a sensitive measure of higher order cognitive dysfunction which can serve as a useful biomarker of disease progression.
PMCID: PMC3190059  PMID: 21745338
ceroid lipofuscinosis; CLN2; cognitive decline; reversal learning; canine model; neurodegeneration
9.  A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria 
L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and dementia.
Case presentation
Here we describe an 8 month old Yorkshire terrier that presented with episodes of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Between episodes, the dog’s behavior and neurologic examinations were normal. A T2 weighted MRI of the brain showed diffuse grey matter hyperintensity and a urine metabolite screen showed elevated 2-hydroxyglutaric acid. We sequenced all 10 exons and intron-exon borders of L2HGDH from the affected dog and identified a homozygous A to G transition in the initiator methionine codon. The first inframe methionine is at p.M183 which is past the mitochondrial targeting domain of the protein. Initiation of translation at p.M183 would encode an N-terminal truncated protein unlikely to be functional.
We have identified a mutation in the initiation codon of L2HGDH that is likely to result in a non-functional gene. The Yorkshire terrier could serve as an animal model to understand the pathogenesis of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and to evaluate potential therapies.
PMCID: PMC3461439  PMID: 22834903
L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria; L2HGDH; Yorkshire terrier; Initiator methionine codon
10.  A mutation in canine PPT1 causes early onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in a Dachshund 
Molecular genetics and metabolism  2010;100(4):349-356.
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are lysosomal storage diseases characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and accumulation of autofluorescent storage granules. A 9 month old Miniature Dachshund presented with NCL-like signs that included disorientation, ataxia, weakness, visual impairment and behavioral changes. Neurons throughout the CNS contained autofluorescent lysosomal inclusions with granular osmiophilic deposit (GROD) ultrastructure characteristic of classical infantile NCL (INCL). Human INCL is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from mutations in PPT1, a gene that encodes the enzyme palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1; EC 3.1.22). Resequencing of PPT1 from the affected dog revealed that the dog was homozygous for a single nucleotide insertion in exon 8 (PPT1 c.736_737insC), upstream from the His289 active site. Brain tissue from this dog lacked PPT1 activity. The sire and dam of the propositus were heterozygous for the c.736_737insC mutation; whereas, 127 unrelated Dachshunds were homozygous for the wild-type allele. This is the first reported instance of canine NCL caused by a mutation in PPT1.
PMCID: PMC2930207  PMID: 20494602
INCL; Palmitoyl protein thioesterase; Canine model; Neurodegeneration
11.  A Missense Mutation in Canine CLN6 in an Australian Shepherd with Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis 
The childhood neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are inherited neurodegenerative diseases that are progressive and ultimately fatal. An Australian Shepherd that exhibited a progressive neurological disorder with signs similar to human NCL was evaluated. The cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and retina were found to contain massive accumulations of autofluorescent inclusions characteristic of the NCLs. Nucleotide sequence analysis of DNA from the affected dog identified a T to C variant (c.829T>C) in exon 7 of CLN6. Mutations in the human ortholog underlie a late-infantile form of NCL in humans. The T-to-C transition results in a tryptophan to arginine amino acid change in the predicted protein sequence. Tryptophans occur at homologous positions in the CLN6 proteins from all 13 other vertebrates evaluated. The c.829T>C transition is a strong candidate for the causative mutation in this NCL-affected dog. Dogs with this mutation could serve as a model for the analogous human disorder.
PMCID: PMC3014706  PMID: 21234413
12.  An ADAMTSL2 Founder Mutation Causes Musladin-Lueke Syndrome, a Heritable Disorder of Beagle Dogs, Featuring Stiff Skin and Joint Contractures 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(9):e12817.
Musladin-Lueke Syndrome (MLS) is a hereditary disorder affecting Beagle dogs that manifests with extensive fibrosis of the skin and joints. In this respect, it resembles human stiff skin syndrome and the Tight skin mouse, each of which is caused by gene defects affecting fibrillin-1, a major component of tissue microfibrils. The objective of this work was to determine the genetic basis of MLS and the molecular consequence of the identified mutation.
Methodology and Principal Findings
We mapped the locus for MLS by genome-wide association to a 3.05 Mb haplotype on canine chromosome 9 (CFA9 (50.11–54.26; praw <10−7)), which was homozygous and identical-by-descent among all affected dogs, consistent with recessive inheritance of a founder mutation. Sequence analysis of a candidate gene at this locus, ADAMTSL2, which is responsible for the human TGFβ dysregulation syndrome, Geleophysic Dysplasia (GD), uncovered a mutation in exon 7 (c.660C>T; p.R221C) perfectly associated with MLS (p-value = 10−12). Murine ADAMTSL2 containing the p.R221C mutation formed anomalous disulfide-bonded dimers when transiently expressed in COS-1, HEK293F and CHO cells, and was present in the medium of these cells at lower levels than wild-type ADAMTSL2 expressed in parallel.
The genetic basis of MLS is a founder mutation in ADAMTSL2, previously shown to interact with latent TGF-β binding protein, which binds fibrillin-1. The molecular effect of the founder mutation on ADAMTSL2 is formation of disulfide-bonded dimers. Although caused by a distinct mutation, and having a milder phenotype than human GD, MLS nevertheless offers a new animal model for study of GD, and for prospective insights on mechanisms and pathways of skin fibrosis and joint contractures.
PMCID: PMC2941456  PMID: 20862248

Results 1-12 (12)