The tissue equivalent that mimics the structure and function of normal tissue is a major bioengineering challenge. Tissue engineered replacement of diseased or damaged tissue has become a reality for some types of tissue such as skin and cartilage. The tissue engineered corneal epithelium, stroma, and endothelium scaffold are promising concepts in overcoming the current limitations of a cornea replacement with an allograft.
The acellular corneal matrix from porcine (ACMP) was examined as a potential corneal cell sheet frame. The physical and mechanical properties of strength, expansion, transparency, and water content of the ACMP were measured. The major antigens of the cell components were completely removed with series of extraction methods, the major antigens of the cell components were identified by hematoxylin and eosin (HE), immunofluorescence staining, and scanning electron microscopy. The structural properties were investigated by HE stain and scanning electron microscopy. The three types of rabbit corneal cells were cultured in vitro, and characteristics were investigated by colony formation efficiency (CFE), BrdU staining, immunofluorescence staining, and western blot assay of keratin 3 (K3), vimentin, and aquaporin A. The biocompatibility of the ACMP was investigated for one month using rabbit corneal stroma and three types of cultured corneal cells both in vivo and in vitro. The three types of cultured rabbit corneal cells were seeded onto ACMP of each side at a cell density of 5.0×103 cells/mm2.
The optical and mechanical properties of the ACMP were similar to the normal porcine cornea. The collagen fiber interconnected to the network, formed regular collagen bundles of the ACMP, and was parallel to the corneal surface. The ACMP was transferred to the rabbit cornea stroma, which showed an intact epithelium and keratocytes in the implant region. There were no inflamed cells or new vessel invasion one month after transplantation. The three types of cultured rabbit corneal cells were positive for K3, vimentin, and aquaporin A. CFE and BrdU (5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine) staining showed no statistical difference. The cultured rabbit corneal limbal epithelial cells, keratocyte cells, and endothelial cells formed a confluent cell sheet on the ACMP, which consisted of one to two cell layers. Immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy examination showed that the cells steadily adhered to the surface of the ACMP and maintained their conformation and special molecule expression such as K3, vimentin, and aquaporin A. Rabbit corneal epithelium-ACMP, keratocytes-ACMP, and endothelium-ACMP scaffold was built in vitro.
The rabbit corneal scaffold was made by the ACMP as a frame with three types of allogeneic rabbit corneal cells. This is a new concept in treating injured corneas.
The microscopic residual tumor at the bronchial margin after radical surgery (R1 resection) affects prognosis negatively in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. For patients with good performance status, a potential cure still exists. Here, we report the outcomes of concurrent paclitaxel-based chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) for NSCLC patients with microscopically positive bronchial margins or peribronchial infiltration.
A retrospective search in the clinical database was conducted in three hospitals. Patients were identified and evaluated if treated with radiotherapy combined with paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. The objects analyzed were local control time, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and treatment-related toxicity.
Sixty-one patients with microscopic residual tumor at the bronchial stump following pulmonary lobectomy were identified. Forty-six patients who had received concurrent paclitaxel-based CRT were analyzed. The median follow-up was 40 months (range: 15.0–77.5 months). The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 97.8%, 60.9% and 36.9%, respectively. The local recurrences were recorded in 19.6% (9/46) patients. Median PFS and OS for the evaluated cohort were 23.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 21.3–24.7] and 32.0 (95% CI: 23.7–40.3) months, respectively. The most common side effects were hematological toxicity (neutropenia, 93.5%; anemia, 89.1%; and thrombocytopenia, 89.1%) and no treatment-related deaths. Grade ≥2 acute radiation-induced pneumonitis and esophagitis were recorded in 43.5% (20/46) and 26.1% (12/46) patients, respectively. By univariate analysis, non-squamous cell lung cancer was associated with a significantly longer survival time (45.1 vs 26.4 months, p = 0.013).
For NSCLC patients with post-surgical microscopic residual tumor at the bronchial stump, concurrent paclitaxel-based chemo-radiotherapy achieved promising outcomes with accepted treatment-related toxicity.
AIM: To investigate the feasibility of temporary extracorporeal continuous porta-caval diversion (ECPD) to relieve portal hyperperfusion in “small-for-size” syndrome following massive hepatectomy in pigs.
METHODS: Fourteen pigs underwent 85%-90% liver resection and were then randomly divided into the control group (n = 7) and diversion group (n = 7). In the diversion group, portal venous blood was aspirated through the portal catheter and into a tube connected to a centrifugal pump. After filtration, the blood was returned to the pig through a double-lumen catheter inserted into the internal jugular or subclavian vein. With the conversion pump, portal venous inflow was partially diverted to the inferior vena cava through a catheter inserted via the gastroduodenal vein at 100-130 mL/min. Portal hemodynamics, injury, and regeneration in the liver remnant were compared between the two groups.
RESULTS: Compared to the control group, porta-caval diversion via ECPD significantly mitigated excessive portal venous flow and portal vein pressure (PVP); the portal vein flow (PVF), hepatic artery flow (HAF), and PVP in the two groups were not significantly different at baseline; however, the PVF (431.8 ± 36.6 vs 238.8 ± 29.3, P < 0.01; 210.3 ± 23.4 vs 122.3 ± 20.6, P < 0.01) and PVP (13.8 ± 2.6 vs 8.7 ± 1.4, P < 0.01; 15.6 ± 2.1 vs 10.1 ± 1.3, P < 0.05) in the control group were significantly higher than those in the diversion group, respectively. The HAF in the control group was significantly lower than that in the diversion group at 2 h and 48 h post hepatectomy, and ECPD significantly attenuated injury to the sinusoidal lining and hepatocytes, increased the regeneration index of the liver remnant, and relieved damage that the liver remnant suffered due to endotoxin and bacterial translocation.
CONCLUSION: ECPD, which can dynamically modulate portal inflow, can reduce injury to the liver remnant and facilitate liver regeneration, and therefore should replace permanent meso/porta-caval shunts in “small-for-size” syndrome.
Small-for-size syndrome; Extracorporeal continuous porta-caval diversion; Massive hepatectomy; Regeneration
Binge eating afflicts approximately 5% of US adults, though effective treatments are limited. Here, we showed that estrogen replacement substantially suppresses binge-like eating behavior in ovariectomized female mice. Estrogen-dependent inhibition of binge-like eating was blocked in female mice specifically lacking estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN). Administration of a recently developed glucagon-like peptide-1–estrogen (GLP-1–estrogen) conjugate designed to deliver estrogen to GLP1 receptor–enhanced regions effectively targeted bioactive estrogens to the DRN and substantially suppressed binge-like eating in ovariectomized female mice. Administration of GLP-1 alone reduced binge-like eating, but not to the same extent as the GLP-1–estrogen conjugate. Administration of ERα-selective agonist propylpyrazole triol (PPT) to murine DRN 5-HT neurons activated these neurons in an ERα-dependent manner. PPT also inhibited a small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) current; blockade of the SK current prevented PPT-induced activation of DRN 5-HT neurons. Furthermore, local inhibition of the SK current in the DRN markedly suppressed binge-like eating in female mice. Together, our data indicate that estrogens act upon ERα to inhibit the SK current in DRN 5-HT neurons, thereby activating these neurons to suppress binge-like eating behavior and suggest ERα and/or SK current in DRN 5-HT neurons as potential targets for anti-binge therapies.
Infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a life-threatening condition, and formation of biofilms can lead to treatment failure in a clinical setting. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the in vivo bactericidal effects of a combination of vancomycin (VAN) and fosfomycin (FOS) against MRSA in a rat carboxymethyl cellulose-pouch biofilm model. The results of the time-kill assay showed that the combination therapy was capable of killing at low minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) (½× MIC VAN +1× MIC FOS and 1× MIC VAN + 1× MIC FOS). In the in vivo study, a synergistically bactericidal effect was observed when using the combination therapy on MRSA embedded in the mature biofilm model. In comparison with the untreated control group and the groups receiving either VAN or FOS alone, the rats treated with combination therapy had lower MRSA colony counts in exudates from the pouch, lower white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in peripheral blood. Furthermore, histological analysis of the pouch wall indicated combination therapy resulted in disappearance of biofilm-like structures, marked decrease in necrosis, and formation of granular tissue. In conclusion, the combination of VAN with FOS had a synergistic bactericidal effect on chronic MRSA infection embedded in biofilm, providing an alternative approach to treating this condition.
Recently, the regularized coding-based classification methods (e.g. SRC and CRC) show a great potential for pattern classification. However, most existing coding methods assume that the representation residuals are uncorrelated. In real-world applications, this assumption does not hold. In this paper, we take account of the correlations of the representation residuals and develop a general regression and representation model (GRR) for classification. GRR not only has advantages of CRC, but also takes full use of the prior information (e.g. the correlations between representation residuals and representation coefficients) and the specific information (weight matrix of image pixels) to enhance the classification performance. GRR uses the generalized Tikhonov regularization and K Nearest Neighbors to learn the prior information from the training data. Meanwhile, the specific information is obtained by using an iterative algorithm to update the feature (or image pixel) weights of the test sample. With the proposed model as a platform, we design two classifiers: basic general regression and representation classifier (B-GRR) and robust general regression and representation classifier (R-GRR). The experimental results demonstrate the performance advantages of proposed methods over state-of-the-art algorithms.
Leaf senescence is an important biological process that contributes to grain yield in crops. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying natural leaf senescence, we harvested three different developmental ear leaves of maize, mature leaves (ML), early senescent leaves (ESL), and later senescent leaves (LSL), and analyzed transcriptional changes using RNA-sequencing. Three sets of data, ESL vs. ML, LSL vs. ML, and LSL vs. ESL, were compared, respectively. In total, 4,552 genes were identified as differentially expressed. Functional classification placed these genes into 18 categories including protein metabolism, transporters, and signal transduction. At the early stage of leaf senescence, genes involved in aromatic amino acids (AAAs) biosynthetic process and transport, cellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process, and the cell wall macromolecule catabolic process, were up-regulated. Whereas, genes involved in amino acid metabolism, transport, apoptosis, and response to stimulus were up-regulated at the late stage of leaf senescence. Further analyses reveals that the transport-related genes at the early stage of leaf senescence potentially take part in enzyme and amino acid transport and the genes upregulated at the late stage are involved in sugar transport, indicating nutrient recycling mainly takes place at the late stage of leaf senescence. Comparison between the data of natural leaf senescence in this study and previously reported data for Arabidopsis implies that the mechanisms of leaf senescence in maize are basically similar to those in Arabidopsis. A comparison of natural and induced leaf senescence in maize was performed. Athough many basic biological processes involved in senescence occur in both types of leaf senescence, 78.07% of differentially expressed genes in natural leaf senescence were not identifiable in induced leaf senescence, suggesting that differences in gene regulatory network may exist between these two leaf senescence programs. Thus, this study provides important information for understanding the mechanism of leaf senescence in maize.
We present the discovery and optimization of a novel series of inhibitors of bacterial UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (called 2-epimerase in this paper). Starting from virtual screening hits, the activity of various inhibitory molecules was optimized using a combination of structure-based and rational design approaches. We successfully designed and identified a 2-epimerase inhibitor (compound 12-ES-Na, that we named Epimerox) which blocked the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at 3.9 μM MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and showed potent broad-range activity against all Gram-positive bacteria that were tested. Additionally a microplate coupled assay was performed to further confirm that the 2-epimerase inhibition of Epimerox was through a target-specific mechanism. Furthermore, Epimerox demonstrated in vivo efficacy and had a pharmacokinetic profile that is consonant with it being developed into a promising new antibiotic agent for treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria.
2-epimerase inhibitor; antibacterial agent; Gram-positive bacteria; antibiotic-resistant pathogens; stereo-isomers
present the discovery and optimization of a novel series of inhibitors
of bacterial UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase
(called 2-epimerase in this letter). Starting from virtual screening
hits, the activity of various inhibitory molecules was optimized using
a combination of structure-based and rational design approaches. We
successfully designed and identified a 2-epimerase inhibitor (compound 12-ES-Na, that we named Epimerox), which blocked the growth
of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
at 3.9 μM MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and showed
potent broad-range activity against all Gram-positive bacteria that
were tested. Additionally a microplate coupled assay was performed
to further confirm that the 2-epimerase inhibition of Epimerox was
through a target-specific mechanism. Furthermore, Epimerox demonstrated
in vivo efficacy and had a pharmacokinetic profile that is consonant
with it being developed into a promising new antibiotic agent for
treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria.
inhibitor; antibacterial agent; Gram-positive bacteria; antibiotic-resistant pathogens; stereoisomers
The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown and as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing brain regions, which include the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVH), represent key brain sites that mediate melanocortin action. We conditionally restored MC4R expression in Sim1 neurons in the background of Mc4r-null mice. The restoration dramatically reduced obesity in Mc4r-null mice. The anti-obesity effect was completely reversed by selective disruption of glutamate release from those same Sim1 neurons. The reversal was caused by lower energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Corroboratively, disruption of glutamate release selectively from adult PVH neurons led to rapid obesity development via reduced energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Thus, this study establishes glutamate as the primary neurotransmitter that mediates MC4Rs on Sim1 neurons in body weight regulation.
glutamate; MC4R; Sim1; obesity; energy expenditure; feeding
Primary sarcomas of the mediastinum are relatively rare. This article reviews the surgical outcomes of 21 cases diagnosed with localized mediastinal sarcomas receiving multidisciplinary treatment modalities in Sichuan province, China, from January 1996 to January 2011.
Twenty-one cases of histologically diagnosed primary mediastinal sarcoma undergoing surgical treatment were reviewed retrospectively. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were statistically analysed. All the patients presented with localized tumours consisting of 5 females and 16 males with a median age of 41.0 years (range: 9.0–68.0 years). Among all cases, 17 (81.0%) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of ≤1 at diagnosis. Eight (38.1%) underwent macroscopically complete resection (R0–R1) and 13 (61.9%) had incomplete resection (R2). Ten (47.6%) received postoperative radiotherapy and 7 (33.3%) postoperative chemotherapy.
The median DFS was 17 months (range: 0.4–79.8 months) and the median OS was 27.2 months (range: 0.4–79.8 months). Patients receiving complete resection showed significantly improved DFS (P = 0.031) and OS (P = 0.035) compared with those with incomplete resection. Neither postoperative radiotherapy nor chemotherapy significantly improved DFS (P = 0.770, P = 0.756) or OS (P = 0.905, P = 0.738). However, 7 patients (R2) and 2 (R0–R1 and grade 3) had improved local control with a local recurrence-free survival of 28.9 months (range: 7.6–73.2 months).
Complete resection should be preferentially attempted compared with incomplete resection and postoperative radiotherapy might yield good local control.
Mediastinum; Sarcoma; Surgery; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy
Diabetic erectile dysfunction is associated with penile dorsal nerve bundle neuropathy in the corpus cavernosum and the mechanism is not well understood. We investigated the neuropathy changes in the corpus cavernosum of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the effects of Icariside II (ICA II) on improving neuropathy. Thirty-six 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into normal control group, diabetic group and ICA-II treated group. Diabetes was induced by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Three days later, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into 2 groups including a saline treated placebo group and an ICA II-treated group (5 mg/kg/day, by intragastric administration daily). Twelve weeks later, erectile function was measured by cavernous nerve electrostimulation with real time intracorporal pressure assessment. The penis was harvested for the histological examination (immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining) and transmission electron microscopy detecting. Diabetic animals exhibited a decreased density of dorsal nerve bundle in penis. The neurofilament of the dorsal nerve bundle was fragmented in the diabetic rats. There was a decreased expression of nNOS and NGF in the diabetic group. The ICA II group had higher density of dorsal nerve bundle, higher expression of NGF and nNOS in the penis. The pathological change of major pelvic nerve ganglion (including the microstructure by transmission electron microscope and the neurite outgrowth length of major pelvic nerve ganglion tissue cultured in vitro) was greatly attenuated in the ICA II-treated group (p < 0.01). ICA II treatment attenuates the diabetes-related impairment of corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion neuropathy in rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.
erectile dysfunction; diabetes; neuropathy; nNOS; NGF; major pelvic ganglion; Icariside II
Ferroelectric organic field-effect transistors (Fe-OFETs) have been attractive for a variety of non-volatile memory device applications. One of the critical issues of Fe-OFETs is the improvement of carrier mobility in semiconducting channels. In this article, we propose a novel interfacial buffering method that inserts an ultrathin poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) between ferroelectric polymer and organic semiconductor layers. A high field-effect mobility (μFET) up to 4.6 cm2 V−1 s−1 is obtained. Subsequently, the programming process in our Fe-OFETs is mainly dominated by the switching between two ferroelectric polarizations rather than by the mobility-determined charge accumulation at the channel. Thus, the “reading” and “programming” speeds are significantly improved. Investigations show that the polarization fluctuation at semiconductor/insulator interfaces, which affect the charge transport in conducting channels, can be suppressed effectively using our method.
Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) is a chemokine that is expressed in some cancer cells and is involved in tumor cell migration and metastasis. CXCR7, a novel receptor for SDF-1, has been identified recently. Research has demonstrated that SDF-1/CXCR7 interaction could play an important role in cancer progression. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of the SDF-1/CXCR7 ligand receptor system and the relationship between this expressions and clinicopathological characteristics in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Expressions of SDF-1 and CXCR7 in 64 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissue and 24 cases of normal pancreatic tissue were detected immunohistochemically.
Expressions of SDF-1 and CXCR7 were negative in normal pancreatic tissues. Respectively, positive expression rates of SDF-1 and CXCR7 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma were 45.3% and 51.6%. The expression of SDF-1 correlated with histological grades; the expression rate in moderate to low differentiation was higher than in high differentiation (P <0.05). The expression of CXCR7 positively correlated with lymph node metastasis (P <0.05). A log-rank test showed that the expression of SDF-1+/CXCR7+ correlated with poor prognosis (P <0.05).
The SDF-1/CXCR7 receptor ligand system may take part in invasive progression and metastasis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and might be useful as an index for evaluating invasiveness and prognosis.
chemokine; chemokine receptors; CXCR7; pancreatic neoplasms; SDF-1
This study aimed to explore the correlation between red blood cell (RBC) transfusion volume and patient mortality in massive blood transfusion. A multicenter retrospective study was carried out on 1,601 surgical inpatients who received massive blood transfusion in 20 large comprehensive hospitals in China. According to RBC transfusion volume and duration, the patients were divided into groups as follows: 0–4, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19, 20–24, 25–29, 30–39 and ≥40 units within 24 or 72 h. Mortality in patients with different RBC transfusion volumes was analyzed. It was found that patient mortality increased with the increase in the volume of RBC transfusion when the total RBC transfusion volume was ≥10 units within 24 or 72 h. Survival analysis revealed significant differences in mortality according to the RBC transfusion volume (χ2=72.857, P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that RBC transfusion volume is an independent risk factor [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52; confidence interval (CI): 0.43–0.64; P<0.01] for the mortality of patients undergoing a massive blood transfusion. When RBCs were transfused at a volume of 5–9 units within 24 and 72 h, the mortality rate was the lowest, at 3.7 and 2.3% respectively. It is concluded that during massive blood transfusion in surgical inpatients, there is a correlation between RBC transfusion volume within 24 or 72 h and the mortality of the patients. Patient mortality increases with the increase in the volume of RBC transfusion. RBC transfusion volume, the length of stay at hospital and intensive care unit stay constitute the independent risk factors for patient mortality.
massive blood transfusion; red blood cell; mortality; retrospective analysis; multicenter
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the predominant functional unit of telomerase and maintains the telomere length and the stability of chromosomes. Recently, TERT has been shown to be a critical factor in a number of other biological processes, including cell proliferation and cancer metastasis. In addition, although numerous studies have been conducted, the subcellular localization of the TERT protein and the association of such with cancer metastasis remains unclear. To investigate the involvement of TERT in in vivo metastasis, quantum dots-based immunofluorescence and western blot analysis were conducted to detect changes in the subcellular localization of TERT in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues and metastatic lymph nodes. To further investigate, metastatic and non-metastatic models of NPC were generated using 5–8F (high metastasis capability) and 6–10B (low metastasis capability) cell lines, respectively. It was found that TERT protein was overexpressed in NPC tissue samples and metastatic lymph nodes and TERT was predominantly located in the cytoplasm of primary NPC tissues, while TERT was predominantly located in the nucleus of the metastatic lymph nodes. The ratio of cytoplasmic TERT/nuclear TERT for the primary tumor of the 6–10B cell line was almost six-fold higher than that of the metastatic lymph nodes of the 5–8F cell line. TERT translocation from the cytoplasm to nucleus may present a critical step in the lymphatic metastasis of NPC. Thus, TERT translocation may be more useful than TERT expression level and telomerase activity for predicting the metastasis of NPC.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma; metastasis; translocation; telomerase reverse transcriptase
We compared the perioperative results and complications associated with PLIF and TLIF, and collected evidence for choosing the better fusion method.
A literature survey of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases identified 7 comparative observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Checklists by Cowley were used to evaluate the risk of bias of the included studies. A database including patient demographic information, perioperative results, and complications was established. The summary odds ratio and weighed mean difference with 95% confidence interval were calculated with a random-effects model.
We found that PLIF had a higher complication rate (P <0.00001), and TLIF reduced the rate of durotomy (P = 0.01). No statistical difference was found between the two groups with regard to clinical satisfaction (P = 0.54), blood loss (P = 0.14), vertebral root injury (P = 0.08), graft malposition (P = 0.06), infection (P = 0.36), or rate of radiographic fusion (P = 0.27). The evidence indicated that PLIF required longer operative time (P = 0.03).
The evidence indicated that TLIF could reduce the complication rate and durotomy. Neither TLIP nor PLIF was found superior in terms of clinical satisfaction or radiographic fusion rate. PLIF might result in longer time in surgery.
Posterior lumbar interbody fusion; Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion; Meta-analysis; Lumbar fusion
The development of a deep wound infection in the presence of internal hardware presents a clinical dilemma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of vancomycin cement with other advances of surgical techniques for implant-related infection (IRI) in the tibia. This study included 217 consecutive patients who had sustained IRI of the tibia. Of them, 152 patients had soft tissue defects and the internal hardware was exposed. Repeated debridement and negative pressure assisted closure were used. All the infected internal hardware was removed. External fixations and flaps were used. Custom-made vancomycin cement was inserted into the dead space of the wounds and left in site for a month. The follow-up was from 12 months to 108 months, averaging 37.5 months. For all the 217 patients, the general osteomyelitis healing rate and bone union rate were 86.6% and 97.2%, respectively. This study shows high rates of healing of IRI in the tibia if the new advances of surgery could be effectively combined into the treatment strategy with vancomycin cement as an important treatment.
Changes in lens may reflect the status of systemic health of human beings but the supporting evidences are not well summarized yet. We aimed to determine the relationship of age-related cataract, cataract surgery and long-term mortality by pooling the results of published population-based studies.
We searched PubMed and Embase from their inception till March, 2014 for population-based studies reporting the associations of any subtypes of age-related cataract, cataract surgery with all-cause mortality. We pooled the effect estimates (hazards ratios [HRs]) under a random effects model.
Totally, we identified 10 unique population-based studies including 39,659 individuals at baseline reporting the associations of any subtypes of cataract with all-cause mortality from 6 countries. The presence of any cataract including cataract surgery was significantly associated with a higher risk of death (pooled HR: 1.43, 95% CI, 1.21, 2.02; P<0.001; I2 = 64.2%). In the meta-analysis of 9 study findings, adults with nuclear cataract were at higher risks of mortality (pooled HR: 1.55, 95% CI, 1.17, 2.05; P = 0.002; I2 = 89.2%). In the meta-analysis of 8 study findings, cortical cataract was associated with higher risks of mortality (pooled HR: 1.26, 95% CI, 1.12, 1.42; P<0.001, I2 = 29.7%). In the meta-analysis of 6 study findings, PSC cataract was associated with higher risks of mortality (pooled HR: 1.37, 95% CI, 1.04, 1.80; P = 0.03; I2 = 67.3%). The association between cataract surgery and mortality was marginally non-significant by pooling 8 study findings (pooled HR: 1.27, 95% CI, 0.97, 1.66; P = 0.08; I2 = 76.6%).
All subtypes of age-related cataract were associated with an increased mortality with nuclear cataract having the strongest association among the 3 cataract subtypes. However, cataract surgery was not significantly related to mortality. These findings indicated that changes in lens may serve as markers for ageing and systemic health in general population.
Long non-coding RNA has been involved in cancer progression, and high HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is thought to be a poor prognostic indicator in tumorigenesis of multiple types of cancer. Hence, the present study further reveals its prognostic value in tumor malignancy. A systematic review of PubMed and Web of Science was carried out to select literatures relevant to the correlation between HOTAIR expression levels and clinical outcome of various tumors. Overall survival (OS), metastasis-free survival (MFS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were subsequently analyzed. Data from studies directly reporting a hazard ratio (HR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) or a P value as well as survival curves were pooled in the current meta-analysis. A total of 2255 patients from 19 literatures almost published in 2011 or later were included in the analysis. The results suggest that HOTAIR was highly associated with HR for OS of 2.33 (95%CI = 1.77-3.09, Pheterogeneity = 0.016). Stratified analyses indicate that elevated levels of HOTAIR appears to be a powerful prognostic biomarker for patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 3.02, 95CI% = 1.84-4.95, Pheterogeneity = 0.699) and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (HR = 2.24, 95CI% = 1.67-3.01, Pheterogeneity = 0.711), a similar effect was also observed in analysis method and specimen, except for ethnicity. In addition, Hazard ratios for up-regulation of HOTAIR for MFS, RFS, and DFS were 2.32 (P<0.001), 1.98 (P = 0.369), and 3.29 (P = 0.001), respectively. In summary, the high level of HOTAIR is intimately associated with an adverse OS in numerous cancers, suggesting that HOTAIR may act as a potential biomarker for the development of malignancies.
The spleen is thought to be central in regulating the immune system, a metabolic asset involved in endocrine function. Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection leads to a mortality rate of up to 50%. However, there is still controversy on performing subtotal splenectomy as treatment of splenomegaly due to portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. In the present study, immunocytes and the indexes of splenic size, hemodynamics, hematology and immunology in the residual spleen were analyzed to support subtotal splenectomy due to splenomegaly.
In residual spleen, T lymphocytes mainly were focal aggregation in the periarterial lymphatic sheath. While B lymphocytes densely distributed in splenic corpuscle. In red pulp, macrophages were equally distributed in the xsplenic cord and adhered to the wall of splenic sinus with high density. The number of unit area T and B lymphocytes of splenic corpuscle and marginal zone as well as macrophages of red pulp were obviously increased in the residual spleen, while the number of macrophages didn’t be changed among the three groups in white pulp. While there were some beneficial changes (i.e., Counts of platelet and leucocyte as well as serum proportion of CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells were increased markedly; serum levels of M-CSF and GM-CSF were decreased significantly; The proportion of granulocyte, erythrocyte, megakaryocyte in bone marrow were changed obviously; But serum IgA, IgM, IgG, Tuftsin level, there was no significant difference; splenic artery flow volume, portal venous diameter and portal venous flow volume, a significant difference was observed in residual spleen) in the clinical indices.
After subtotal splenectomy with splenomegaly due to portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients, the number of unit area T and B lymphocytes, and MØ in red pulp of residual spleen increased significantly. However, whether increase of T, B lymphocytes and MØs in residual splenic tissue can enhance the immune function of the spleen, still need further research to confirm.
Residual spleen; Splenomegaly; Portal hypertension; T, B lymphocytes; Macrophage; Immune
Junction-mediating and regulatory protein(JMY) is a multifunctional protein with roles in the transcriptional co-activation of p53 and the regulation of actin nucleation promoting factors and, hence, cell migration; however, its role in the maturation of porcine oocytes is unclear. In the current study, we investigated functional roles of JMY in porcine oocytes. Porcine oocytes expressed JMY mRNA and protein, and the mRNA expression level decreased during oocyte maturation. Knockdown of JMY by RNA interference decreased the rate of polar body extrusion, validating its role in the asymmetric division of porcine oocytes. JMY knockdown also down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of actin and Arp2/3. Furthermore, JMY accumulated in the nucleus in response to DNA damage, and JMY knockdown suppressed DNA damage-mediated p53 activation. In conclusion, our results show that JMY has important roles in oocyte maturation as a regulator of actin nucleation-promoting factors and an activator of p53 during DNA damage during DNA damages in porcine oocytes.
This study is designed to investigate the treatment approach and prognosis of pulmonary ground-glass-like shadow, especially solitary nodular ground-glass opacity (SNGGO).
Forty-nine cases of SNGGO that persisted after anti-inflammatory treatment in our hospital were retrospectively studied. These patients received thoracoscopic surgery due to indefinitive diagnosis and a tendency of canceration (some cases were followed up for 1-24 months before surgery). Intraoperative rapid frozen section was performed for pathological diagnosis, and surgery method was chosen according to pathological results and the health status of the patients.
Forty-three cases showed malignancy, among which 36 cases received thoracoscopic total resection of the lung cancer and seven received simple wedge resection or pulmonary segment resection due to poor lung function; two cases were atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) and received wedge resection; and four cases were benign and received lesion resection only. Intraoperative frozen section results were in line with postoperative pathological analysis. No lymph node metastasis was detected in any malignant cases as indicated by lymph node dissection or sampling. All malignant cases were staged Ia by postoperative pathological analysis. Neither recurrence nor metastasis occurred during the 1-30 months’ follow-up.
SNGGO that persists after anti-inflammatory treatment tend to be adenocarcinoma, which can hardly be diagnosed in the early stage through non-invasive examination. If there’s no contraindication for surgery, video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS)-guided resection of the lesion plus intraoperative rapid frozen section should be performed to synchronize diagnosis and treatment, which could achieve satisfactory prognosis.
Nodular ground-glass opacity; video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS)
The expression of RNA polymerase II subunit 3 (Rpb3) was found frequent up-regulation in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors. Significant associations could also be drawn between increased expressions of Rpb3 and advance HCC staging and shorter disease-free survival of patients. Overexpression of Rpb3 increased HCC cell proliferation, migratory rate and tumor growth in nude mice, whereas suppression of Rpb3 using shRNA inhibited these effects. For mechanism study, we found that Rpb3 bound directly to Snail, downregulated E-cadherin, induced HCC cells epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In particular, N-terminus of Rpb3 blocked Rpb3 binding to Snail, inhibited Rpb3-high-expression HCC cells proliferation, migration, tumor growth in nude mice, and also inhibited DEN-induced liver tumorigenesis. Furthermore, N-terminus of Rpb3 did not inhibit normal liver cells or Rpb3-low-expression HCC cells proliferation. These findings suggest that N-terminus of Rpb3 selectively inhibits Rpb3-high-expression HCC cells proliferation. N-terminus of Rpb3 may be useful in treating patients diagnosed with Rpb3-high-expression HCC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; liver tumorigenesis; Proliferation; Rpb3
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an alternative treatment for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or metastatic pulmonary tumors. However, for isolated lung metastasis (ILM) of thoracic malignances after pulmonary lobectomy, reported outcomes of SBRT have been limited. This study evaluates the role of SBRT in the treatment of such patients.
A retrospective search of the SBRT database was conducted in three hospitals. The parameters analyzed in the treated patients were local control, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and the treatment-related side-effects.
In total, 23 patients with single ILM after pulmonary lobectomy treated with SBRT were identified and the median follow-up time was 14 months (range: 6.0-47.0 months). Local recurrences were observed in two patients during follow-up and the 1-year local control rate was 91.3%. Median PFS and OS for the studied cohort were 10.0 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-14.9 months] and 21.0 months (95% CI 11.4-30.6 months), respectively. Acute radiation pneumonitis (RP) of grade 2 or worse was observed in five (21.7%) and three (13.0%) patients, respectively. Other treatment-related toxicities included chest wall pain in one patient (4.3%) and acute esophagitis in two patients (8.7%). By Pearson correlation analysis, the planning target volume (PTV) volume and the volume of the ipsilateral lung exposed to a minimum dose of 5 Gy (IpV5) were significantly related to the acute RP of grade 2 or worse in present study (p < 0.05). The optimal thresholds of the PTV and IpV5 to predict RP of acute grade 2 or worse RP were 59 cm3 and 51% respectively, according to the receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis, with sensitivity/specificity of 75.0%/80.0% and 62.5%/80.0%.
SBRT for post-lobectomy ILM was effective and well tolerated. The major reason for disease progression was distant failure but not local recurrence. The PTV and IpV5 are potential predictors of acute RP of grade 2 or higher and should be considered in treatment planning for such patients.
Stereotactic body radiation therapy; Thoracic tumor; Post-lobectomy isolated lung metastasis; Clinical outcomes