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2.  Nephrin strands contribute to a porous slit diaphragm scaffold as revealed by electron tomography 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2004;114(10):1475-1483.
Nephrin is a key functional component of the slit diaphragm, the structurally unresolved molecular filter in renal glomerular capillaries. Abnormal nephrin or its absence results in severe proteinuria and loss of the slit diaphragm. The diaphragm is a thin extracellular membrane spanning the approximately 40-nm-wide filtration slit between podocyte foot processes covering the capillary surface. Using electron tomography, we show that the slit diaphragm comprises a network of winding molecular strands with pores the same size as or smaller than albumin molecules, as demonstrated in humans, rats, and mice. In the network, which is occasionally stratified, immunogold-nephrin antibodies labeled individually detectable globular cross strands, about 35 nm in length, lining the lateral elongated pores. The cross strands, emanating from both sides of the slit, contacted at the slit center but had free distal endings. Shorter strands associated with the cross strands were observed at their base. Immunolabeling of recombinant nephrin molecules on transfected cells and in vitrified solution corroborated the findings in kidney. Nephrin-deficient proteinuric patients with Finnish-type congenital nephrosis and nephrin-knockout mice had only narrow filtration slits that lacked the slit diaphragm network and the 35-nm-long strands but contained shorter molecular structures. The results suggest the direct involvement of nephrin molecules in constituting the macromolecule-retaining slit diaphragm and its pores.
PMCID: PMC525744  PMID: 15545998
3.  Composition and Dynamics of Human Mitochondrial Nucleoids 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2003;14(4):1583-1596.
The organization of multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules in discrete protein-DNA complexes called nucleoids is well studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Similar structures have recently been observed in human cells by the colocalization of a Twinkle-GFP fusion protein with mtDNA. However, nucleoids in mammalian cells are poorly characterized and are often thought of as relatively simple structures, despite the yeast paradigm. In this article we have used immunocytochemistry and biochemical isolation procedures to characterize the composition of human mitochondrial nucleoids. The results show that both the mitochondrial transcription factor TFAM and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein colocalize with Twinkle in intramitochondrial foci defined as nucleoids by the specific incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine. Furthermore, mtDNA polymerase POLG and various other as yet unidentified proteins copurify with mtDNA nucleoids using a biochemical isolation procedure, as does TFAM. The results demonstrated that mtDNA in mammalian cells is organized in discrete protein-rich structures within the mitochondrial network. In vivo time-lapse imaging of nucleoids show they are dynamic structures able to divide and redistribute in the mitochondrial network and suggest that nucleoids are the mitochondrial units of inheritance. Nucleoids did not colocalize with dynamin-related protein 1, Drp1, a protein of the mitochondrial fission machinery.
PMCID: PMC153124  PMID: 12686611
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1974;140(6):1522-1533.
The localization of a cell type-specific, soluble fibroblast surface antigen (SFA) was studied by immunofluorescence and by scanning electron microscopy of the same cells. The antigen had an uneven distribution forming streaks on chick embryo fibroblasts. It was localized to membrane processes and ridges, with a diameter of 50–200 nm. The processes extended from the periphery of the cells to the substratum or to other cells. Trypsin treatment completely removed detectable amounts of SFA. The antigen was detectable within 1 h after trypsin-treated cells were reseeded. The reappearance of SFA correlated with the restoration of membrane processes. Fibroblasts transformed by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) showed loss of all or most SFA. When normal cells were transformed without subcultivation and trypsinization a fibrillar extracellular network of SFA remained under the transformed fibroblasts while the cells themselves were negative in immunofluorescence. When fibroblasts infected by RSV mutants were transferred to nonpermissive temperature for transformation new SFA was detected within 2 h. These data lead us to propose that loss of stabilizing and anchoring effect of SFA molecules in fibrillar cell surface structures may be critical in altered growth control and malignant transformation.
PMCID: PMC2139749  PMID: 4372293
5.  Virus-Induced Cytoplasmic Membrane Structures Associated with Semliki Forest Virus Infection Studied by the Freeze-Etching Method 
Journal of Virology  1974;13(1):222-225.
Intracellular membrane structures associated with the Semliki Forest virus replication process were studied from freeze-etch replicas. Cleaved membrane structures inside the CPV I type vacuoles lacked the typical membrane particles present on most other fractured membranes. CPV II type vacuoles present in thin sections were obscured in the freeze-etch replicas by the cytoplasmic ground substance.
PMCID: PMC355278  PMID: 4129842

Results 1-5 (5)