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author:("takken, Minna")
2.  Podosome-like structures of non-invasive carcinoma cells are replaced in epithelial-mesenchymal transition by actin comet-embedded invadopodia 
Abstract
Podosomes and invadopodia are actin-based structures at the ventral cell membrane, which have a role in cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Little is known about the differences and dynamics underlying these structures. We studied podosome-like structures of oral squamous carcinoma cells and invadopodia of their invasive variant that has undergone a spontaneous epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In 3D imaging, podosomes were relatively large structures that enlarged in time, whereas invadopodia of invasive cells remained small, but were more numerous, degraded more extracellular matrix (ECM) and were morphologically strikingly different from podosomes. In live-cell imaging, highly dynamic, invadopodia-embedded actin tails were frequently released and rocketed through the cytoplasm. Resembling invadopodia, we found new club-ended cell extensions in EMT-experienced cells, which contained actin, cortactin, vinculin and MT1-matrix metalloproteinase. These dynamic cell extensions degraded ECM and, in field emission scanning electron microscopy, protruded from the dorsal cell membrane. Plectin, αII-spectrin, talin and focal adhesion kinase immunoreactivities were detected in podosome rings, whereas they were absent from invadopodia. Tensin potentially replaced talin in invadopodia. Integrin α3β1 surrounded both podosomes and invadopodia, whereas integrin αvβ5 localized only to invadopodia heads. Pacsin 2, in conjunction with filamin A, was detected early in podosomes, whereas pacsin 2 was not found in invadopodia and filamin A showed delayed accumulation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching indicated faster reorganization of actin, cortactin and filamin A in podosomes compared to invadopodia. In conclusion, EMT affects the invasion machinery of oral squamous carcinoma cells. Non-invasive squamous carcinoma cells constitutively organize podosomes, whereas invasive cells form invadopodia. The club-ended cell extensions, or externalized invadopodia, are involved in ECM degradation and maintenance of contact to adhesion substrate and surrounding cells during invasion.
doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2009.00868.x
PMCID: PMC3829022  PMID: 19656240
epithelial-mesenchymal transition; filamin A; fluorescence recovery after photobleaching; invadopodia; pacsin 2; podosome; oral squamous cell carcinoma; total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy
3.  Snail1 transcriptional repressor binds to its own promoter and controls its expression 
Nucleic Acids Research  2006;34(7):2077-2084.
The product of Snail1 gene is a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin expression and an inductor of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition in several epithelial tumour cell lines. Transcription of Snail1 is induced when epithelial cells are forced to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype. In this work we demonstrate that Snail1 protein limits its own expression: Snail1 binds to an E-box present in its promoter (at −146 with respect to the transcription start) and represses its activity. Therefore, mutation of the E-box increases Snail1 transcription in epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Evidence of binding of ectopic or endogenous Snail1 to its own promoter was obtained by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments. Studies performed expressing different forms of Snail1 under the control of its own promoter demonstrate that disruption of the regulatory loop increases the cellular levels of Snail protein. These results indicate that expression of Snail1 gene can be regulated by its product and evidence the existence of a fine-tuning feed-back mechanism of regulation of Snail1 transcription.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkl141
PMCID: PMC1440880  PMID: 16617148

Results 1-3 (3)