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author:("peira, Sandra")
2.  Polycomb Complex 2 Is Required for E-cadherin Repression by the Snail1 Transcription Factor▿ †  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2008;28(15):4772-4781.
The transcriptional factor Snail1 is a repressor of E-cadherin (CDH1) gene expression essential for triggering epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Snail1 represses CDH1, directly binding its promoter and inducing the synthesis of the Zeb1 repressor. In this article, we show that repression of CDH1 by Snail1, but not by Zeb1, is dependent on the activity of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Embryonic stem (ES) cells null for Suz12, one of the components of PRC2, show higher levels of Cdh1 mRNA than control ES cells. In tumor cells, interference of PRC2 activity prevents the ability of Snail1 to downregulate CDH1 and partially derepresses CDH1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that Snail1 increases the binding of Suz12 to the CDH1 promoter and the trimethylation of lysine 27 in histone H3. Moreover, Snail1 interacts with Suz12 and Ezh2, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation experiments. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that Snail1 recruits PRC2 to the CDH1 promoter and requires the activity of this complex to repress E-cadherin expression.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00323-08
PMCID: PMC2493371  PMID: 18519590
3.  Repression of PTEN Phosphatase by Snail1 Transcriptional Factor during Gamma Radiation-Induced Apoptosis▿  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2008;28(5):1528-1540.
The product of the Snail1 gene is a transcriptional repressor required for triggering the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Snail1 in epithelial cells promotes resistance to apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate that this resistance to γ radiation-induced apoptosis caused by Snail1 is associated with the inhibition of PTEN phosphatase. In MDCK cells, mRNA levels of the p53 target gene PTEN are induced after γ radiation; the transfection of Snail1 prevents this up-regulation. Decreased mRNA levels of PTEN were also detected in RWP-1 cells after the ectopic expression of this transcriptional factor. Snail1 represses and associates to the PTEN promoter as detected both by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments performed with either endogenous or ectopic Snail1. The binding of Snail1 to the PTEN promoter increases after γ radiation, correlating with the stabilization of Snail1 protein, and prevents the association of p53 to the PTEN promoter. These results stress the critical role of Snail1 in the control of apoptosis and demonstrate the regulation of PTEN phosphatase by this transcriptional repressor.
doi:10.1128/MCB.02061-07
PMCID: PMC2258777  PMID: 18172008
4.  Snail1 transcriptional repressor binds to its own promoter and controls its expression 
Nucleic Acids Research  2006;34(7):2077-2084.
The product of Snail1 gene is a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin expression and an inductor of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition in several epithelial tumour cell lines. Transcription of Snail1 is induced when epithelial cells are forced to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype. In this work we demonstrate that Snail1 protein limits its own expression: Snail1 binds to an E-box present in its promoter (at −146 with respect to the transcription start) and represses its activity. Therefore, mutation of the E-box increases Snail1 transcription in epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Evidence of binding of ectopic or endogenous Snail1 to its own promoter was obtained by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments. Studies performed expressing different forms of Snail1 under the control of its own promoter demonstrate that disruption of the regulatory loop increases the cellular levels of Snail protein. These results indicate that expression of Snail1 gene can be regulated by its product and evidence the existence of a fine-tuning feed-back mechanism of regulation of Snail1 transcription.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkl141
PMCID: PMC1440880  PMID: 16617148
5.  Nerve Growth Factor Activation of the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Pathway Is Modulated by Ca2+ and Calmodulin 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2000;20(6):1931-1946.
Nerve growth factor is a member of the neurotrophin family of trophic factors that have been reported to be essential for the survival and development of sympathetic neurons and a subset of sensory neurons. Nerve growth factor exerts its effects mainly by interaction with the specific receptor TrkA, which leads to the activation of several intracellular signaling pathways. Once activated, TrkA also allows for a rapid and moderate increase in intracellular calcium levels, which would contribute to the effects triggered by nerve growth factor in neurons. In this report, we analyzed the relationship of calcium to the activation of the Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in PC12 cells. We observed that calcium and calmodulin are both necessary for the acute activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases after TrkA stimulation. We analyzed the elements of the pathway that lead to this activation, and we observed that calmodulin antagonists completely block the initial Raf-1 activation without affecting the function of upstream elements, such as Ras, Grb2, Shc, and Trk. We have broadened our study to other stimuli that activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases through tyrosine kinase receptors, and we have observed that calmodulin also modulates the activation of such kinases after epidermal growth factor receptor stimulation in PC12 cells and after TrkB stimulation in cultured chicken embryo motoneurons. Calmodulin seems to regulate the full activation of Raf-1 after Ras activation, since functional Ras is necessary for Raf-1 activation after nerve growth factor stimulation and calmodulin-Sepharose is able to precipitate Raf-1 in a calcium-dependent manner.
PMCID: PMC110811  PMID: 10688641

Results 1-5 (5)