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1.  The genus Pseudolathra Casey in China: new species and new records (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae) 
ZooKeys  2013;1-9.
Two new species of the genus Pseudolathra Casey from mainland China are described and attributed to their respective species groups, P. cylindrata sp. n. from Hubei and Sichuan, and P. superficiaria sp. n. from Yunnan. Pseudolathra pulchella (Kraatz, 1859), P. transversiceps Assing, 2013 and P. bipectinata Assing, 2013 from Yunnan are reported from China for the first time. The history of the exploration of the Chinese fauna of Pseudolathra is summarized.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.356.5979
PMCID: PMC3867107  PMID: 24363571
New species; Pseudolathra; Paederinae; Staphylinidae; China
2.  Transcription Expression and Clinical Significance of Dishevelled-3 mRNA and δ-Catenin mRNA in Pleural Effusions from Patients with Lung Cancer 
Objective. To evaluate diagnostic utility of Dishevelled-3 (DVL-3) mRNA and δ-catenin mRNA expression in pleural effusions of patients with lung cancer. Methods. DVL-3 mRNA and δ-catenin mRNA levels were assessed by performing RT-PCR on pleural effusion specimens from patients with lung cancer (n = 75) and with lung benign disease (n = 51). Results. The expressions of DVL-3 mRNA and δ-catenin mRNA were significantly higher in malignant than in benign lung disease (P < 0.01) and were obviously higher than cytology in adenocarcinoma (P < 0.01). In single use, DVL-3 mRNA had the highest specificity (94.1%) and PPV (95.7%), whereas δ-catenin mRNA had the highest sensitivity (92.0%) and NPV (88.5%). When combinations of markers were evaluated together, DVL-3 mRNA and δ-catenin mRNA gave a high-diagnostic performance: sensitivity of 100.0%, NPV of 100.0%, and accuracy of 96.0%, respectively. Conclusion. As molecular markers of detecting pleural micrometastasis, DVL-3 mRNA and δ-catenin mRNA are helpful to diagnose the cancer cells in pleural effusions of patients with lung cancer.
doi:10.1155/2012/904946
PMCID: PMC3296179  PMID: 22461838
3.  Study on the optical property and biocompatibility of a tissue engineering cornea 
AIM
To study the optical property and biocompatibility of a tissue engineering cornea.
METHODS
: The cross-linker of N-(3-Dimethylaminoropyl)-N'ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) was mixed with Type I collagen at 10% (weight/volume). The final solution was molded to the shape of a corneal contact lens. The collagen concentrations of 10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5% and 20% artificial corneas were tested by UV/vis-spectroscopy for their transparency compared with normal rat cornea. 10-0 sutures were knotted on the edges of substitute to measure the corneal buttons's mechanical properties. Normal rat corneal tissue primary culture on the collagen scaffold was observed in 4 weeks. Histopathologic examinations were performed after 4 weeks of in vitro culturing.
RESULTS
The collagen scaffold appearance was similar to that of soft contact lens. With the increase of collagen concentration, the transparency of artificial corneal buttons was diminished, but the toughness of the scaffold was enhanced. The scaffold transparency in the 10% concentration collagen group resembled normal rat cornea. To knot and embed the scaffold under the microscope, 20% concentration collagen group was more effective during implantation than lower concentrations of collagen group. In the first 3 weeks, corneal cell proliferation was highly active. The shapes of cells that grew on the substitute had no significant difference when compared with the cells before they were moved to the scaffold. However, on the fortieth day, most cells detached from the scaffold and died. Histopathologic examination of the primary culture scaffold revealed well grown corneal cells tightly attached to the scaffold in the former culturing.
CONCLUSION
Collagen scaffold can be molded to the shape of soft contact corneal lens with NHS/EDC. The biological stability and biocompatibility of collagen from animal species may be used as material in preparing to engineer artificial corneal scaffold.
doi:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.01.09
PMCID: PMC3340846  PMID: 22553753
tissue engineering; collagen cross-linking scaffold; primary culture in vitro; optical property; biocompatibility
4.  (E)-3-Nitro-N′-(3-nitro­benzyl­idene)­benzohydrazide 
In the title compound, C14H10N4O5, the mol­ecule exists in a trans conformation with respect to the methyl­idene unit. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 9.8 (2)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked through N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form chains along the c axis.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812005466
PMCID: PMC3295476  PMID: 22412587
5.  (E)-N′-(3-Fluoro­benzyl­idene)-3-nitro­benzohydrazide 
In the title compound, C14H10FN3O3, the mol­ecule exists in a trans conformation with respect to the methyl­idene unit. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 5.1 (2)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked through N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the c axis.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812005478
PMCID: PMC3295477  PMID: 22412588
6.  (E)-2-Chloro-N′-(4-hy­droxy­benzyl­idene)­benzohydrazide 
The title hydrazone mol­ecule, C14H11ClN2O2, has a trans conformation with respect to the methyl­idene unit. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 37.6 (3)°. In the crystal, the presence of O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds leads to the formation of a three-dimensional network. The title compound crystallized in the chiral ortho­rhom­bic space group P212121 and was refined as an inversion twin [Flack parameter = −0.20 (18)].
doi:10.1107/S1600536812005661
PMCID: PMC3295484  PMID: 22412595
7.  (E)-4-Hy­droxy-N′-(2-hy­droxy-3,5-diiodo­benzyl­idene)-3-meth­oxy­benzohydrazide methanol monosolvate 
In the title compound, C15H12I2N2O4·CH3OH, the hydrazone mol­ecule exists in an E conformation with respect to the C=N bond. The dihedral angle between the rings is 11.9 (2)°. There is one intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond in the hydrazone mol­ecule. In the crystal, the hydrazone and methanol mol­ecules are linked through O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯O inter­actions to form two-dimensional networks lying parallel to (001).
doi:10.1107/S1600536812004552
PMCID: PMC3295446  PMID: 22412557
8.  (E)-4-Nitro-N′-(3-nitro­benzyl­idene)benzohydrazide 
The title compound, C14H10N4O5, has an E conformation with respect to the C=N bond. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 2.41 (14)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked through N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form chains along the c axis. C—H⋯O inter­actions are also present, linking the chains to form a three-dimensional network.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812004540
PMCID: PMC3295447  PMID: 22412558
9.  N′-[(1E)-(2-Hy­droxy­naphthalen-1-yl)methyl­idene]-2-meth­oxy­benzohydrazide 
There are three independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H16N2O3, in which the dihedral angles between the naphthalene ring system and the benzene ring are 7.52 (16), 18.15 (18), and 13.9 (2)°. All the mol­ecules exist in the trans configuration with respect to the methyl­idene units. In each mol­ecule there is one O—H⋯N and one N—H⋯O intra­molecular hydrogen bond. In the crystal, two of the mol­ecules are linked via a bifurcated N—H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bond. All three mol­ecules are further linked via C—H⋯O inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811038153
PMCID: PMC3201446  PMID: 22065731
10.  (E)-N′-(5-Bromo-2-hy­droxy-3-meth­oxy­benzyl­idene)-1H-indole-3-carbo­hydrazide 
There are three independent mol­eculesi n the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C18H16BrN3O3, in which the dihedral angles between the indole and benzene rings are 76.9 (2), 4.9 (2), and 70.9 (2)°. All three mol­ecules exist in a trans configuration with respect to the methyl­idene units. In each mol­ecule, there is one intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds occur.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811039195
PMCID: PMC3201537  PMID: 22065413
11.  (E)-N′-(5-Bromo-2-meth­oxy­benzyl­idene)-2-chloro­benzohydrazide 
In the title compound, C15H12BrClN2O2, the dihedral angle between the two substituted aromatic rings is 77.8 (3)°. The mol­ecule exists in a trans conformation with respect to the methyl­idene unit. In the crystal structure, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R 2 8(8) loops.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811034623
PMCID: PMC3200979  PMID: 22065403
12.  (E)-N′-(3,5-Dichloro-2-hy­droxy­benzyl­idene)-2-meth­oxy­benzohydrazide 
In the title compound, C15H12Cl2N2O3, the dihedral angle between the two substituted aromatic rings is 5.4 (4)°. Intra­molecular O—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds affect the planarity of the molcular conformation, with a mean deviation from the plane defined by the non-H atoms of 0.062 (2) Å. The mol­ecule exists in a trans configuration with respect to the methyl­idene unit. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S160053681102366X
PMCID: PMC3151996  PMID: 21837171
13.  Clinical significance of tumor-associated macrophage infiltration in supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2011;30(4):280-286.
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can elicit contrasting effects on tumor progression, depending on different tumor microenvironment. This study aimed to explore the correlation between TAM infiltration and clinicopathologic characteristics, metastasis, and prognosis of supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma. TAMs in intratumoral and peritumoral regions of 84 specimens of supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma tissues were detected by immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal CD68 antibody. The density of peritumoral CD68+ TAMs in recurrence cases (9/11) and in dead cases (17/23) were significantly higher than those in non-recurrence cases (33/73) and in survival cases (25/61), with significant differences (P = 0.024 and 0.007, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significant relationship between the infiltration of both intratumoral and peritumoral CD68+ TAMs and the overall survival of patients. The 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in the group with a high density of intratumoral CD68+ TAMs than in the group with a low density (39.6% vs. 82.5%, P < 0.05). Similarly, the 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in the group with a high density of peritumoral CD68+ TAMs than in the group with a low density (50.6% vs. 73.1%, P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that T classification, distant metastasis, and intratumoral or peritumoral CD68+ TAMs were independent factors for disease-free survival, whereas T classification and intratumoral CD68+ TAMs were independent factors for overall survival. The results indicate that TAM infiltration in supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma can be used to predict metastasis and prognosis and is an independent factor for prognosis.
doi:10.5732/cjc.010.10336
PMCID: PMC4013355  PMID: 21439250
Laryngeal neoplasm; squamous cell carcinoma; tumor-associated macrophages; prognostic factor
14.  Prevalence and risk factors of organ failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis 
BACKGROUND:
This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of organ failure and its risk factors in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).
METHODS:
A retrospective analysis was made of 186 patients with SAP who were had been hospitalized in the intensive care unit of Jinzhong First People’s Hospital between March 2000 and October 2009. The patients met the diagnostic criteria of SAP set by the Surgical Society of the Chinese Medical Association in 2006. The variables collected included age, gender, etiology of SAP, the number of comorbidit, APACHEII score, contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) pancreatic necrosis, CT severity index (CTSI) , abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) , the number of organ failure, and the number of death. The prevalence and mortality of organ failure were calculated. The variables were analyzed by unconditional multivariate logistic regression to determine the independent risk factors for organ failure in SAP.
RESULTS:
Of 186 patients, 96 had organ failure. In the 96 patients, 47 died. There was a significant association among the prevalence of organ failure and age, the number of comorbidity, APACHEII score, CECT pancreatic necrosis, CTSI, and ACS. An increase in age, the number of comorbidity, APACHEII score, CECT pancreatic necrosis were correlated with increased number of organ failure. Age, the number of comorbidity, APACHEII score, CECT pancreatic necrosis, CTSI and ACS were assessed by unconditional multivariate logistic regression.
CONCLUSIONS:
Organ failure occurred in 51.6% of the 186 patients with SAP. The mortality of SAP with organ failure was 49.0%. Age, the number of comorbidity, APACHEII score, CECT pancreatic necrosis, CTSI and ACS are independent risk factors of organ failure.
PMCID: PMC4129688  PMID: 25214968
Severe acute pancreatitis; Organ failure; Prevalence; Risk factor; Age; Comorbidity; APACHE; Pancreatic necrosis; Abdominal compartment syndrome
15.  A Snail1/Notch1 Signaling Axis Controls Embryonic Vascular Development 
Nature communications  2014;5:3998.
Notch1-Delta-like 4 (Dll4) signaling controls vascular development by regulating endothelial cell (EC) targets that modulate vessel wall remodeling and arterial-venous specification. The molecular effectors that modulate Notch signaling during vascular development remain largely undefined. Here we demonstrate that the transcriptional repressor, Snail1, acts as a VEGF-induced regulator of Notch1 signaling and Dll4 expression. EC-specific Snail1 loss-of-function conditional knockout mice die in utero with defects in vessel wall remodeling in association with losses in mural cell investment and disruptions in arterial-venous specification. Snail1 loss-of-function conditional knockout embryos further display up-regulated Notch1 signaling and Dll4 expression that is partially reversed by inhibiting Ɣ-secretase activity in vivo with Dll4 identified as a direct target of Snail1-mediated transcriptional repression. These results document a Snail1-Dll4/Notch1 axis that controls embryonic vascular development.
doi:10.1038/ncomms4998
PMCID: PMC4052376  PMID: 24894949
16.  Comparison of the Release Profile and Pharmacokinetics of Intact and Fragmented Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implants in Rabbit Eyes 
Abstract
Purpose: Dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant, Ozurdex®; Allergan, Inc.) is used to treat noninfectious posterior uveitis and macular edema associated with retinal vein occlusion and diabetic retinopathy. Two recently published reports of DEX implant fragmentation shortly after injection have raised concerns about the potential for faster implant dissolution and elevated ocular dexamethasone concentrations. This study compared the in vivo release profile and pharmacokinetic behavior of intact and fragmented DEX implants.
Methods: DEX implant was surgically implanted as a single unit or fragmented into 3 pieces in the posterior segment of opposing eyes of 36 New Zealand white rabbits. The release of dexamethasone over time from 1-piece and 3-piece fragmented implants dissolved in solution in vitro was compared with that from the 1-piece and 3-piece fragmented implants placed in the rabbit eyes. In addition, dexamethasone concentrations in the vitreous and aqueous humors of each eye were measured at 3 h and days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry were used for assays.
Results: Dexamethasone release from the 1-piece and 3-piece DEX implants in vivo was not different and was consistent with the in vitro release pattern. Moreover, the concentration profile of dexamethasone in the vitreous and aqueous humors was similar for the 1-piece and 3-piece DEX implants at each time point measured.
Conclusions: DEX implant fragmentation neither accelerated its dissolution nor increased the dexamethasone concentration delivered at a given time. Accordingly, DEX implant fragmentation is unlikely to have clinically significant effects in patients.
doi:10.1089/jop.2014.0082
PMCID: PMC4259187  PMID: 25411827
17.  Evaluation of HCPTd1, d14-double passaged intervening chemotherapy protocol for hepatocellular carcinoma 
AIM: To establish a kind of standardization of the clinical chemotherapeutic prototypes for unresectable hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC).
METHODS: 10-Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) was applied through transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) to HCC patients who were categorized into three groups: (1) test group: treatment with HCPT twice (HCPT d1 and 14) through TAE and portal venous embolization. (2) Control I: treatment with anticancer drugs without HCPT. (3) Control II: treatment with HCPT as a major component in anticancer drugs once (HCPT d1). A set of comparisons between test groups and control I and II groups were performed before and after the treatment to study the effectiveness of each treatment, in terms of tumor volumes, dynamic variations in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), gamma-glutamyl transferase hepatoma-specific band (GGT-II), patient survival and adverse events.
RESULTS: The general effectiveness rate of the test group reached 62.1% (72/116), remarkably higher than that of control I (32.1%, 40/124) and control II (54.7%, 47/56), (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Especially, the reduction rate or disappearance of the portal vein tumor emboli was as high as 88.4% (61/69) in the test group, in contrast with 13.9% (10/72) in control I and 35.9% (18/51) in control II (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). After treatment, AFP decreased or turned to negative levels at 52.3% (34/65) in control I, 67.3% (35/52) in control II, and 96.8% (60/62) in the test group. Also GGT-II declined or became negative at 37.8% (28/74) in control I, 69.5% (57/82) in control II, and 94.7% (89/94) in test group (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively).
CONCLUSION: We have designed a good protocol (test group) to treat HCC with excellent advantages of high efficiency, low cost, low toxicity and low adverse events and easy application. It could be recommended as one of the standardizations for HCC treatment in clinical practice.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v11.i33.5221
PMCID: PMC4320400  PMID: 16127757
Hydroxycamptothecin; Transcatheter arterial embolization; Portal venous embolization; Hepatocellular carcinoma
18.  Value of segmental coronary calcium score on diagnosis and interventional treatment of coronary lesions by 320-slice DVCT 
The global coronary calcium score has been widely used in the evaluation of coronary plaque burden and cardiovascular disease events. In this study, we investigated the value of segmental coronary calcium score (SCCS) on the diagnosis and interventional treatment. We studied 87 patients with coronary angiography (CAG) and coronary CT angiography (CTA) by 320-slice dynamic volume CT (DVCT). SCCS was determined for each segmental separately. All lesions which SCCS was greater than 0 were enrolled, and were divided into three groups, mild calcification group (SCCS were less than 80), Moderate calcification group (SCCS were more than 80 and less than 200) and Severe calcification group (SCCS were more than 200). From above three groups, lesions received the intervention treatment were elected as subgroup. The position of lesions, plaque morphology, calcification proportion and interventional treatment data were analyzed. Severe calcification group were more frequent in the proximal lesions, stenosis with lesser extent, nubbly and nodular types of plaque, and the inconsistency with CAG was higher than the other two groups (P < 0.05). In the subgroup, more pre-dilatation and post-dilatation balloon were used in severe calcification group, with higher expansion pressure of balloon and stent (P < 0.05), but the diameter of stents was no difference between the three groups. Conclusion: SCCS is better than GCCS in the evaluation of coronary calcification, and play an important role in the judgment of stenosis by coronary CT and in the choice of interventional therapeutic devices.
PMCID: PMC4161572  PMID: 25232412
Segmental coronary calcium score; plaque morphology; calcification; dynamic volume CT; coronary angiography
19.  Snail1-dependent control of embryonic stem cell pluripotency and lineage commitment 
Nature communications  2014;5:3070.
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) exhibit the dual properties of self-renewal and pluripotency as well as the ability to undergo differentiation that gives rise to all three germ layers. Wnt family members can both promote ESC maintenance and trigger differentiation while also controlling the expression of Snail1, a zinc-finger transcriptional repressor. Snail1 has been linked to events ranging from cell cycle regulation and cell survival to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and gastrulation, but its role in self-renewal, pluripotency or lineage commitment in ESCs remains undefined. Here we demonstrate using isogenic pairs of conditional knockout mouse ESCs, that Snail1 exerts Wnt- and EMT independent control over the stem cell transcriptome without affecting self-renewal or pluripotency-associated functions. By contrast, during ESC differentiation, an endogenous Wnt-mediated burst in Snail1 expression regulates neuroectodermal fate while playing a required role in epiblast stem cell exit and the consequent lineage fate decisions that define mesoderm commitment.
doi:10.1038/ncomms4070
PMCID: PMC4115678  PMID: 24401905
20.  Chinese medicine combined with calcipotriol betamethasone and calcipotriol ointment for Psoriasis vulgaris (CMCBCOP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2014;15:294.
Background
Psoriasis causes worldwide concern because of its high-prevalence, as well as its harmful, and incurable characteristics. Topical therapy is a conventional treatment for psoriasis vulgaris. Chinese medicine (CM) has been commonly used in an integrative way for psoriasis patients for many years. Some CM therapies have shown therapeutic effects for psoriasis vulgaris (PV), including relieving symptoms and improving quality of life, and may reduce the relapse rate. However, explicit evidence has not yet been obtained. The purpose of the present trial is to examine the efficacy and safety of the YXBCM01 granule, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, with a combination of topical therapy for PV patients.
Methods/Design
Using an add-on design, the trial is to evaluate whether the YXBCM01 granule combined topical therapy is more effective than topical therapy alone for the treatment of PV. The study design is a double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial comparing the YXBCM01 granule (5.5 g twice daily) to a placebo. The duration of treatment is 12 weeks. A total of 600 participants will be randomly allocated into two groups, YXBCM01 granule group and placebo group, from 11 general or dermatological hospitals in China. Topical use of calcipotriol betamethasone for the first 4 weeks and calcipotriol ointment for the remaining 8 weeks will be the same standard therapy for the two groups. Patients will be enrolled if they have a clinical diagnosis of PV, a psoriasis area severe index (PASI) of more than 10 or body surface area (BSA) of more than 10%, but PASI of less than 30 and BSA of less than 30%, are aged between 18 and 65-years-old, and provide signed informed consent. The primary outcome, relapse rate, is based on PASI assessed blindly during the treatment. Secondary outcomes include: (i) relapse time interval, (ii) time to onset, (iii) rebound rate, (iv) PASI score, (v) cumulative consumption of medicine, (vi) the dermatology quality life index (DLQI), and (vii) the medical outcomes study (MOS) item short form health survey (SF-36). Analysis will be on intention-to-treat and per-protocol subject analysis principles.
Discussion
To address the effectual remission of the YXBCM01 granule for PV, this trial may provide a novel regimen for PV patients if the granule can decrease relapse rate without more adverse effects.
Trial registration
Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://cwww.chictr.org): ChiCTR-TRC-13003233, registered 26 May 2013.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-294
PMCID: PMC4223761  PMID: 25052161
Psoriasis vulgaris; Randomized controlled trial; Calcipotriol Betamethasone; Calcipotriol; YXBCM01 granule; Chinese medicine
21.  Identification of regulators of cell invasion across basement membrane in vivo 
Science signaling  2010;3(120):ra35.
Cell invasion through basement membrane (BM) during development, immune surveillance, and metastatic cancer remains poorly understood. We have completed the first in vivo screen for regulators of cell invasion through BM, using the simple model of C. elegans anchor cell invasion, and identified 99 genes that promote invasion, including the chaperonin complex cct. Notably, most of these genes have not been previously implicated in cell invasive behavior. We further characterized members of the cct complex and 11 other genes, determining the distinct aspects of the invasive cascade that they regulate, including formation of a specialized invasive cell membrane and its ability to breach the BM. Suggesting a shared genetic program underlies cell invasion, siRNA knockdown of the human orthologs of cct-5 and lit-1, both previously unknown pro-invasive genes, reduced the invasiveness of metastatic carcinoma cells. Our results reveal the genetic underpinnings of cell invasion and provide new potential therapeutic targets to limit this behavior.
doi:10.1126/scisignal.2000654
PMCID: PMC3917318  PMID: 20442418
22.  Post-conditioning with gradually increased reperfusion provides better cardioprotection in rats 
BACKGROUND:
Rapid and complete reperfusion has been widely adopted in the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but this process sometimes can cause severe reperfusion injury. This study aimed to investigate different patterns of post-conditioning in acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and to detect the role of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) during the injury.
METHODS:
Rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham group, reperfusion injury (R/ I) group, gradually decreased reperfusion group (GDR group, 30/10-25/15-15/25-10/30 seconds of reperfusion/ischemia), equal reperfusion group (ER group, 20/20 seconds reperfusion/ischemia, 4 cycles), and gradually increased reperfusion group (GIR group, 10/30-15/25-25/15-30/10 seconds of reperfusion/ischemia). Acute myocardial infarction and ischemic post-conditioning models were established in the rats. Six hours after reperfusion, 3 rats from each group were sacrificed and myocardial tissues were taken to measure the expressions of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (P-ERK), phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (P-JNK), mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38 MAPK), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), caspases-8 in the myocardial tissue, and cytochrome c in the cytosol using Western blot. Hemodynamics was measured at 24 hours after reperfusion, the blood was drawn for the determination of cardiac enzymes, and the heart tissue was collected for the measurement of apoptosis using TUNEL. One-way analysis of variance and the Q test were employed to determine differences in individual variables between the 5 groups.
RESULTS:
Three post-conditioning patterns were found to provide cardioprotection (P<0.05) compared with R/I without postconditioning. GIR provided the best cardioprotection effect, followed by ER and then GDR. Apoptotic index and serum marker levels were reduced more significantly in GIR than in ER (P<0.05). The enhanced cardioprotection provided by GIR was accompanied with significantly increased levels of P-ERK 1/2 (1.82±0.22 vs. 1.54±0.32, P<0.05), and lower levels of p-JNK, p38 MAPK, TNF-α, caspase-8, caspase-9 and cytochrome in the cytoplasm (P<0.05), compared with ER. The infarct size was smaller in the GIR group than in the ER group, but this difference was not significant (16.30%±5.22% vs. 20.57%±6.32%, P<0.05). All the measured variables were improved more significantly in the GIR group than in the GDR group (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION:
Gradually increased reperfusion in post-conditioning could attenuate reperfusion injury more significantly than routine method, thereby the MAPK pathway plays an important role in this process.
doi:10.5847/wjem.j.issn.1920-8642.2014.02.009
PMCID: PMC4129876  PMID: 25215162
Ischemia-reperfusion injury; Postconditioning; Apoptosis
23.  Evaluation of Assembly Strategies Using RNA-Seq Data Associated with Grain Development of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e83530.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Identifying the complete transcriptome of wheat grain could serve as foundation for further study of wheat seed development. However, the relatively large size and the polyploid complexity of the genome have been substantial barriers to molecular genetics and transcriptome analysis of wheat. Alternatively, RNA sequencing has provided some useful information about wheat genes. However, because of the large number of short reads generated by RNA sequencing, factors that are crucial to transcriptome assembly, including software, candidate parameters and assembly strategies, need to be optimized and evaluated for wheat data. In the present study, four cDNA libraries associated with wheat grain development were constructed and sequenced. A total of 14.17 Gb of high-quality reads were obtained and used to assess different assembly strategies. The most successful approach was to filter the reads with Q30 prior to de novo assembly using Trinity, merge the assembled contigs with genes available in wheat cDNA reference data sets, and combine the resulting assembly with an assembly from a reference-based strategy. Using this approach, a relatively accurate and nearly complete transcriptome associated with wheat grain development was obtained, suggesting that this is an effective strategy for generation of a high-quality transcriptome from RNA sequencing data.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083530
PMCID: PMC3861526  PMID: 24349528
24.  Fast Disintegrating Quercetin-Loaded Drug Delivery Systems Fabricated Using Coaxial Electrospinning 
The objective of this study is to develop a structural nanocomposite of multiple components in the form of core-sheath nanofibres using coaxial electrospinning for the fast dissolving of a poorly water-soluble drug quercetin. Under the selected conditions, core-sheath nanofibres with quercetin and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) distributed in the core and sheath part of nanofibres, respectively, were successfully generated, and the drug content in the nanofibres was able to be controlled simply through manipulating the core fluid flow rates. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images demonstrated that the nanofibres prepared from the single sheath fluid and double core/sheath fluids (with core-to-sheath flow rate ratios of 0.4 and 0.7) have linear morphology with a uniform structure and smooth surface. The TEM images clearly demonstrated the core-sheath structures of the produced nanocomposites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results verified that quercetin and SDS were well distributed in the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix in an amorphous state, due to the favourite second-order interactions. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the core-sheath composite nanofibre mats could disintegrate rapidly to release quercetin within 1 min. The study reported here provides an example of the systematic design, preparation, characterization and application of a new type of structural nanocomposite as a fast-disintegrating drug delivery system.
doi:10.3390/ijms141121647
PMCID: PMC3856026  PMID: 24185912
nanocomposites; core-sheath nanofibres; coaxial electrospinning; fast disintegrating; quercetin
25.  Serum GP73 is complementary to AFP and GGT-II for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma 
Oncology Letters  2013;6(4):1152-1158.
Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is a resident Golgi type II transmembrane protein that has been reported to markedly increase in chronic liver disease, particularly in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains unclear as to whether serum GP73 represents a reliable serum marker for the diagnosis of HCC. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum GP73 in patients with HCC and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of measuring serum GP73 in combination with α-fetoprotein (AFP) and γ-glutamyl transferase isoenzyme II (GGT-II) in HCC. Serum GP73 was detected using a time-resolved fluorescence immunological assay (TRFIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 79 HCC cases, including 16 liver cirrhosis, 30 chronic hepatitis and 28 healthy individuals. The correlation between serum GP73 and tumor size and HCC grading was analyzed and the complementary diagnostic value of serum GP73, AFP and GGT-II was evaluated. TRFIA was established for the detection of serum GP73 and was sensitive and reproducible. The expression levels of serum GP73 were markedly higher in the patients with HCC when compared with those of the individuals with liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis or the healthy individuals. According to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for HCC with a cut-off value of 78.1 ng/l were 73.4 and 79.0%, respectively. However, no correlation was identified among serum GP73 and tumor size or grading, and no correlations were identified among serum GP73, AFP and GGT-II. The diagnostic sensitivities for HCC, as detected by TRFIA of GP73, AFP and GGT-II, were 73.4, 55.6 and 68.4%, respectively, and the specificities were 80.0, 86.7 and 97.1%, respectively. The combined determination of these markers increased the diagnostic sensitivity to 96.3% for HCC. TRFIA functions as a sensitive and replicable assay for the detection of serum GP73. The levels of serum GP73 were significantly higher in the HCC group when compared with the individuals with benign liver diseases. Serum GP73 may serve as a potential independent diagnostic candidate for HCC and the combined determination of serum GP73, AFP and GGT-II may increase the diagnostic efficiency of HCC.
doi:10.3892/ol.2013.1522
PMCID: PMC3796428  PMID: 24137480
time-resolved fluorescence immunological assay; golgi protein 73; hepatocellular carcinoma

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