Pseudoachondroplasia and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia are genetic skeletal diseases resulting from mutations in cartilage structural proteins. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry previously showed that the appearance of the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) in targeted mouse models of these diseases is disrupted; however, the precise changes in ECM organization and the pathological consequences remain unknown. Our aim was to determine the effects of matrilin-3 and COMP mutations on the composition and extractability of ECM components to inform how these detrimental changes might influence cartilage organization and degeneration.
Cartilage was sequentially extracted using increasing denaturants and the extraction profiles of specific proteins determined using SDS-PAGE/Western blotting. Furthermore, the relative composition of protein pools was determined using mass spectrometry for a non-biased semi-quantitative analysis.
Western blotting revealed changes in the extraction of matrilins, COMP and collagen IX in mutant cartilage. Mass spectrometry confirmed quantitative changes in the extraction of structural and non-structural ECM proteins, including proteins with roles in cellular processes such as protein folding and trafficking. In particular, genotype-specific differences in the extraction of collagens XII and XIV and tenascins C and X were identified; interestingly, increased expression of several of these genes has recently been implicated in susceptibility and/or progression of murine osteoarthritis.
We demonstrated that mutation of matrilin-3 and COMP caused changes in the extractability of other cartilage proteins and that proteomic analyses of Matn3 V194D, Comp T585M and Comp DelD469 mouse models revealed both common and discrete disease signatures that provide novel insight into skeletal disease mechanisms and cartilage degradation.
Cartilage; Genetic skeletal disease; Proteomics; Pseudoachondroplasia; Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia
Laminins are heterotrimeric extracellular glycoproteins found in, but not confined to, basement membranes (BMs). They are important components in formation of the molecular networks of BMs as well as in cell polarity, cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. Each laminin is composed by an α, a β and a γ chain. Previous studies have shown that the γ3 chain is partnered with either the β1 chain (in placenta) or β2 chain (in the CNS) (Libby et al., 2000). Several studies, including our own, suggested that the γ3 chain is expressed in both apical and basal compartments (Gersdorff et al., 2005; Koch et al., 1999; Yan and Cheng, 2006). This study investigates the expression pattern of the γ3 chain in mouse. We developed three new γ3-reactive antibodies, and we show that the γ3 chain is present in BMs. The distribution pattern is considerably more restricted than that of the γ1 chain and within any tissue there is differential deposition into BM compartments. This is particularly true in the retina and brain, where γ3 is uniquely expressed in a subset of the vascular basement membranes and the pial surface. We used conventional genetic ablation techniques to remove the γ3 chain in mice; unlike other laminin null mice (α5, β2, γ1 nulls) (Miner et al., 1998; Noakes et al., 1995; Smyth et al., 1999), these mice live a normal lifespan and have only minor abnormalities, the most striking of which are ectopic granule cells in the cerebellum and an apparent increase in capillary branching in the outer retina. These data support the suggestion that the γ3 chain is deposited in BMs and contributes some unique properties to their function, particularly in the nervous system.
Laminin; retina; CNS; cerebellum; angiogenesis; kidney; testis
Netrin-4, a member of the netrin family, is a potent regulator of embryonic development. It promotes neurite extension and regulates pulmonary airway branching, vasculogenesis patterning, and endothelial proliferation in pathological angiogenesis. The initial characterization of netrin-4 expression was focused on epithelial-derived organs (kidney, lung and salivary gland) and the central nervous system. Ocular development is an ideal system to study netrin-4 expression and function, as it involves both ectodermal (cornea, lens and retina) and mesodermal (sclera and choroid) derivatives and has an extensive and well-characterized angiogenic process. Netrin-4 is expressed in all ocular tissues. It is a prominent component of the basement membranes of the lens and cornea, as well as all three basement membranes of the retina: the inner limiting membrane, vascular basement membranes, and Bruch’s membrane. Netrin-4 is differentially deposited in vascular basement membranes, with more intense anti-netrin-4 reactivity on the arterial side. The retinal microcirculation also expresses netrin-4. In order to test the function of netrin-4 in vivo, we generated a conventional mouse lacking Ntn4 expression. Basement membrane formation in the cornea, lens and retina is undisrupted by netrin-4 deletion, demonstrating that netrin-4 is not a major structural component of these basement membranes. In the Ntn4 homozygous null (Ntn4−/−) cornea, the overall morphology of the cornea, as well as the epithelial, stromal and endothelial stratification are normal; however, epithelial cell proliferation is increased. In the Ntn4−/− retina, neurogenesis appears to proceed normally, as does retinal lamination. In the Ntn4−/− retina, retinal ganglion cell targeting is intact, although there are minor defects in axon fasciculation. In the retinal vasculature of the Ntn4−/− retina, the distribution patterns of astrocytes and the vasculature are largely normal, with the possible exception of increased branching in the deep capillary plexus, suggesting that netrin-4 may act as a negative regulator of angiogenesis. These data, taken together, suggest that netrin-4 is a negative regulator of corneal epithelial cell proliferation and retinal vascular branching in vivo, whereas netrin-4 may be redundant with other members of the netrin family in other ocular tissue development. Ntn4−/− mice may serve as a good model in which to study the role of netrins in vivo of the pathobiologic vascular remodeling in the retina and cornea.
Extracellular matrix; netrin; angiogenesis; cornea; retina; axonal pathfinding
bacterial secretion system; Helicobacter pylori; inflammatory anergy; innate immunity; macrophage; microbe associated molecular pattern; microRNA; miR-155; type IV secretion system; virulence
In 2006 and 2007, around 0.4 and 0.7% of all German soldiers involved in missions abroad were registered as suffering from PTSD. The frequency of PTSD in the German Armed Forces was assessed from army records. All soldiers admitted to the German Military Hospital in Hamburg, Germany, with PTSD (n = 117) in the years 2006 and 2007 were assessed by using questionnaires and structure interviews. Risk factors associated with PTSD were identified. Of the 117 soldiers with PTSD, 39.3% were in missions abroad, and 18.0% had participated in combat situations. Five (4.3%) were wounded in combat, and 4 of them had a serious irreversible injury. In total, 53.8% of the PTSD cases were related to injuries or physical/sexual abuse, while 46.2% were due to psychological traumatization. Among soldiers with PTSD who were not abroad, sexual or physical abuse were the most common traumas. In 35.9% of the patients, there was evidence for psychiatric disorders existing before the traumatic event. The percentage of women among sufferers from PTSD was significantly higher than the proportion of women in the armed forces (30.8% vs. 5.17%). A careful psychiatric screening before recruitment might help to identify persons at risk of PTSD.
Posttraumatic stress disorder; PTSD; Soldiers; Forces; Combat; Treatment
Type XII collagen–null mice have fragile bones with disorganized collagen fiber arrangement, decreased bone matrix formation, and delayed osteoblast differentiation.
Differentiated osteoblasts are polarized in regions of bone deposition, demonstrate extensive cell interaction and communication, and are responsible for bone formation and quality. Type XII collagen is a fibril-associated collagen with interrupted triple helices and has been implicated in the osteoblast response to mechanical forces. Type XII collagen is expressed by osteoblasts and localizes to areas of bone formation. A transgenic mouse null for type XII collagen exhibits skeletal abnormalities including shorter, more slender long bones with decreased mechanical strength as well as altered vertebrae structure compared with wild-type mice. Col12a−/− osteoblasts have decreased bone matrix deposition with delayed maturation indicated by decreased bone matrix protein expression. Compared with controls, Col12a−/− osteoblasts are disorganized and less polarized with disrupted cell–cell interactions, decreased connexin43 expression, and impaired gap junction function. The data demonstrate important regulatory roles for type XII collagen in osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix formation.
Cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) use Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of glutamate to signal sound information. Otoferlin, a C2-domain protein essential for IHC exocytosis and hearing, may serve as a Ca2+ sensor in vesicle fusion in IHCs that seem to lack the classical neuronal Ca2+ sensors synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) and 2. Support for the Ca2+ sensor of fusion hypothesis for otoferlin function comes from biochemical experiments, but additional roles in late exocytosis upstream of fusion have been indicated by physiological studies. Here, we tested the functional equivalence of otoferlin and Syt1 in three neurosecretory model systems: auditory IHCs, adrenal chromaffin cells and hippocampal neurons. Long-term and short-term ectopic expression of Syt1 in IHCs of Otof−/− mice by viral gene transfer in the embryonic inner ear and organotypic culture failed to rescue their Ca2+ influx-triggered exocytosis. On the other hand, virally mediated overexpression of otoferlin did not restore phasic exocytosis in Syt1-deficient chromaffin cells or neurons, but enhanced asynchronous release in the latter. We further tested exocytosis in Otof−/− hippocampal neurons and in Syt1−/− IHCs, but found no deficits in vesicle fusion. Expression analysis of different synaptotagmin isoforms indicated that Syt1 and Syt2 are absent from mature IHCs. Our data argue against a simple functional equivalence of the two C2 domain proteins in exocytosis of IHC ribbon synapses, chromaffin cells and hippocampal synapses.
cochlea; hair cell; hippocampal neuron; synapse; chromaffin cell; in utero gene transfer
Netrins have been extensively studied in the developing central nervous system as pathfinding guidance cues, and more recently in non-neural tissues where they mediate cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. Netrin-4, a distant relative of Netrins 1–3, has been proposed to affect cell fate determination in developing epithelia, though receptors mediating these functions have yet to be identified.
Using human embryonic pancreatic cells as a model of developing epithelium, here we report that Netrin-4 is abundantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and pancreatic ductal cells, and supports epithelial cell adhesion through integrins α2β1and α3β1. Interestingly, we find that Netrin-4 recognition by embryonic pancreatic cells through integrins α2β1 and α3β1 promotes insulin and glucagon gene expression. In addition, full genome microarray analysis revealed that fetal pancreatic cell adhesion to Netrin-4 causes a prominent down-regulation of cyclins and up-regulation of negative regulators of the cell cycle. Consistent with these results, a number of other genes whose activities have been linked to developmental decisions and/or cellular differentiation are up-regulated.
Given the recognized function of blood vessels in epithelial tissue morphogenesis, our results provide a mechanism by which endothelial-derived Netrin-4 may function as a pro-differentiation cue for adjacent developing pancreatic cell populations expressing adhesion receptors α2β1 and α3β1 integrins.
The expression of the extracellular matrix protein Laminin-332 is regulated transcriptionally by TGF-β1 as a function of cell confluence in MDCK epithelial cells. Latent TGF-β1 is secreted apically, sequestered from its receptors and activation machinery, dependent on integrin αVβ3, localized on the basolateral side of the epithelial barrier.
Laminin (LM)-332 is an extracellular matrix protein that plays a structural role in normal tissues and is also important in facilitating recovery of epithelia from injury. We have shown that expression of LM-332 is up-regulated during renal epithelial regeneration after ischemic injury, but the molecular signals that control expression are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells LM-332 expression occurs only in subconfluent cultures and is turned-off after a polarized epithelium has formed. Addition of active transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 to confluent MDCK monolayers is sufficient to induce transcription of the LM α3 gene and LM-332 protein expression via the TGF-β type I receptor (TβR-I) and the Smad2–Smad4 complex. Significantly, we show that expression of LM-332 in MDCK cells is an autocrine response to endogenous TGF-β1 secretion and activation mediated by integrin αVβ3 because neutralizing antibodies block LM-332 production in subconfluent cells. In confluent cells, latent TGF-β1 is secreted apically, whereas TβR-I and integrin αVβ3 are localized basolaterally. Disruption of the epithelial barrier by mechanical injury activates TGF-β1, leading to LM-332 expression. Together, our data suggest a novel mechanism for triggering the production of LM-332 after epithelial injury.
We have shown previously that components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) modulate neuronal development. Here, we searched for additional ECM elements that might play roles in retinal histogenesis and identified a secreted glycoprotein that is heavily expressed in the retina. This molecule, named by others Wnt Inhibitory Factor-1 (WIF-1), is expressed during and after the period of rod photoreceptor morphogenesis in the mouse. We show that a potential WIF-1 ligand, Wnt4, as well as a potential Wnt4 receptor, fzd4, and a potential Wnt4 coreceptor, LRP6, are expressed in the region of, and at the time of, rod photoreceptor genesis. WIF-1 and Wnt4 are coexpressed during retinal development and bind to each other; therefore, they are likely to interact during rod production. WIF-1 protein inhibits rod production, and anti-WIF-1 antibodies increase rod production; in contrast, Wnt4 promotes rod production. Together, these data suggest that WIF-1 and Wnt4, both components of the ECM, regulate mammalian photoreceptor development.
Genetically modified mice lacking the β2 laminin chain (β2null), the γ3 laminin chain (γ3 null), or both β2/γ3 chains (compound null) were produced. The development of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive neurons in these mouse lines was studied between birth and postnatal day (P) 20. Compared to wild type mice, no alterations were seen in γ3 null mice. In β2 null mice, however, the large, type I TH neurons appeared later in development, were at a lower density and had reduced TH immunoreactivity, although TH process number and size were not altered. In the compound null mouse, the same changes were observed together with reduced TH process outgrowth. Surprisingly, in the smaller, type II TH neurons, TH immunoreactivity was increased in laminin-deficient compared to wild type mice. Other retinal defects we observed were a patchy disruption of the inner limiting retinal basement membrane and a disoriented growth of Müller glial cells. Starburst and AII type amacrine cells were not apparently altered in laminin-deficient relative to wild type mice. We postulate that laminin-dependent developmental signals are conveyed to TH amacrine neurons through intermediate cell types, perhaps the Müller glial cell and/or the retinal ganglion cell.
Extracellular matrix; Inner limiting; Membrane; Amacrine cell; Muller cell
In this study, the authors demonstrated that two laminin chains, β2 and γ3, are critical for ILM stability and Müller cell attachment. The disruption of these genes causes defects in retinal lamination. These results have implications for diseases of the ILM and Müller cells.
Retinal basement membranes (BMs) serve as attachment sites for retinal pigment epithelial cells on Bruch's membrane and Müller cells (MCs) on the inner limiting membrane (ILM), providing polarity cues to adherent cells. The β2 and γ3 chains of laminin are key components of retinal BMs throughout development, suggesting that they play key roles in retinal histogenesis. This study was conducted to analyze how the absence of both β2- and γ3-containing laminins affects retinal development.
The function of the β2- and γ3-containing laminins was tested by producing a compound deletion of both the β2 and the γ3 laminin genes in the mouse and assaying the effect on postnatal retinal development by using anatomic and electrophysiological techniques.
Despite the widespread expression of β2 and γ3 laminin chains in wild-type (WT) retinal BMs, the development of only one, the ILM, was disrupted. The postnatal consequence of the ILM disruption was an alteration of MC attachment and a resultant disruption in MC apical–basal polarity, which culminated in retinal dysplasia. Of importance, although their density was altered, retinal cell fates were unaffected. The laminin mutants have a markedly decreased visual function, resulting in part from photoreceptor dysgenesis.
These data suggest that β2 and γ3 laminin isoforms are critical for the formation and stability of the ILM. These data also suggest that attachment of the MC to the ILM provides important polarity cues to the MC and for postnatal retinal histogenesis.
Here we describe a novel specific component of tissue junctions, collagen XXII. It was first identified by screening an EST data base and subsequently expressed as a recombinant protein and characterized as an authentic tissue component. The COL22A1 gene on human chromosome 8q24.2 encodes a collagen that structurally belongs to the FACIT protein family (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices). Collagen XXII exhibits a striking restricted localization at tissue junctions such as the myotendinous junction in skeletal and heart muscle, the articular cartilage-synovial fluid junction, or the border between the anagen hair follicle and the dermis in the skin. It is deposited in the basement membrane zone of the myotendinous junction and the hair follicle and associated with the extrafibrillar matrix in cartilage. In situ hybridization of myotendinous junctions revealed that muscle cells produce collagen XXII, and functional tests demonstrated that collagen XXII acts as a cell adhesion ligand for skin epithelial cells and fibroblasts. This novel gene product, collagen XXII, is the first specific extracellular matrix protein present only at tissue junctions.
The development of many organs, including the lung, depends upon a process known as branching morphogenesis, in which a simple epithelial bud gives rise to a complex tree-like system of tubes specialized for the transport of gas or fluids. Previous studies on lung development have highlighted a role for fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), made by the mesodermal cells, in promoting the proliferation, budding, and chemotaxis of the epithelial endoderm [1–3]. Here, by using a three-dimensional culture system, we provide evidence for a novel role for Netrins, best known as axonal guidance molecules [4, 5], in modulating the morphogenetic response of lung endoderm to exogenous FGFs. This effect involves inhibition of localized changes in cell shape and phosphorylation of the intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase(s) (ERK1/2, for extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2), elicited by exogenous FGFs. The temporal and spatial expression of netrin 1, netrin 4, and Unc5b genes and the localization of Netrin-4 protein in vivo suggest a model in which Netrins in the basal lamina locally modulate and fine-tune the outgrowth and shape of emergent epithelial buds.
Components of the extracellular matrix exert myriad effects on tissues throughout the body. In particular, the laminins, a family of heterotrimeric extracellular glycoproteins, have been shown to affect tissue development and integrity in such diverse organs as the kidney, lung, skin, and nervous system. Of these, we have focused on the roles that laminins play in the differentiation and maintenance of the nervous system. Here, we examine the expression of all known laminin chains within one component of the CNS, the retina. We find seven laminin chains—α3, α4, α5, β2, β3, γ2, and γ3—outside the retinal basement membranes. Anatomically, these chains are coexpressed in one or both of two locations: the matrix surrounding photoreceptors and the first synaptic layer where photoreceptors synapse with retinal interneurons. Biochemically, four of these chains are coisolated from retinal extracts in two independent complexes, confirming that two novel heterotrimers—α4β2γ3 and α5β2γ3—are present in the retinal matrix. During development, all four of these chains, along with components of laminin 5 (the α3, β3, and γ2 chains) are also expressed at sites at which they could exert important effects on photoreceptor development. Together, these data suggest the existence of two novel laminin heterotrimers in the CNS, which we term here laminin 14 (composed of the α4, β2, and γ3 chains) and laminin 15 (composed of the α5, β2, and γ3 chains), and lead us to hypothesize that these laminins, along with laminin 5, may play roles in photoreceptor production, stability, and synaptic organization.
retina; synapse; matrix; photoreceptor; interphoto-receptor matrix; laminin
Thus far the clinical benefits seen in breast cancer patients treated with drugs targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway are only modest. Consequently, additional antiangiogenic approaches for treatment of breast cancer need to be investigated. Thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) has been shown to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis with a greater potency than the related molecule TSP-1. The systemic effects of TSP-2 on tumor metastasis and the underlying molecular mechanisms of the antiangiogenic activity of TSP-2 have remained poorly understood. We generated a recombinant fusion protein consisting of the N-terminal region of TSP-2 and the IgG-Fc1 fragment (N-TSP2-Fc) and could demonstrate that the antiangiogenic activity of N-TSP2-Fc is dependent on the CD36 receptor. We found that N-TSP2-Fc inhibited VEGF-induced tube formation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) on matrigel in vitro and that concurrent incubation of anti-CD36 antibody with N-TSP2-Fc resulted in tube formation that was comparable to untreated control. N-TSP2-Fc potently induced apoptosis of HDMEC in vitro in a CD36-dependent manner. Moreover, we could demonstrate a CD36 receptor-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-3 in HDMEC in vitro. Daily intraperitoneal injections of N-TSP2-Fc resulted in a significant inhibition of the growth of human MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 tumor cells grown in the mammary gland of immunodeficient nude mice and in reduced tumor vascularization. Finally, increased serum concentrations of N-TSP2-Fc significantly inhibited regional metastasis to lymph nodes and distant metastasis to lung as shown by quantitative real-time alu PCR. These results identify N-TSP2-Fc as a potent systemic inhibitor of tumor metastasis and provide strong evidence for an important role of the CD36 receptor in mediating the antiangiogenic activity of TSP-2.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10549-010-1085-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Breast cancer; Thrombospondin-2; CD36; Metastasis; Angiogenesis
Tendon fibroblasts synthesize collagen and form fibrils during embryonic development, but to what extent mature fibroblasts are able to recapitulate embryonic development and develop normal tendon structure is unknown. The present study examined the capability of mature human tendon fibroblasts to initiate collagen fibrillogenesis when cultured in fixed-length fibrin gels. Fibroblasts were dissected from semitendinosus and gracilis tendons from healthy humans and cultured in 3D linear fibrin gels. The fibroblasts synthesized an extracellular matrix of parallel collagen fibrils that were aligned along the axis of tension. The fibrils had a homogeneous narrow diameter that was similar to collagen fibrils occurring in embryonic tendon. Immunostaining showed colocalization of collagen type I with collagen III, XII and XIV. A fibronectin network was formed in parallel with the collagen, and fibroblasts stained positive for integrin α5. Finally, the presence of cell extensions into the extracellular space with membrane-enclosed fibrils in fibripositors indicated characteristics of embryonic tendon. We conclude that mature human tendon fibroblasts retain an intrinsic capability to perform collagen fibrillogenesis similar to that of developing tendon, which implies that the hormonal/mechanical milieu, rather than intrinsic cellular function, inhibits regenerative potential in mature tendon.
Collagen; Extracellular matrix; Fibroblast; Tendon
Amongst the most severe clinical outcomes of life-long infections with Helicobacter pylori is the development of peptic ulcers and gastric adenocarcinoma - diseases often associated with an increase of regulatory T cells. Understanding H. pylori-driven regulation of T cells is therefore of crucial clinical importance. Several studies have defined mammalian microRNAs as key regulators of the immune system and of carcinogenic processes. Hence, we aimed here to identify H. pylori-regulated miRNAs, mainly in human T cells. MicroRNA profiling of non-infected and infected human T cells revealed H. pylori infection triggers miR-155 expression in vitro and in vivo. By using single and double H. pylori mutants and the corresponding purified enzymes, the bacterial vacuolating toxin A (VacA) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tested positive for their ability to regulate miR-155 and Foxp3 expression in human lymphocytes; the latter being considered as the master regulator and marker of regulatory T cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD) of the Foxp3 transcription factor in T cells abolished miR-155 expression. Using adenylate cyclase inhibitors, the miR-155 induction cascade was shown to be dependent on the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Furthermore, we found that miR-155 directly targets the protein kinase A inhibitor α (PKIα) mRNA in its 3′UTR, indicative of a positive feedback mechanism on the cAMP pathway. Taken together, our study describes, in the context of an H. pylori infection, a direct link between Foxp3 and miR-155 in human T cells and highlights the significance of cAMP in this miR-155 induction cascade.
The gating of ion channels by mechanical force underlies the sense of touch and pain. The mode of gating of mechanosensitive ion channels in vertebrate touch receptors is unknown. Here we show that the presence of a protein link is necessary for the gating of mechanosensitive currents in all low-threshold mechanoreceptors and some nociceptors of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Using TEM, we demonstrate that a protein filament with of length ∼100 nm is synthesized by sensory neurons and may link mechanosensitive ion channels in sensory neurons to the extracellular matrix. Brief treatment of sensory neurons with non-specific and site-specific endopeptidases destroys the protein tether and abolishes mechanosensitive currents in sensory neurons without affecting electrical excitability. Protease-sensitive tethers are also required for touch-receptor function in vivo. Thus, unlike the majority of nociceptors, cutaneous mechanoreceptors require a distinct protein tether to transduce mechanical stimuli.
extracellular matrix; ion channels; laminin; mechanotransduction; proteases
Heart valve structures, derived from mesenchyme precursor cells, are composed of differentiated cell types and extracellular matrix arranged to facilitate valve function. Scleraxis (scx) is a transcription factor required for tendon cell differentiation and matrix organization. This study identified high levels of scx expression in remodeling heart valve structures at embryonic day 15.5 through postnatal stages using scx-GFP reporter mice and determined the in vivo function using mice null for scx. Scx−/− mice display significantly thickened heart valve structures from embryonic day 17.5, and valves from mutant mice show alterations in valve precursor cell differentiation and matrix organization. This is indicated by decreased expression of the tendon-related collagen type XIV, increased expression of cartilage-associated genes including sox9, as well as persistent expression of mesenchyme cell markers including msx1 and snai1. In addition, ultrastructure analysis reveals disarray of extracellular matrix and collagen fiber organization within the valve leaflet. Thickened valve structures and increased expression of matrix remodeling genes characteristic of human heart valve disease are observed in juvenile scx−/− mice. In addition, excessive collagen deposition in annular structures within the atrioventricular junction is observed. Collectively, our studies have identified an in vivo requirement for scx during valvulogenesis and demonstrate its role in cell lineage differentiation and matrix distribution in remodeling valve structures.
development; extracellular matrix; heart valves; mouse heart development; transcription factors
Heart valve function is achieved by organization of matrix components including collagens, yet the distribution of collagens in valvular structures is not well defined. Therefore, we examined the temporal and spatial expression of select fibril-, network-, beaded filament-forming, and FACIT collagens in endocardial cushions, remodeling, maturing, and adult murine atrioventricular heart valves. Of the genes examined, col1a1, col2a1, and col3a1 transcripts are most highly expressed in endocardial cushions. Expression of col1a1, col1a2, col2a1, and col3a1 remain high, along with col12a1 in remodeling valves. Maturing neonate valves predominantly express col1a1, col1a2, col3a1, col5a2, col11a1, and col12a1 within defined proximal and distal regions. In adult valves, collagen protein distribution is highly compartmentalized, with ColI and ColXII observed on the ventricular surface and ColIII and ColVa1 detected throughout the leaflets. Together, these expression data identify patterning of collagen types in developing and maintained heart valves, which likely relate to valve structure and function.
collagen; heart; valves; extracellular matrix
Adult human corneal epithelial basement membrane (EBM) and Descemet's membrane (DM) components exhibit heterogeneous distribution. The purpose of the study was to identify changes of these components during postnatal corneal development.
Thirty healthy adult corneas and 10 corneas from 12-day- to 3-year-old children were studied by immunofluorescence with antibodies against BM components.
Type IV collagen composition of infant corneal central EBM over Bowman's layer changed from α1-α2 to α3-α4 chains after 3 years of life; in the adult, α1-α2 chains were retained only in the limbal BM. Laminin α2 and β2 chains were present in the adult limbal BM where epithelial stem cells are located. By 3 years of age, β2 chain appeared in the limbal BM. In all corneas, limbal BM contained laminin γ3 chain. In the infant DM, type IV collagen α1-α6 chains, perlecan, nidogen-1, nidogen-2, and netrin-4 were found on both faces, but they remained only on the endothelial face of the adult DM. The stromal face of the infant but not the adult DM was positive for tenascin-C, fibrillin-1, SPARC, and laminin-332. Type VIII collagen shifted from the endothelial face of infant DM to its stromal face in the adult. Matrilin-4 largely disappeared after the age of 3 years.
The distribution of laminin γ3 chain, nidogen-2, netrin-4, matrilin-2, and matrilin-4 is described in the cornea for the first time. The observed differences between adult and infant corneal BMs may relate to changes in their mechanical strength, corneal cell adhesion and differentiation in the process of postnatal corneal maturation.
Tenascin-X (TNX) is a large, multi-domain, extracellular matrix glycoprotein. Complete deficiency of TNX in humans leads to a recessive form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), and TNX haploinsufficiency is a cause of hypermobility type EDS. EDS patients appear to have a higher risk of several complications during pregnancy, such as pelvic instability, premature rupture of membranes, and postpartum hemorrhage. Here, we present a study of genitourinary and obstetric complications in TNX-deficient women of reproductive age. We have found complications, such as uterus prolapses, that are in agreement with previous findings in other EDS types. In TNX knockout (KO) mice, we have observed mild pregnancy-related abnormalities. Morphological and immunohistological analysis of uterine tissues has not revealed obvious quantitative or spatial differences between TNX KO and wildtype mice with respect to collagen types I, III, V, and XII or elastic fibers. We conclude that TNX-deficient women are at risk of obstetric complications, but that TNX KO mice show only a mild phenotype. Furthermore, we show that TNX is involved in the stability of elastic fibers rather than in their initial deposition.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome; Tenascin-X; Collagen; Elastin; Pregnancy; Human; Mouse (TNX knockout; C57BL/6)
The six proteins of the CCN family have important roles in development, angiogenesis, cell motility, proliferation, and other fundamental cell processes. To date, CCN5 distribution in developing rodents and humans has not been mapped comprehensively. CCN5 strongly inhibits adult smooth muscle cell proliferation and motility. Its anti-proliferative action predicts that CCN5 would not be present in developing tissues until the proliferation phase of tissue morphogenesis is complete. However, estrogen induces CCN5 expression in epithelial and smooth muscle cells, suggesting that CCN5 might be widely expressed in embryonic tissues exposed to high levels of estrogen. 9–16 day murine embryos and fetuses and 3–7 month human fetal tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. CCN5 was detected in nearly all developing tissues. CCN5 protein expression was initially present in most tissues, and at later times in development tissue-specific expression differences were observed. CCN5 expression was particularly strong in vascular tissues, cardiac muscle, bronchioles, myotendinous junctions, and intestinal smooth muscle and epithelium. CCN5 expression was initially absent in bone cartilaginous forms but was increasingly expressed during bone endochondral ossification. Widespread CCN5 mRNA expression was detected in GD14.5 mice. Although CCN2 and CCN5 protein expression patterns in some adult pathologic conditions are inversely expressed, this expression pattern was not found in developing mouse and human tissues. The widespread expression pattern of CCN5 in most embryonic and fetal tissues suggests a diverse range of functions for CCN5.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12079-007-0012-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
CCN2; CCN5; CTGF; Embryo; Expression pattern; WISP-2
Collagens are the most abundant proteins in the human body, important in maintenance of tissue structure and hemostasis. Here we report that collagens are high affinity ligands for the broadly expressed inhibitory leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1). The interaction is dependent on the conserved Gly-Pro-Hyp collagen repeats. Antibody cross-linking of LAIR-1 is known to inhibit immune cell function in vitro. We now show that collagens are functional ligands for LAIR-1 and directly inhibit immune cell activation in vitro. Thus far, all documented ligands for immune inhibitory receptors are membrane molecules, implying a regulatory role in cell–cell interaction. Our data reveal a novel mechanism of peripheral immune regulation by inhibitory immune receptors binding to extracellular matrix collagens.