PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-2 (2)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Toll-like receptors in human chondrocytes and osteoarthritic cartilage 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(6):585-592.
Background and purpose
Degenerating cartilage releases potential danger signals that react with Toll-like receptor (TLR) type danger receptors. We investigated the presence and regulation of TLR1, TLR2, and TLR9 in human chondrocytes.
Methods
We studied TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 mRNA (qRT-PCR) and receptor proteins (by immunostaining) in primary mature healthy chondrocytes, developing chondrocytes, and degenerated chondrocytes in osteoarthritis (OA) tissue sections of different OARSI grades. Effects of a danger signal and of a pro-inflammatory cytokine on TLRs were also studied.
Results
In primary 2D-chondrocytes, TLR1 and TLR2 were strongly expressed. Stimulation of 2D and 3D chondrocytes with a TLR1/2-specific danger signal increased expression of TLR1 mRNA 1.3- to 1.8-fold, TLR2 mRNA 2.6- to 2.8-fold, and TNF-α mRNA 4.5- to 9-fold. On the other hand, TNF-α increased TLR1 mRNA] expression 16-fold, TLR2 mRNA expression 143- to 201-fold, and TNF-α mRNA expression 131- to 265-fold. TLR4 and TLR9 mRNA expression was not upregulated. There was a correlation between worsening of OA and increased TLR immunostaining in the superficial and middle cartilage zones, while chondrocytes assumed a CD166× progenitor phenotype. Correspondingly, TLR expression was high soon after differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to chondrocytes. With maturation, it declined (TLR2, TLR9).
Interpretation
Mature chondrocytes express TLR1 and TLR2 and may react to cartilage matrix/chondrocyte-derived danger signals or degradation products. This leads to synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which stimulate further TLR and cytokine expression, establishing a vicious circle. This suggests that OA can act as an autoinflammatory disease and links the old mechanical wear-and-tear concept with modern biochemical views of OA. These findings suggest that the chondrocyte itself is the earliest and most important inflammatory cell in OA.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.854666
PMCID: PMC3851674  PMID: 24237425
2.  Fibroblast biology: Signals targeting the synovial fibroblast in arthritis 
Arthritis Research  2000;2(5):348-355.
Fibroblast-like cells in the synovial lining (type B lining cells), stroma and pannus tissue are targeted by many signals, such as the following: ligands binding to cell surface receptors; lipid soluble, small molecular weight mediators (eg nitric oxide [NO], prostaglandins, carbon monoxide); extracellular matrix (ECM)-cell interactions; and direct cell-cell contacts, including gap junctional intercellular communication. Joints are subjected to cyclic mechanical loading and shear forces. Adherence and mechanical forces affect fibroblasts via the ECM (including the hyaluronan fluid phase matrix) and the pericellular matrix (eg extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer [EMMPRIN]) matrices, thus modulating fibroblast migration, adherence, proliferation, programmed cell death (including anoikis), synthesis or degradation of ECM, and production of various cytokines and other mediators [1]. Aggressive, transformed or transfected mesenchymal cells containing proto-oncogenes can act in the absence of lymphocytes, but whether these cells represent regressed fibroblasts, chondrocytes or bone marrow stem cells is unclear.
doi:10.1186/ar111
PMCID: PMC130135  PMID: 11094447
fibroblast; rheumatoid arthritis; synovial membrane

Results 1-2 (2)