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1.  Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Protein pp65 Is Detected in All Intra- and Extra-Axial Brain Tumours Independent of the Tumour Type or Grade 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e108861.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been indicated being a significant oncomodulator. Recent reports have suggested that an antiviral treatment alters the outcome of a glioblastoma. We analysed the performance of commercial HCMV-antibodies applying the immunohistochemical (IHC) methods on brain sample obtained from a subject with a verified HCMV infection, on samples obtained from 14 control subjects, and on a tissue microarray block containing cores of various brain tumours. Based on these trials, we selected the best performing antibody and analysed a cohort of 417 extra- and intra-axial brain tumours such as gliomas, medulloblastomas, primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and meningiomas. HCMV protein pp65 immunoreactivity was observed in all types of tumours analysed, and the IHC expression did not depend on the patient's age, gender, tumour type, or grade. The labelling pattern observed in the tumours differed from the labelling pattern observed in the tissue with an active HCMV infection. The HCMV protein was expressed in up to 90% of all the tumours investigated. Our results are in accordance with previous reports regarding the HCMV protein expression in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas. In addition, the HCMV protein expression was seen in primary brain lymphomas, low-grade gliomas, and in meningiomas. Our results indicate that the HCMV protein pp65 expression is common in intra- and extra-axial brain tumours. Thus, the assessment of the HCMV expression in tumours of various origins and pathologically altered tissue in conditions such as inflammation, infection, and even degeneration should certainly be facilitated.
PMCID: PMC4182568  PMID: 25268364
2.  Hyaluronan synthases (HAS1-3) and hyaluronidases (HYAL1-2) in the accumulation of hyaluronan in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:512.
Hyaluronan accumulation correlates with the degree of malignancy in many solid tumor types, including malignant endometrial carcinomas. To elucidate the mechanism of hyaluronan accumulation, we examined the expression levels of the hyaluronan synthases (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3) and hyaluronidases (HYAL1 and HYAL2), and correlated them with hyaluronan content and HAS1-3 immunoreactivity.
A total of 35 endometrial tissue biopsies from 35 patients, including proliferative and secretory endometrium (n = 10), post-menopausal proliferative endometrium (n = 5), complex atypical hyperplasia (n = 4), grade 1 (n = 8) and grade 2 + 3 (n = 8) endometrioid adenocarcinomas were divided for gene expression by real-time RT-PCR, and paraffin embedded blocks for hyaluronan and HAS1-3 cytochemistry.
The mRNA levels of HAS1-3 were not consistently changed, while the immunoreactivity of all HAS proteins was increased in the cancer epithelium. Interestingly, HAS3 mRNA, but not HAS3 immunoreactivity, was increased in post-menopausal endometrium compared to normal endometrium (p = 0.003). The median of HYAL1 mRNA was 10-fold and 15-fold lower in both grade 1 and grade 2+3 endometrioid endometrial cancers, as compared to normal endometrium (p = 0.004-0.006), and post-menopausal endometrium (p = 0.002), respectively. HYAL2 mRNA was also reduced in cancer (p = 0.02) and correlated with HYAL1 (r = 0.8, p = 0.0001). There was an inverse correlation between HYAL1 mRNA and the epithelial hyaluronan staining intensity (r = -0.6; P = 0.001).
The results indicated that HYAL1 and HYAL2 were coexpressed and significantly downregulated in endometrioid endometrial cancer and correlated with the accumulation of hyaluronan. While immunoreactivity for HASs increased in the cancer cells, tumor mRNA levels for HASs were not changed, suggesting that reduced turnover of HAS protein may also have contributed to the accumulation of hyaluronan.
PMCID: PMC2956733  PMID: 20875124
3.  Nuclear expression of Snail1 in borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours is associated with tumour progression 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:289.
Transcription factor Snail1 has a central role in induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aim of the present study was to elucidate the expression of Snail1 protein during epithelial ovarian tumourigenesis and to study the association of Snail1 expression with clinicopathological factors and prognosis.
Epithelial and stromal fibroblast-like fusiform cells of 14 normal ovarian samples, 21 benign, 24 borderline and 74 malignant epithelial ovarian tumours were studied for Snail1 protein using immunohistochemistry.
Nuclei of surface peritoneal cells of normal ovaries (n = 14) were regarded as negative for Snail1. Nuclear expression of Snail1 protein in epithelial ovarian tumours was increased during tumour progression from precursor lesions into carcinomas both in epithelial (p = 0.006) and stromal cells (p = 0.007). Nuclei of benign tumours (n = 21) were negative for Snail1. In borderline tumours (n = 24) occasional positive epithelial cells were found in 2 (8%) samples and in 3 (13%) samples stromal cells were focally positive for Snail1. In carcinomas (n = 74) focal Snail1 staining in epithelial cells was present in 17 (23%) tumours, and in stromal cells in 18 (24%) tumours. Nuclear expression of Snail1 in epithelial or stromal cells was not associated with clinicopathological factors or prognosis.
Nuclear Snail1 expression seems to be related to tumour progression, and expression in borderline tumours indicates a role for Snail1 in early epithelial ovarian tumour development. Snail1 also appears to function more generally in tissue remodelling as positive staining was demonstrated in stromal cells.
PMCID: PMC3087336  PMID: 19695091
4.  Expression of Hyaluronan Synthases (HAS1–3) and Hyaluronidases (HYAL1–2) in Serous Ovarian Carcinomas: Inverse Correlation between HYAL1 and Hyaluronan Content 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:143.
Hyaluronan, a tumor promoting extracellular matrix polysaccharide, is elevated in malignant epithelial ovarian tumors, and associates with an unfavorable prognosis. To explore possible contributors to the accumulation of hyaluronan, we examined the expression of hyaluronan synthases (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3) and hyaluronidases (HYAL1 and HYAL2), correlated with hyaluronidase enzyme activity hyaluronan content and HAS1–3 immunoreactivity.
Normal ovaries (n = 5) and 34 serous epithelial ovarian tumors, divided into 4 groups: malignant grades 1+2 (n = 10); malignant grade 3 (n = 10); borderline (n = 4) and benign epithelial tumors (n = 10), were analyzed for mRNA by real-time RT-PCR and compared to hyaluronidase activity, hyaluronan staining, and HAS1–3 immunoreactivity in tissue sections of the same specimens.
The levels of HAS2 and HAS3 mRNA (HAS1 was low or absent), were not consistently increased in the carcinomas, and were not significantly correlated with HAS protein or hyaluronan accumulation in individual samples. Instead, the median of HYAL1 mRNA level was 69% lower in grade 3 serous ovarian cancers compared to normal ovaries (P = 0.01). The expression of HYAL1, but not HYAL2, significantly correlated with the enzymatic activity of tissue hyaluronidases (r = 0.5; P = 0.006). An inverse correlation was noted between HYAL1 mRNA and the intensity of hyaluronan staining of the corresponding tissue sections (r = -0.4; P = 0.025).
The results indicate that in serous epithelial ovarian malignancies HAS expression is not consistently elevated but HYAL1 expression is significantly reduced and correlates with the accumulation of hyaluronan. (233 words)
PMCID: PMC2689240  PMID: 19435493

Results 1-4 (4)