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author:("barr, Teresa")
1.  B–helper neutrophils stimulate immunoglobulin diversification and production in the marginal zone of the spleen 
Nature Immunology  2011;13(2):170-180.
Neutrophils utilize immunoglobulins (Igs) to clear antigen, but their role in Ig production is unknown. Here we identified neutrophils around the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen, a B cell area specialized in T-independent Ig responses to circulating antigen. Neutrophils colonized peri-MZ areas after post-natal mucosal colonization by microbes and enhanced their B-helper function upon receiving reprogramming signals from splenic sinusoidal endothelial cells, including interleukin 10 (IL-10). Splenic neutrophils induced Ig class switching, somatic hypermutation and antibody production by activating MZ B cells through a mechanism involving the cytokines BAFF, APRIL and IL-21. Neutropenic patients had fewer and hypomutated MZ B cells and less preimmune Igs to T-independent antigens, which indicates that neutrophils generate an innate layer of antimicrobial Ig defense by interacting with MZ B cells.
doi:10.1038/ni.2194
PMCID: PMC3262910  PMID: 22197976
2.  Snail1 Protein in the Stroma as a New Putative Prognosis Marker for Colon Tumours 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(5):e5595.
Over-expression of Snail1 gene transcriptional repressor promotes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in epithelial tumour cell lines. Expression of Snail1 RNA has been associated to the pathogenesis of a number of malignancies; however, the lack of good monoclonal antibodies against this protein has precluded a definitive analysis of Snail1 protein. In this study, we aimed to determine the expression of this transcriptional factor in colorectal tumours. Using a Snail1 well-characterized monoclonal antibody developed in our laboratories we have analyzed by immunohistochemistry a cohort of 162 human colorectal tumours. Ninety tumours (56%) showed nuclear expression in the tumoral tissue and the adjacent stroma; in 34 (21%), Snail1 was detected just in the stroma, whereas in only 4 the expression of Snail1 was detected in the tumoral tissue and the stroma was negative. No correlation was found between the presence of Snail1 in the tumour and tumour stage; however, a trend (p = 0.054) was detected when the expression of this factor in the stroma was considered. Snail1 immunoreactivity in this compartment was associated with presence of distant metastasis (p = 0.006). Moreover, expression of Snail1 in the tumor stroma correlated with lower specific survival of cancer patients (p = 0.011). Interestingly, this correlation was also detected in stage I and II tumors. Therefore, our results indicate that the presence of nuclear Snail1 immunoreactive cells in the stroma may be an informative indicator of prognosis of colon tumours especially useful in those corresponding to lower stages and identify a new marker suitable to label activated stroma in colon tumours.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005595
PMCID: PMC2680015  PMID: 19440385
3.  Serotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates from Clinical and Environmental Sources in Spain 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1999;37(4):1170-1172.
We determined biovars and serotypes of 154 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from clinical and environmental sources from different areas of Spain. All clinical isolates belonged to C. neoformans var. neoformans. Serotypes showed an irregular distribution. C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B was isolated from necropsy specimens from goats with pulmonary disease.
PMCID: PMC88668  PMID: 10074545
4.  First Identification of Autochthonous Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii Isolated from Goats with Predominantly Severe Pulmonary Disease in Spain 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1998;36(2):458-461.
Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii is associated with Eucalyptus trees growing in various tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The identification of 13 autochthonous strains of C. neoformans var. gattii in Spain is reported. These strains were isolated from lung (10 samples), liver (1 sample), and brain (2 samples) tissue specimens from six goats suffering from predominantly severe pulmonary disease that were autopsied. The animals were members of five different herds of goats grazing in rural areas of the province of Cáceres (Extremadura, Spain). Between 1990 and 1994, there were five outbreaks, in which between 2.5 and 12% of the goats were affected. Although respiratory symptoms (pneumonia) associated with cachexia were the predominant clinical picture in all outbreaks, brain and liver involvement was also documented in three of the five outbreaks. Biotyping was performed by culturing the isolates on l-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium and testing them for the assimilation of d-proline and d-tryptophan. Serotyping by agglutination tests confirmed the characterization of all strains as C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B. This is the first confirmation of the presence of this variety in Spain, with a peculiar ability to produce severe pulmonary and systemic disease in normal goats, particularly in the form of outbreaks of pneumonia in association with cachexia.
PMCID: PMC104559  PMID: 9466758

Results 1-4 (4)