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1.  Obstructive laryngeal schwannoma in a young female 
Laryngeal schwannomas are rare, benign neurogenic tumors. They normally present as a slow-growing, encapsulated, submucosal mass in the supraglottic region. We describe a 20-year-old female presenting with a 2-year history of hoarseness and progressive worsening dyspnea. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy and computed tomography revealed a round, low-density submucosal mass at right false cord and arytenoepiglottic regions with glottic extension. Microlaryngoscopic biopsy and debulking for this solid tumor were performed without tracheostomy. Schwannoma was confirmed by histopathological study. However, rapidly worsening stridor occurred 2 weeks after the surgery. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy showed an exophytic tumor occupying the right hemilarynx with airway compromise. Definite complete excision of the tumor was performed by right vertical hemilaryngectomy. At 5-month follow-up, the laryngeal wound was clear without signs of recurrence. Rapid occurrence of airway obstruction after debulking and biopsy was demonstrated in this case. Vertical hemilaryngectomy was inevitable to cure this potentially life-threatening laryngeal schwannoma in this young female with postoperative serviceable voice.
doi:10.1186/s12957-014-0433-1
PMCID: PMC4332926
Schwannoma; Larynx; Laryngectomy; Benign neoplasm
2.  Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in a Human HEp-2 Established Laryngeal Xenografted Tumor Are Not Derived from Cancer Cells through Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Phenotypically Activated but Karyotypically Normal 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(2):e0117405.
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a crucial role in cancer progression and even initiation. However, the origins of CAFs in various cancer types remain controversial, and one of the important hypothesized origins is through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) from cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether the HEp-2 laryngeal cancer cells are able to generate CAFs via EMT during tumor formation, which is now still unknown. The laryngeal xenografted tumor model was established by inoculating the HEp-2 laryngeal cancer cell line in nude mice. Primary cultured CAFs from the tumor nodules and matched normal fibroblasts (NFs) from the adjacent connective tissues were subcultured, purified, and verified by immunofluorescence. Migration, invasion, and proliferation potentials were compared between the CAFs and NFs. A co-culture of CAFs with HEp-2 cells and a co-injection of CAFs with HEp-2 cells in nude mice were performed to examine the cancer-promoting potential of CAFs to further verify their identity. Karyotypic analyses of the CAFs, NFs, and HEp-2 cells were conducted. A co-culture of NFs with HEp-2 cells was also performed to examine the expression of activated markers of CAFs. A pathological examination confirmed that the laryngeal xenografted tumor model was successfully established, containing abundant CAFs. Immunocytochemical staining verified the purities and identities of the CAFs and NFs. Although the CAFs manifested higher migration, invasion, proliferation, and cancer-promoting capacities compared with the NFs, an analysis of chromosomes revealed that both the CAFs and NFs showed typical normal mouse karyotypes. In addition, the NFs co-cultured with HEp-2 cells did not show induced expressions of activated markers of CAFs. Our findings reveal that the CAFs in the HEp-2 established laryngeal xenografted tumor are not of laryngeal cancer origin but of mouse origin, indicating that the HEp-2 laryngeal cancer cells cannot generate their own CAFs via EMT in this model.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117405
PMCID: PMC4319834  PMID: 25658113
3.  The Linker between the Dimerization and Catalytic Domains of the CheA Histidine Kinase Propagates Changes in Structure and Dynamics That Are Important for Enzymatic Activity 
Biochemistry  2014;53(5):855-861.
The histidine kinase, CheA, couples environmental stimuli to changes in bacterial swimming behavior, converting a sensory signal to a chemical signal in the cytosol via autophosphorylation. The kinase activity is regulated in the platform of chemotaxis signaling complexes formed by CheW, chemoreceptors, and the regulatory domain of CheA. Our previous computational and mutational studies have revealed that two interdomain linkers play important roles in CheA’s enzymatic activity. Of the two linkers, one that connects the dimerization and ATP binding domains is essential for both basal autophosphorylation and activation of the kinase. However, the mechanistic role of this linker remains unclear, given that it is far from the autophosphorylation reaction center (the ATP binding site). Here we investigate how this interdomain linker is coupled to CheA’s enzymatic activity. Using modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, we find that by interacting with the catalytic domain, the interdomain linker initiates long-range structural and dynamic changes directed toward the catalytic center of the autophosphorylation reaction. Subsequent biochemical assays define the functional relevance of these NMR-based observations. These findings extend our understanding of the chemotaxis signal transduction pathway.
doi:10.1021/bi4012379
PMCID: PMC3985700  PMID: 24444349
4.  Distinct roles of Drosophila cacophony and Dmca1D Ca2+ channels in synaptic homeostasis: Genetic interactions with slowpoke Ca2+-activated BK channels in presynaptic excitability and postsynaptic response 
Developmental neurobiology  2013;74(1):10.1002/dneu.22120.
Ca2+ influx through voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and its feedback regulation by Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels is critical in Ca2+-dependent cellular processes, including synaptic transmission, growth and homeostasis. Here we report differential roles of cacophony (CaV2) and Dmca1D (CaV1) Ca2+ channels in synaptic transmission and in synaptic homeostatic regulations induced by slowpoke (slo) BK channel mutations. At Drosophila larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), a well-established homeostatic mechanism of transmitter release enhancement is triggered by experimentally suppressing postsynaptic receptor response. In contrast, a distinct homeostatic adjustment is induced by slo mutations. To compensate for the loss of BK channel control presynaptic Sh K+ current is upregulated to suppress transmitter release, coupled with a reduction in quantal size. We demonstrate contrasting effects of cac and Dmca1D channels in decreasing transmitter release and muscle excitability, respectively, consistent with their predominant pre- vs. post-synaptic localization. Antibody staining indicated reduced postsynaptic GluRII receptor subunit density and altered ratio of GluRII A and B subunits in slo NMJs, leading to quantal size reduction. Such slo-triggered modifications were suppressed in cac;;slo larvae, correlated with a quantal size reversion to normal in double mutants, indicating a role of cac Ca2+ channels in slo-triggered homeostatic processes. In Dmca1D;slo double mutants, the quantal size and quantal content were not drastically different from those of slo, although Dmca1D suppressed the slo-induced satellite bouton overgrowth. Taken together, cac and Dmca1D Ca2+ channels differentially contribute to functional and structural aspects of slo-induced synaptic modifications.
doi:10.1002/dneu.22120
PMCID: PMC3859705  PMID: 23959639
Synaptic transmission; cacophony (CaV2); Dmca1D (CaV1); slowpoke (BK); synaptic homeostasis; EJPs; mEJPs; spontaneous vesicle release; larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ)
5.  Toward More Transparent and Reproducible Omics Studies Through a Common Metadata Checklist and Data Publications 
Abstract
Biological processes are fundamentally driven by complex interactions between biomolecules. Integrated high-throughput omics studies enable multifaceted views of cells, organisms, or their communities. With the advent of new post-genomics technologies, omics studies are becoming increasingly prevalent; yet the full impact of these studies can only be realized through data harmonization, sharing, meta-analysis, and integrated research. These essential steps require consistent generation, capture, and distribution of metadata. To ensure transparency, facilitate data harmonization, and maximize reproducibility and usability of life sciences studies, we propose a simple common omics metadata checklist. The proposed checklist is built on the rich ontologies and standards already in use by the life sciences community. The checklist will serve as a common denominator to guide experimental design, capture important parameters, and be used as a standard format for stand-alone data publications. The omics metadata checklist and data publications will create efficient linkages between omics data and knowledge-based life sciences innovation and, importantly, allow for appropriate attribution to data generators and infrastructure science builders in the post-genomics era. We ask that the life sciences community test the proposed omics metadata checklist and data publications and provide feedback for their use and improvement.
doi:10.1089/omi.2013.0149
PMCID: PMC3903324  PMID: 24456465
6.  The Association between Hantavirus Infection and Selenium Deficiency in Mainland China 
Viruses  2015;7(1):333-351.
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by hantaviruses and transmitted by rodents is a significant public health problem in China, and occurs more frequently in selenium-deficient regions. To study the role of selenium concentration in HFRS incidence we used a multidisciplinary approach combining ecological analysis with preliminary experimental data. The incidence of HFRS in humans was about six times higher in severe selenium-deficient and double in moderate deficient areas compared to non-deficient areas. This association became statistically stronger after correction for other significant environment-related factors (low elevation, few grasslands, or an abundance of forests) and was independent of geographical scale by separate analyses for different climate regions. A case-control study of HFRS patients admitted to the hospital revealed increased activity and plasma levels of selenium binding proteins while selenium supplementation in vitro decreased viral replication in an endothelial cell model after infection with a low multiplicity of infection (MOI). Viral replication with a higher MOI was not affected by selenium supplementation. Our findings indicate that selenium deficiency may contribute to an increased prevalence of hantavirus infections in both humans and rodents. Future studies are needed to further examine the exact mechanism behind this observation before selenium supplementation in deficient areas could be implemented for HFRS prevention.
doi:10.3390/v7010333
PMCID: PMC4306842  PMID: 25609306
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; selenium; hantavirus; rodents; environmental factors; China
7.  The role of cAMP in synaptic homeostasis in response to environmental temperature challenges and hyperexcitability mutations 
Homeostasis is the ability of physiological systems to regain functional balance following environment or experimental insults and synaptic homeostasis has been demonstrated in various species following genetic or pharmacological disruptions. Among environmental challenges, homeostatic responses to temperature extremes are critical to animal survival under natural conditions. We previously reported that axon terminal arborization in Drosophila larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) is enhanced at elevated temperatures; however, the amplitude of excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs) remains unaltered despite the increase in synaptic bouton numbers. Here we determine the cellular basis of this homeostatic adjustment in larvae reared at high temperature (HT, 29°C). We found that synaptic current focally recorded from individual synaptic boutons was unaffected by rearing temperature (<15°C to >30°C). However, HT rearing decreased the quantal size (amplitude of spontaneous miniature EJPs, or mEJPs), which compensates for the increased number of synaptic releasing sites to retain a normal EJP size. The quantal size decrease is accounted for by a decrease in input resistance of the postsynaptic muscle fiber, indicating an increase in membrane area that matches the synaptic growth at HT. Interestingly, a mutation in rutabaga (rut) encoding adenylyl cyclase (AC) exhibited no obvious changes in quantal size or input resistance of postsynaptic muscle cells after HT rearing, suggesting an important role for rut AC in temperature-induced synaptic homeostasis in Drosophila. This extends our previous finding of rut-dependent synaptic homeostasis in hyperexcitable mutants, e.g., slowpoke (slo). In slo larvae, the lack of BK channel function is partially ameliorated by upregulation of presynaptic Shaker (Sh) IA current to limit excessive transmitter release in addition to postsynaptic glutamate receptor recomposition that reduces the quantal size.
doi:10.3389/fncel.2015.00010
PMCID: PMC4313691
rutabaga adenylyl cyclase; quantal size; input resistance; synaptic growth; quantal content
8.  Berberine Protects against Neuronal Damage via Suppression of Glia-Mediated Inflammation in Traumatic Brain Injury 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e115694.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers a series of neuroinflammatory processes that contribute to evolution of neuronal injury. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects and anti-inflammatory actions of berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, in both in vitro and in vivo TBI models. Mice subjected to controlled cortical impact injury were injected with berberine (10 mg·kg−1) or vehicle 10 min after injury. In addition to behavioral studies and histology analysis, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and brain water content were determined. Expression of PI3K/Akt and Erk signaling and inflammatory mediators were also analyzed. The protective effect of berberine was also investigated in cultured neurons either subjected to stretch injury or exposed to conditioned media with activated microglia. Berberine significantly attenuated functional deficits and brain damage associated with TBI up to day 28 post-injury. Berberine also reduced neuronal death, apoptosis, BBB permeability, and brain edema at day 1 post-injury. These changes coincided with a marked reduction in leukocyte infiltration, microglial activation, matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity, and expression of inflammatory mediators. Berberine had no effect on Akt or Erk 1/2 phosphorylation. In mixed glial cultures, berberine reduced TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling. Berberine also attenuated neuronal death induced by microglial conditioned media; however, it did not directly protect cultured neurons subjected to stretch injury. Moreover, administration of berberine at 3 h post-injury also reduced TBI-induced neuronal damage, apoptosis and inflammation in vivo. Berberine reduces TBI-induced brain damage by limiting the production of inflammatory mediators by glial cells, rather than by a direct neuroprotective effect.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115694
PMCID: PMC4278716  PMID: 25546475
9.  Characterization of a Novel Reassortant Influenza A Virus (H2N2) from a Domestic Duck in Eastern China 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:7588.
While H2N2 viruses have been sporadically isolated from wild and domestic birds, H2N2 viruses have not been detected among human populations since 1968. Should H2N2 viruses adapt to domestic poultry they may pose a risk of infection to people, as most anyone born after 1968 would likely be susceptible to their infection. We report the isolation of a novel influenza A virus (H2N2) cultured in 2013 from a healthy domestic duck at a live poultry market in Wuxi City, China. Sequence data revealed that the novel H2N2 virus was similar to Eurasian avian lineage avian influenza viruses, the virus had been circulating for ≥ two years among poultry, had an increase in α2,6 binding affinity, and was not highly pathogenic. Approximately 9% of 100 healthy chickens sampled from the same area had elevated antibodies against the H2 antigen. Fortunately, there was sparse serological evidence that the virus was infecting poultry workers or had adapted to infect other mammals. These findings suggest that a novel H2N2 virus has been circulating among domestic poultry in Wuxi City, China and has some has increased human receptor affinity. It seems wise to conduct better surveillance for novel influenza viruses at Chinese live bird markets.
doi:10.1038/srep07588
PMCID: PMC4274511  PMID: 25533850
10.  USP11 regulates p53 stability by deubiquitinating p53*  
The p53 tumor suppressor protein coordinates the cellular responses to a broad range of cellular stresses, leading to DNA repair, cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. The stability of p53 is essential for its tumor suppressor function, which is tightly controlled by ubiquitin-dependent degradation primarily through its negative regulator murine double minute 2 (Mdm2). To better understand the regulation of p53, we tested the interaction between p53 and USP11 using co-immunoprecipitation. The results show that USP11, an ubiquitin-specific protease, forms specific complexes with p53 and stabilizes p53 by deubiquitinating it. Moreover, down-regulation of USP11 dramatically attenuated p53 induction in response to DNA damage stress. These findings reveal that USP11 is a novel regulator of p53, which is required for p53 activation in response to DNA damage.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B1400180
PMCID: PMC4265557  PMID: 25471832
p53; USP11; Deubiquitination; Stability
11.  Post-Injury Treatment with 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone, a TrkB Receptor Agonist, Protects against Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury via PI3K/Akt Signaling 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e113397.
Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) signaling is critical for promoting neuronal survival following brain damage. The present study investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of TrkB activation by the TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Mice subjected to controlled cortical impact received intraperitoneal 7,8-DHF or vehicle injection 10 min post-injury and subsequently daily for 3 days. Behavioral studies, histology analysis and brain water content assessment were performed. Levels of TrkB signaling-related molecules and apoptosis-related proteins were analyzed. The protective effect of 7,8-DHF was also investigated in primary neurons subjected to stretch injury. Treatment with 20 mg/kg 7,8-DHF attenuated functional deficits and brain damage up to post-injury day 28. 7,8-DHF also reduced brain edema, neuronal death, and apoptosis at day 4. These changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in cleaved caspase-3 and increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. 7,8-DHF enhanced phosphorylation of TrkB, Akt (Ser473/Thr308), and Bad at day 4, but had no effect on Erk 1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, 7,8-DHF increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and promoted cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation. This beneficial effect was attenuated by inhibition of TrkB or PI3K/Akt. 7,8-DHF also promoted survival and reduced apoptosis in cortical neurons subjected to stretch injury. Remarkably, delayed administration of 7,8-DHF at 3 h post-injury reduced brain tissue damage. Our study demonstrates that activation of TrkB signaling by 7,8-DHF protects against TBI via the PI3K/Akt but not Erk pathway, and this protective effect may be amplified via the PI3K/Akt-CREB cascades.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113397
PMCID: PMC4240709  PMID: 25415296
12.  Drosophila-Cdh1 (Rap/Fzr) a regulatory subunit of APC/C is required for synaptic morphology, synaptic transmission and locomotion 
The assembly of functional synapses requires the orchestration of the synthesis and degradation of a multitude of proteins. Protein degradation and modification by the conserved ubiquitination pathway has emerged as a key cellular regulatory mechanism during nervous system development and function (Kawabe and Brose, 2011). The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase complex primarily characterized for its role in the regulation of mitosis (Peters, 2002). In recent years, a role for APC/C in nervous system development and function has been rapidly emerging (Stegmuller and Bonni, 2005; Li et al., 2008). In the mammalian central nervous system the activator subunit, APC/C-Cdh1, has been shown to be a regulator of axon growth and dendrite morphogenesis (Konishi et al. 2004). In the Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS), APC2, a ligase subunit of the APC/C complex has been shown to regulate synaptic bouton size and activity (Van Roessel et al., 2004). To investigate the role of APC/C-Cdh1 at the synapse we examined loss-of-function mutants of Rap/Fzr (Retina aberrant in pattern/Fizzy related), a Drosophila homolog of the mammalian Cdh1 during the development of the larval neuromuscular junction in Drosophila. Our cell biological, ultrastructural, electrophysiological, and behavioral data showed that rap/fzr loss-of-function mutations lead to changes in synaptic structure and function as well as locomotion defects. Data presented here show changes in size and morphology of synaptic boutons, and, muscle tissue organization. Electrophysiological experiments show that loss-of-function mutants exhibit increased frequency of spontaneous miniature synaptic potentials, indicating a higher rate of spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion events. In addition, larval locomotion and peristaltic movement were also impaired. These findings suggest a role for Drosophila APC/C-Cdh1 mediated ubiquitination in regulating synaptic morphology, function and integrity of muscle structure in the peripheral nervous system.
doi:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2013.07.002
PMCID: PMC3831508  PMID: 23933137
13.  Impact of Vehicular Networks on Emergency Medical Services in Urban Areas 
The speed with which emergency personnel can provide emergency treatment is crucial to reducing death and disability among acute and critically ill patients. Unfortunately, the rapid development of cities and increased numbers of vehicles are preventing emergency vehicles from easily reaching locations where they are needed. A significant number of researchers are experimenting with vehicular networks to address this issue, but in most studies the focus has been on communication technologies and protocols, with few efforts to assess how network applications actually support emergency medical care. Our motivation was to search the literature for suggested methods for assisting emergency vehicles, and to use simulations to evaluate them. Our results and evidence-based studies were cross-referenced to assess each method in terms of cumulative survival ratio (CSR) gains for acute and critically ill patients. Simulation results indicate that traffic light preemption resulted in significant CSR increases of between 32.4% and 90.2%. Route guidance was found to increase CSRs from 14.1% to 57.8%, while path clearing increased CSRs by 15.5% or less. It is our hope that this data will support the efforts of emergency medical technicians, traffic managers, and policy makers.
doi:10.3390/ijerph111111348
PMCID: PMC4245616  PMID: 25365059
emergency medical services; cumulative survival ratio; vehicular ad hoc networks
14.  Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of the Entire Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae for Vertebral Compression Fractures Related to Chronic Glucocorticosteriod Use: Case Report and Review of Literature 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(6):797-801.
Glucocorticosteroid-induced osteoporosis is the most frequent of all secondary types of osteoporosis, and can increase the risk of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). There are promising additions to current medical treatment for appropriately selected osteoporotic patients. Few studies have reported on the efficiency of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) or kyphoplasty for whole thoracic and lumbar glucocorticosteroid-induced osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. We report a case of a 67-year-old man with intractable pain caused by successional VCFs treated by PVP.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2014.15.6.797
PMCID: PMC4248636  PMID: 25469092
Percutaneous vertebroplasty; Entire thoracic and lumber vertebra; Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures; Steroids
15.  Versatile Immunomagnetic Nanocarrier Platform for Capturing Cancer Cells 
ACS nano  2013;7(10):10.1021/nn403281e.
Sensitive and quantitative assessment of changes in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can help in cancer prognosis and in the evaluation of therapeutics efficacy. However, extremely low occurrence of CTCs in the peripheral blood (approximately one CTC per billion blood cells) and potential changes in molecular biomarkers during the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) create technical hurdles to the enrichment and enumeration CTCs. Recently, efforts have been directed toward development of antibody-capture assays based on the expression of the common biomarker - the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) of epithelium-derived cancer cells. Despite some promising results, the assays relying on EpCAM capture have shown inconsistent sensitivity in clinical settings and often fail to detect CTCs in patients with metastatic cancer. We have addressed this problem by the development of an assay based on hybrid magnetic/plasmonic nanocarriers and a microfluidic channel. In this assay cancer cells are specifically targeted by antibody-conjugated magnetic nanocarriers and are separated from normal blood cells by a magnetic force in a microfluidic chamber. Subsequently, immunofluorescence staining is used to differentiate CTCs from normal blood cells. We demonstrated in cell models of colon, breast and skin cancers that this platform can be easily adapted to a variety of biomarkers, targeting both surface receptor molecules and intracellular biomarkers of epithelial-derived cancer cells. Experiments in whole blood showed capture efficiency greater than 90% when two cancer biomarkers are used for cell capture. Thus, the combination of immunotargeted magnetic nanocarriers with microfluidics provides an important platform that can improve the effectiveness of current CTC assays by overcoming the problem of heterogeneity of tumor cells in the circulation.
doi:10.1021/nn403281e
PMCID: PMC3846426  PMID: 24016305
gold shell/magnetic core nanoparticles; circulating tumor cells; immunomagnetic assay; microfluidic chip
16.  Molecular Epidemiology of Human Rhinovirus in Children with Acute Respiratory Diseases in Chongqing, China 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:6686.
Human rhinovirus-C (HRV-C) has been increasingly detected in patients with acute respiratory diseases (ARDs). Prolonged surveillance was performed on children with ARD to investigate the molecular epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HRV in Chongqing, China. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were collected from hospitalized children with ARD during 2009–2012. HRV-C was genotyped by sequencing the VP4/VP2 coding region. Among the 1,567 NPAs obtained, 223 (14.2%) were HRV positive, and 75.3% of these 223 NPAs were co-infected with other viruses. HRV-A (54.7%) and HRV-C (39.9%) accounted for the majority of HRV infections. Logistic regression models demonstrated significant associations between HRV-A, HRV-C, and asthma attacks, as well as between HRV-C and wheezing. A phylogenetic tree showed that HRV-C2 was the predominant type of HRV-C, followed by HRV-C43, HRV-C1, and HRV-C17. Three novel genotypes were proposed on the basis of a low identity with the known HRVs. Our results showed that HRV-A and HRV-C were the predominant types of HRV infection, and HRV-C showed a high genetic variation in Chongqing, China. HRV infection was associated with asthma attacks and wheezing; furthermore, HRV infections played a minor role in causing severe pneumonia. This knowledge provides information for the prevention and control of HRV associated with ARDs.
doi:10.1038/srep06686
PMCID: PMC4202208  PMID: 25328042
17.  The risk of cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis taking tumor necrosis factor antagonists: a nationwide cohort study 
Introduction
The association between cancer and use of biologic therapy among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients remains controversial. We aimed to compare the relative risk of cancer development between RA patients taking tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) antagonists and those taking nonbiologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (nbDMARDs).
Methods
We conducted a nationwide cohort study between 1997 and 2011 using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The risk of newly diagnosed cancer was compared between patients starting TNF-α antagonists (biologics cohort) and matched subjects taking nbDMARDs only (nbDMARDs cohort). Cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated after adjusting for competing mortality. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for cancer risk. Multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards model.
Results
We compared 4426 new users of TNF-α antagonists and 17704 users of nbDMARDs with similar baseline covariate characteristics. The incidence rates of cancer among biologics and nbDMARDs cohorts were 5.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.23 to 6.46) and 7.41 (95% CI 6.75 to 8.07) per 1000 person-years, respectively. On modified Cox proportional hazards analysis, the risk of cancer was significantly reduced in subjects in biologics cohort (adjusted HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.80, P < .001), after adjusting for age, gender, disease duration, major co-morbidities, and prior use of DMARDs and corticosteroids. However, there was an increased risk for hematologic cancers in biologics cohort, yet without statistical significance. The effect of biologics was consistent across all multivariate stratified analyses and the association between biologics use and cancer risk was independent of dosage of concomitant nbDMARDs.
Conclusion
These findings suggested that RA patients taking TNF-α antagonist are associated with a lower risk of cancer, but not for hematologic cancers, than RA patients taking nbDMARDs alone.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13075-014-0449-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13075-014-0449-5
PMCID: PMC4201718  PMID: 25267341
18.  miRNome traits analysis on endothelial lineage cells discloses biomarker potential circulating microRNAs which affect progenitor activities 
BMC Genomics  2014;15(1):802.
Background
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a fundamental role in not only blood vessel development but also post-natal vascular repair. Currently EPCs are defined as early and late EPCs based on their biological properties and their time of appearance during in vitro culture. Both EPC types assist angiogenesis and have been linked to ischemia-related disorders, including coronary artery disease (CAD).
Results
We found late EPCs are more mobile than early EPCs and matured endothelial cells (ECs). To pinpoint the mechanism, microRNA profiles of early EPCs late EPCs, and ECs were deciphered by small RNA sequencing. Obtained signatures made up of both novel and known microRNAs, in which anti-angiogenic microRNAs such as miR-221 and miR-222 are more abundant in matured ECs than in late EPCs. Overexpression of miR-221 and miR-222 resulted in the reduction of genes involved in hypoxia response, metabolism, TGF-beta signalling, and cell motion. Not only hamper late EPC activities in vitro, both microRNAs (especially miR-222) also hindered in vivo vasculogenesis in a zebrafish model. Reporter assays showed that miR-222, but not miR-221, targets the angiogenic factor ETS1. In contrast, PIK3R1 is the target of miR-221, but not miR-222 in late EPCs. Clinically, both miR-221-PIK3R1 and miR-222-ETS1 pairs are deregulated in late EPCs of CAD patients.
Conclusions
Our results illustrate EPCs and ECs exploit unique miRNA modalities to regulate angiogenic features, and explain why late EPC levels and activities are reduced in CAD patients. These data will further help to develop new plasma biomarkers and therapeutic approaches for ischemia-related diseases or tumor angiogenesis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-802) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-802
PMCID: PMC4176563  PMID: 25236949
Endothelial progenitor cell; smRNA-seq; Circulating microRNA; Coronary artery disease; MicroRNA-221/222
19.  Plasmonic Structure Enhanced Exciton Generation at the Interface between the Perovskite Absorber and Copper Nanoparticles 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:128414.
The refractive index and extinction coefficient of a triiodide perovskite absorber (TPA) were obtained by fitting the transmittance spectra of TPA/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/glass using the transfer matrix method. Cu nanoplasmonic structures were designed to enhance the exciton generation in the TPA and to simultaneously reduce the film thickness of the TPA. Excitons were effectively generated at the interface between TPA and Cu nanoparticles, as observed through the 3D finite-difference time-domain method. The exciton distribution is advantageous for the exciton dissociation and carrier transport.
doi:10.1155/2014/128414
PMCID: PMC4176912  PMID: 25295290
20.  The relationship between diastolic blood pressure and coronary artery calcification is dependent on single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 9p21.3 
BMC Medical Genetics  2014;15:89.
Background
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the 9p21.3 genomic region have been consistently associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, and quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Prior studies have established an association between blood pressure measures and CAC. To examine mechanisms by which the 9p21.3 genomic region may influence CHD risk, we investigated whether SNPs in 9p21.3 modified associations between blood pressure and CAC quantity.
Methods
As part of the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) Study, 974 participants underwent non-invasive computed tomography (CT) to measure CAC quantity. Linear mixed effects models were used to investigate whether seven SNPs in the 9p21.3 region modified the association between blood pressure levels and CAC quantity. Four SNPs of at least marginal significance in GENOA for a SNP-by-diastolic blood pressure (DBP) interaction were then tested for replication in the Framingham Heart Study’s Offspring Cohort (N = 1,140).
Results
We found replicated evidence that one SNP, rs2069416, in CDKN2B-AS1, significantly modified the association between DBP and CAC quantity (combined P = 0.0065; Bonferroni-corrected combined P = 0.0455).
Conclusions
Our results represent a novel finding that the relationship between DBP and CAC is dependent on genetic variation in the 9p21.3 region. Thus, variation in 9p21.3 may not only be an independent genetic risk factor for CHD, but also may modify the association between DBP levels and the extent of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.
doi:10.1186/s12881-014-0089-2
PMCID: PMC4168694  PMID: 25185447
Epidemiology; Genetics of cardiovascular disease; Atherosclerosis risk factors; Other arteriosclerosis
21.  Changes in endotracheal tube cuff pressure during laparoscopic surgery in head-up or head-down position 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14:75.
Background
The abdominal insufflation and surgical positioning in the laparoscopic surgery have been reported to result in an increase of airway pressure. However, associated effects on changes of endotracheal tube cuff pressure are not well established.
Methods
70 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal tumor resection (head-down position, n = 38) and laparoscopic cholecystecomy (head-up position, n = 32) were enrolled and were compared to 15 patients undergoing elective open abdominal surgery. Changes of cuff and airway pressures before and after abdominal insufflation in supine position and after head-down or head-up positioning were analysed and compared.
Results
There was no significant cuff and airway pressure changes during the first fifteen minutes in open abdominal surgery. After insufflation, the cuff pressure increased from 26 ± 3 to 32 ± 6 and 27 ± 3 to 33 ± 5 cmH2O in patients receiving laparoscopic cholecystecomy and laparoscopic colorectal tumor resection respectively (both p < 0.001). The head-down tilt further increased cuff pressure from 33 ± 5 to 35 ± 5 cmH2O (p < 0.001). There six patients undergoing colorectal tumor resection (18.8%) and eight patients undergoing cholecystecomy (21.1%) had a total increase of cuff pressure more than 10 cm H2O (18.8%). There was no significant correlation between increase of cuff pressure and either the patient's body mass index or the common range of intra-abdominal pressure (10-15 mmHg) used in laparoscopic surgery.
Conclusions
An increase of endotracheal tube cuff pressure may occur during laparoscopic surgery especially in the head-down position.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-75
PMCID: PMC4160323  PMID: 25210501
Endotracheal tube cuff pressure; Laparoscopic surgery; Head-down position; Head-up position
22.  Lower serum folate is associated with development and invasiveness of gastric cancer 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(32):11313-11320.
AIM: To evaluate the associations of serum folate level with development, invasiveness and patient survival of gastric cancer.
METHODS: In this nested case-control study, patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer undergoing gastrectomy were enrolled, and patients receiving chemotherapy prior to surgery, with other concurrent malignancy, or of the aboriginal and alien populations were excluded. In total, 155 gastric cancer patients and 149 healthy controls were enrolled for determination of serum folate levels and their correlation with gastric cancer. Using the median value of serum folate computed among the overall population as the cutoff value, the associations between serum folate and gastric cancer in all cases and different age and gender subgroups were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the patient cohort of gastric cancer, receiver-operating characteristic analyses were performed to calculate the best cutoff values of serum folate, and the associations between serum folate levels and clinicopathological features were further analyzed by multivariate regression analysis. Survival analyses were conducted using the Cox proportional hazards model.
RESULTS: The mean serum folate level was significantly lower in gastric cancer patients than that in controls (3.71 ± 0.30 ng/mL vs 8.00 ± 0.54 ng/mL, P < 0.01), and folate levels were consistently lower in gastric cancer patients regardless of age and gender (all P < 0.01). Using the median serum folate value as the cutoff value, low serum folate was significantly associated with gastric cancer risk in the whole population (OR = 19.77, 95%CI: 10.54-37.06, P < 0.001) and all strata (age < 60 years OR = 17.39, 95%CI: 7.28-41.54, age ≥ 60 years (OR = 21.67, 95%CI: 8.27-56.80), males (OR = 17.95, 95%CI: 7.93-40.62), and females (OR = 20.95, 95%CI: 7.66-57.31); all P < 0.001. In the patient cohort of gastric cancer, the respective cutoff values showed that low serum folate levels were significantly associated with serosal invasion (OR = 2.54, 95%CI: 1.23-5.23), lymphatic invasion (OR = 2.23, 95%CI: 1.17-4.26), and liver metastasis (OR = 6.67, 95%CI: 1.28-34.91) of gastric cancer (all P < 0.05). Serum folate level below 1.90 ng/mL was associated with poor patient survival (HR = 1.84, 95%CI: 1.04-3.27, P < 0.05) in univariate analysis.
CONCLUSION: Lower serum folate levels were significantly associated with gastric cancer development and invasive phenotypes. The role of folate depletion in gastric cancer invasion warrants further study.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i32.11313
PMCID: PMC4145770  PMID: 25170216
Folic acid; Folate; Plasma; Metastasis; Invasion
23.  Consensus on Control of Risky Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Taiwan with National Health Insurance 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:563707.
Background and Aims. To compose upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) consensus from a nationwide scale to improve the control of UGIB, especially for the high-risk comorbidity group. Methods. The steering committee defined the consensus scope to cover preendoscopy, endoscopy, postendoscopy, and overview from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) assessments for UGIB. The expert group comprised thirty-two Taiwan experts of UGIB to conduct the consensus conference by a modified Delphi process through two separate iterations to modify the draft statements and to vote anonymously to reach consensus with an agreement ≥80% for each statement and to set the recommendation grade. Results. The consensus included 17 statements to highlight that patients with comorbidities, including liver cirrhosis, end-stage renal disease, probable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes, are at high risk of peptic ulcer bleeding and rebleeding. Special considerations are recommended for such risky patients, including raising hematocrit to 30% in uremia or acute myocardial infarction, aggressive acid secretory control in high Rockall scores, monitoring delayed rebleeding in uremia or cirrhosis, considering cycloxygenase-2 inhibitors plus PPI for pain control, and early resumption of antiplatelets plus PPI in coronary artery disease or stroke. Conclusions. The consensus comprises recommendations to improve care of UGIB, especially for high-risk comorbidities.
doi:10.1155/2014/563707
PMCID: PMC4147192  PMID: 25197649
24.  Development of an Acellular Tumor Extracellular Matrix as a Three-Dimensional Scaffold for Tumor Engineering 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e103672.
Tumor engineering is defined as the construction of three-dimensional (3D) tumors in vitro with tissue engineering approaches. The present 3D scaffolds for tumor engineering have several limitations in terms of structure and function. To get an ideal 3D scaffold for tumor culture, A549 human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells were implanted into immunodeficient mice to establish xenotransplatation models. Tumors were retrieved at 30-day implantation and sliced into sheets. They were subsequently decellularized by four procedures. Two decellularization methods, Tris-Trypsin-Triton multi-step treatment and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatment, achieved complete cellular removal and thus were chosen for evaluation of histological and biochemical properties. Native tumor tissues were used as controls. Human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were cultured onto the two 3D scaffolds for further cell growth and growth factor secretion investigations, with the two-dimensional (2D) culture and cells cultured onto the Matrigel scaffolds used as controls. Results showed that Tris-Trypsin-Triton multi-step treated tumor sheets had well-preserved extracellular matrix structures and components. Their porosity was increased but elastic modulus was decreased compared with the native tumor samples. They supported MCF-7 cell repopulation and proliferation, as well as expression of growth factors. When cultured within the Tris-Trypsin-Triton treated scaffold, A549 cells and human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (SW-480) had similar behaviors to MCF-7 cells, but human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells (KYSE-510) had a relatively slow cell repopulation rate. This study provides evidence that Tris-Trypsin-Triton treated acellular tumor extracellular matrices are promising 3D scaffolds with ideal spatial arrangement, biomechanical properties and biocompatibility for improved modeling of 3D tumor microenvironments.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103672
PMCID: PMC4114977  PMID: 25072252
25.  Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in children: a case report 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:366.
Background
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus (SFTSV) in China. Humans of all ages living in endemic areas have high risk of acquiring SFTS. Most clinical data so far have been from adults and no clinical study was available from children yet. The present study identified four SFTSV infected children through hospital based surveillance. A prospective observational study was performed to obtain their clinical and laboratory characteristics.
Case presentation
The patients’ age ranged from 4–15 years old and two were male. On hospitalization, fever, malaise and gastrointestinal syndromes were the most commonly presenting symptoms. Hemorrhagic symptoms or neurological manifestation was not recorded in any of the four pediatric patients. Hematological abnormalities at admission into hospital included leucopenia (4 cases), thrombocytopenia (1 case) and bicytopenia (1 case). The abnormal parameters included elevated aminotransferase (1 case), alanine transaminase (2 case), and lactate dehydrogenase (3 case). Laboratory parameters indicative of renal damage was not observed during the hospitalization. All the patients recovered well without sequelae being observed.
Conclusion
Compared with adults, pediatric patients with SFTSV infection seem to have less vague subjective complaints and less aggressive clinical course. Thrombocytopenia is suggested to be used less rigorously in recognizing SFTSV infection in pediatric patients, especially at early phase of disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-366
PMCID: PMC4094669  PMID: 24993119
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome; Bunyavirus; Children

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