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author:("Virk, jasper")
1.  In-Utero Exposure to Bereavement and Offspring IQ: A Danish National Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e88477.
Background
Intelligence is a life-long trait that has strong influences on lifestyle, adult morbidity and life expectancy. Hence, lower cognitive abilities are therefore of public health interest. Our primary aim was to examine if prenatal bereavement measured as exposure to death of a close family member is associated with the intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 18-years of age of adult Danish males completing a military cognitive screening examination.
Methods
We extracted records for the Danish military screening test and found kinship links with biological parents, siblings, and maternal grandparents using the Danish Civil Registration System (N = 167,900). The prenatal exposure period was defined as 12 months before conception until birth of the child. We categorized children as exposed in utero to severe stress (bereavement) during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband, parent or sibling during the prenatal period; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. Mean score estimates were adjusted for maternal and paternal age at birth, residence, income, maternal education, gestational age at birth and birth weight.
Results
When exposure was due to death of a father the offsprings' mean IQ scores were lower among men completing the military recruitment exam compared to their unexposed counterparts, adjusted difference of 6.5 standard IQ points (p-value = 0.01). We did not observe a clinically significant association between exposure to prenatal maternal bereavement caused by death of a sibling, maternal uncle/aunt or maternal grandparent even after stratifying deaths only due to traumatic events.
Conclusion
We found maternal bereavement to be adversely associated with IQ in male offspring, which could be related to prenatal stress exposure though more likely is due to changes in family conditions after death of the father. This finding supports other literature on maternal adversity during fetal life and cognitive development in the offspring.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088477
PMCID: PMC3928249  PMID: 24558394
2.  Correction: Prenatal Exposure to Bereavement and Type-2 Diabetes: A Danish Longitudinal Population Based Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):10.1371/annotation/dbd21894-4722-499c-afaf-b03015fae7d8.
doi:10.1371/annotation/dbd21894-4722-499c-afaf-b03015fae7d8
PMCID: PMC3744642  PMID: 23976927
3.  Prenatal Exposure to Bereavement and Type-2 Diabetes: A Danish Longitudinal Population Based Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e43508.
Background
The etiology of type-2 diabetes is only partly known, and a possible role of prenatal stress in programming offspring for insulin resistance has been suggested by animal models. Previously, we found an association between prenatal stress and type-1 diabetes. Here we examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and pregnancy and development of type-2 diabetes in the off-spring.
Methods
We utilized data from the Danish Civil Registration System to identify singleton births in Denmark born January 1st 1979 through December 31st 2008 (N = 1,878,246), and linked them to their parents, grandparents, and siblings. We categorized children as exposed to bereavement during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband or parent during the period from one year before conception to the child’s birth. We identified 45,302 children exposed to maternal bereavement; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. The outcome of interest was diagnosis of type-2 diabetes. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) from birth using log-linear poisson regression models and used person-years as the offset variable. All models were adjusted for maternal residence, income, education, marital status, sibling order, calendar year, sex, and parents’ history of diabetes at the time of pregnancy.
Results
We found children exposed to bereavement during their prenatal life were more likely to have a type-2 diabetes diagnosis later in life (aIRR: 1.31, 1.01–1.69). These findings were most pronounced when bereavement was caused by death of an elder child (aIRR: 1.51, 0.94–2.44). Results also indicated the second trimester of pregnancy to be the most sensitive period of bereavement exposure (aIRR:2.08, 1.15–3.76).
Conclusions
Our data suggests that fetal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and the prenatal period may increase the risk for developing type-2 diabetes in childhood and young adulthood.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043508
PMCID: PMC3429491  PMID: 22952698
4.  Socio-demographic characteristics of women sustaining injuries during pregnancy: a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort 
BMJ Open  2012;2(4):e000826.
Objectives
To describe adverse birth outcomes associated with hospital-treated injuries that took place among women in the Danish National Birth Cohort.
Design
Longitudinal cohort study.
Setting
Denmark.
Participants
90 452 women and their offspring selected from the Danish National Birth Cohort.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
To determine if injured women were more likely to deliver an infant preterm, with low birth weight, stillborn or have a spontaneous abortion, the authors estimated HRs. ORs were generated to assess APGAR scores and infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Models were adjusted for maternal smoking and drinking during pregnancy, household socioeconomic status, eclampsia/pre-eclampsia or gestational diabetes status during pregnancy and maternal age at birth; estimates for preterm birth were also adjusted for prior history of preterm birth.
Results
In the cohort of 90 452 pregnant women, 3561 (3.9%) received medical treatment for an injury during pregnancy. Injured pregnant women were more likely to deliver infants that were stillborn or have pregnancies terminated by spontaneous abortion. The authors did not detect an adverse effect between injuries sustained during pregnancy and delivery of preterm, low birth weight or SGA infants, or infants with an APGAR score of <7.
Conclusions
The study shows that injuries occurring among women from an unselected population may not have an adverse effect on birth weight, gestational age, APGAR score or SGA status but may adversely affect the risk of stillbirth and spontaneous abortions in some situations.
Article summary
Article focus
We describe adverse birth outcomes associated with injuries that took place among pregnant women in the Danish National Birth Cohort and include in our assessment injury severity, cause and mechanism.
Key messages
Injured pregnant women were more likely to deliver infants that were stillborn or have pregnancies that were terminated by spontaneous abortion. We did not detect an adverse effect between injuries sustained during pregnancy and delivery of preterm, low birth weight or SGA infants, or infants with an APGAR score of <7.
Women sustaining head or neck injuries were more likely to deliver an infant SGA and have a stillbirth, though these results were not statistically significant.
Strengths and limitations of this study
Previous studies have selected pregnant trauma patients or emergency room patients; our study, however, presents injuries among pregnant women from a general population.
We only have data on late spontaneous abortions, and if injured fetuses are aborted early, we would not detect an association.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-000826
PMCID: PMC3391365  PMID: 22761281
5.  Early Life Disease Programming during the Preconception and Prenatal Period: Making the Link between Stressful Life Events and Type-1 Diabetes 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(7):e11523.
Background
To assess the risk of developing Type-1 diabetes among children who were exposed to maternal bereavement during the prenatal or 1-year preconception period.
Methods
We identified N = 1,548,746 singleton births born in Denmark between January 1st 1979 through December 31st 2004, and their next of kin. Altogether, 39,857 children were exposed to bereavement during their prenatal life. The main outcome of interest was hospitalization for type-1 diabetes (ICD 8: 249; ICD 10: E10).
Results
We found the strongest association for type-1 diabetes among children exposed to traumatic father or sibling deaths (aIRR: 2.03, 1.22–3.38); the association was mainly seen for girls (aIRR: 2.91, 1.61–5.26).
Conclusions
We found evidence to suggest that female fetuses exposed to severe prenatal stress are at increased risk for developing type-1 diabetes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011523
PMCID: PMC2901388  PMID: 20634978

Results 1-5 (5)