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1.  Hospitalisation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk of suicide: a population-based case–control study 
BMJ Open  2014;4(11):e006363.
To examine risk of suicide among individuals with hospitalised chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to profile differences according to sex, age, psychiatric history, and recency and frequency of COPD hospitalisations.
Nested case–control study.
Data were retrieved from Danish national registries.
All suicide cases aged 40–95 years deceased between 1981 and 2006 in Denmark (n=19 869) and up to 20 live population controls per case matched on sex and date of birth (n=321 867 controls).
Main outcome measures
The relative risk of suicide associated with COPD was computed using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for effects of psychiatric history and important sociodemographic factors.
In our study population, 3% of suicide cases had been hospitalised for COPD compared with 1% of matched population controls. Thus, a hospitalised COPD was associated with a significantly increased risk for suicide (OR 2.6; 95% CI 2.3 to 2.8). The increased risk remained significant after adjustment for psychiatric history and sociodemographic variables (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.8 to 2.2), and increased progressively with frequency and recency of COPD hospitalisation. At the same time, suicide risk associated with COPD differed significantly by sex, age and psychiatric status. The relative risk was more pronounced in women, in individuals older than 60 years and in persons with no history of psychiatric illness.
COPD confers an important risk factor for suicide completion. Risk assessment and prevention efforts should take patients’ sex, age and psychiatric history into consideration.
PMCID: PMC4244413  PMID: 25421339
2.  Childhood Adversity, Recent Life Stressors and Suicidal Behavior in Chinese College Students 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e86672.
Although the independent effects of childhood adversities and of recent negative events on suicidality have been well-documented, the combinative role of childhood and recent adversities on risk for suicidality is still underexplored, especially in the context of Chinese culture and in consideration of specific types of negative events.
5989 students, randomly sampled from six universities in central China, completed the online survey for this study. Suicidal behavior, life adversity during childhood and stressful events in recent school life were assessed with designed questionnaires.
Students experiencing recent stressful life events more often reported an experience of life adversity during childhood. While recent stressful life events and childhood life adversity both were associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior, the two exposures presented conjunctively and acted interactively to increase the risk. There was noticeable variation of effects associated with specific childhood life adversities, and sexual abuse, poor parental relationship, divorce of parents and loss of a parent were among the adversities associated with the highest increased risk. Recent conflicts with classmates, poor school performance and rupture of romantic relationships were the recent school life stressors associated with the highest increased risk.
Childhood adversity and recent school life stressors had a combinative role in predicting suicidality of young people studying in Chinese colleges. Unhappy family life during childhood and recent interpersonal conflicts in school were the most important predictors of suicidality in this population.
PMCID: PMC3969373  PMID: 24681891
3.  Effects of life satisfaction and psychache on risk for suicidal behaviour: a cross-sectional study based on data from Chinese undergraduates 
BMJ Open  2014;4(3):e004096.
To examine predictive power of psychache and life satisfaction on risks for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among young people.
A cross-sectional study.
Data were collected from an online survey in Wuhan, China.
5988 university students from six universities were selected by a stratified cluster sampling method.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Suicidal ideation and suicide attempt at some point of the students’ lifetime were the outcomes of interest.
Students with suicidal ideation or attempted suicide reported a lower level of life satisfaction and high degree of psychache than counterparts without suicidal ideation or attempt. Regression analyses indicated that life satisfaction and psychache were significantly associated with the risk of suicidal ideation and the risk of suicidal attempt. Though psychache showed a relatively stronger predictive power than life satisfaction, the effect of the two factors remained significant when they were individually adjusted for personal demographic characteristics. However, when the two factors were included in the model simultaneously to adjust for each other, psychache could fully explain the association between life satisfaction and suicidal attempt. Life satisfaction remained to contribute unique variance in the statistical prediction of suicidal ideation.
Psychache and life satisfaction both have a significant predictive power on risk for suicidal behaviour, and life satisfaction could relieve the predictive power of psychache when suicidal behaviour is just starting. Shneidman's theory that psychache is the pre-eminent psychological cause of suicide is perhaps applicable only to a more serious form of suicidal behaviour.
PMCID: PMC3963073  PMID: 24657883
4.  RNA interference-mediated targeting of DKK1 gene expression in Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma cells causes increased tumor cell invasion and migration 
Oncology Letters  2013;6(3):756-762.
The Wnt signaling pathway plays an essential role in tumor invasion and migration. DKK1 functions as an important inhibitor of the pathway and represents a promising target for cancer therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of DKK1 in endometrial carcinoma (EC) cell invasion and migration using RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Ishikawa EC cells were transfected at high efficiency with specific DKK1 siRNA. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to determine the mRNA and protein levels of DKK1, β-catenin and metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) in siRNA-treated and -untreated cells. In addition, the invasion and migration of the EC cells were detected by invasion and migration assays. Transient transfection of DKK1 siRNA significantly inhibited the mRNA and protein levels of DKK1. Markedly increased cell invasion and migration was observed following treatment with DKK1 siRNA when compared with the negative control siRNA-treated and siRNA-untreated cells. The knockdown of DKK1 also elevated the mRNA and protein levels of β-catenin and MMP14 involved in the Wnt signaling pathway, indicating that targeting this gene may promote intracellular Wnt signal transduction and thus, accelerate EC cell invasion and migration in vitro. The RNAi-mediated targeting of DKK1 gene expression in Ishikawa EC cells resulted in increased tumor cell invasion and migration. DKK1 was identified as an inhibitor of EC cell invasion and migration via its novel role in the Wnt signaling pathway. Targeting DKK1 may therefore represent an effective anti-invasion and -migration strategy for the treatment of EC.
PMCID: PMC3789071  PMID: 24137406
β-catenin; DKK1; endometrial carcinoma; invasion; migration; MMP14; RNAi
5.  Suicide risk in relation to air pollen counts: a study based on data from Danish registers 
BMJ Open  2013;3(5):e002462.
Since the well-observed spring peak of suicide incidents coincides with the peak of seasonal aeroallergens as tree-pollen, we want to document an association between suicide and pollen exposure with empirical data from Denmark.
Ecological time series study.
Data on suicide incidents, air pollen counts and meteorological status were retrieved from Danish registries.
13 700 suicide incidents over 1304 consecutive weeks were obtained from two large areas covering 2.86 million residents.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Risk of suicide associated with pollen concentration was assessed using a time series Poisson-generalised additive model.
We noted a significant association between suicide risk and air pollen counts. A change of pollen counts levels from 0 to ‘10–<30’ grains/m3 air was associated with a relative risk of 1.064, that is, a 6.4% increase in weekly number of suicides in the population, and from 0 to ‘30–100’ grains, a relative risk of 1.132. The observed association remained significant after controlling for effects of region, calendar time, temperature, cloud cover and humidity. Meanwhile, we observed a significant sex difference that suicide risk in men started to rise when there was a small increase of air pollen, while the risk in women started to rise until pollen grains reached a certain level. High levels of pollen had slightly stronger effect on risk of suicide in individuals with mood disorder than those without the disorder.
The observed association between suicide risk and air pollen counts supports the hypothesis that aeroallergens, acting as immune triggers, may precipitate suicide.
PMCID: PMC3669712  PMID: 23793651
Epidemiology; Immunology; Public Health; Tropical Medicine
6.  Screening of differentially expressed genes in the growth plate of broiler chickens with Tibial Dyschondroplasia by microarray analysis 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:276.
Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a common skeletal disorder in broiler chickens. It is characterized by the presence of a non-vascularized and unmineralized cartilage in the growth plate. Previous studies have investigated differential expression of genes related to cartilage development during latter stages of TD. The aim of our study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the growth plate of broiler chickens, which were associated with early stage TD. We induced TD using tetramethylthiuram disulfide (thiram) for 1, 2, and 6 days and determined DEGs with chicken Affymetrix GeneChip assays. The identified DEGs were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays.
We identified 1630 DEGs, with 82, 1385, and 429 exhibiting at least 2.0-fold changes (P < 0.05) at days 1, 2, and 6, respectively. These DEGs participate in a variety of biological processes, including cytokine production, oxidation reduction, and cell surface receptor linked signal transduction on day 1; lipid biosynthesis, regulation of growth, cell cycle, positive and negative gene regulation, transcription and transcription regulation, and anti-apoptosis on day 2; and regulation of cell proliferation, transcription, dephosphorylation, catabolism, proteolysis, and immune responses on day 6. The identified DEGs were associated with the following pathways: neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction on day 1; synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, ether lipid metabolism, JAK-STAT, GnRH signaling pathway, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, TGF-β signaling, focal adhesion, and Wnt signaling on day 2; and arachidonic acid metabolism, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, JAK-STAT, insulin signaling, and glycolysis on day 6. We validated seven DEGs by qPCR.
Our findings demonstrate previously unrecognized changes in gene transcription associated with early stage TD. The DEGs we identified by microarray analysis will be used in future studies to clarify the molecular pathogenic mechanisms of TD. From these findings, potential pathways involved in early stage TD warrant further investigation.
PMCID: PMC3648502  PMID: 23617778
7.  Allergy is associated with suicide completion with a possible mediating role of mood disorder – a population-based study 
Allergy  2010;66(5):658-664.
With increasing research suggesting a role of allergy on suicidality, this study, on a population level, delved into how allergy affects risk for suicide completion in the context of mood disorder and other factors.
Based on the entire population of Denmark, we included 27,096 completed suicides and 467,571 live controls matched on sex and age with a nested case-control design. We retrieved personal information on hospital contacts for allergy and other variables from various Danish longitudinal registries, and analyzed the data with conditional logistic regression.
We noted that 1.17% suicide victims, compared with 0.79% matched controls, had a history of hospital contact for allergy, and that a history of allergy predicted an increased risk for suicide completion; however, the effect was confined to allergy that led to inpatient treatment (IRR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.41–1.80). The increased risk was attenuated somewhat but remained significant when adjusted for personal psychiatric history and socioeconomic status. Meanwhile, we observed a non-significantly stronger effect in women than in men, and a significant age-difference with a stronger effect for individuals at high ages. Moreover, we detected a significant interaction between allergy and mood disorder – even an antagonism effect of the two exposures. Allergy increased suicide risk only in persons with no history of mood disorder whereas it eliminated suicide risk in those with a history of mood disorder.
The findings support a link between allergy and suicidality, with a possible mediating role of mood disorder.
PMCID: PMC3482428  PMID: 21143241
allergy; mood disorder; population study; suicide risk
8.  Diversification of Schistosoma japonicum in Mainland China Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA 
Schistosoma japonicum still causes severe parasitic disease in mainland China, but mainly in areas along the Yangtze River. However, the genetic diversity in populations of S. japonicum has not been well understood across its geographical distribution, and such data may provide insights into the epidemiology and possible control strategies for schistosomiasis.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In this study infected Oncomelania snails were collected from areas in the middle and lower (ML) reaches of the Yangtze River, including Hubei, Hunan, Anhui, Jiangxi and Jiangsu provinces, and in the upper reaches of the river, including Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in southwest (SW) China. The adult parasites obtained from experimentally infected mice using isolated cercariae were sequenced individually for several fragments of mitochondrial regions, including Cytb-ND4L-ND4, 16S-12S and ND1. Populations in the ML reaches exhibited a relatively high level of diversity in nucleotides and haplotypes, whereas a low level was observed for populations in the SW, using either each single fragment or the combined sequence of the three fragments. Pairwise analyses of F-statistics (Fst) revealed a significant genetic difference between populations in the ML reaches and those in the SW, with limited gene flow and no shared haplotypes in between. It is rather obvious that genetic diversity in the populations of S. japonicum was significantly correlated with the geographical distance, and the geographical separation/isolation was considered to be the major factor accounting for the observed difference between populations in the ML reaches and those in the SW in China.
S. japonicum in mainland China exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity, with a similar pattern of genetic diversity as observed in the intermediate host snails in the same region in China.
Author Summary
Despite the existing threat of schistosomiasis in some rural areas along the Yangtze River, the genetic diversity of Schistosoma japonicum has not been investigated across its wide geographical distribution in China, and such information may provide insight into the disease epidemiology and the development of its control measures. In this study, the adult parasites, obtained through infecting mice with cercariae from snails of the genus Oncomelania collected from a wide range of localities in currently endemic areas of schistosomiasis in the middle and lower (ML) reaches of the Yangtze River, and in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in the upper reaches of the river in southwest (SW) China, were sequenced individually for mitochondrial genes. In general, a relatively high degree of genetic variation was observed in populations in the ML reaches in terms of nucleotide and haplotype diversity, but a low level was observed in populations in the SW. The significant difference in genetic diversity as revealed by F-statistics, and the existence of no shared haplotypes, were observed between populations in the ML reaches and those in the SW, indicating the effect of geographical separation/isolation upon the schistosomes and probably the parasite-snail system in China.
PMCID: PMC3279335  PMID: 22348161
9.  Efficacy of praziquantel and artemisinin derivatives for the treatment and prevention of human schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis 
Parasites & Vectors  2011;4:201.
Praziquantel has been used as first-line drug for chemotherapy of schistosomiasis since 1984. Besides praziquantel, artemether and artesunate have also been used for the control of this infectious disease since late 1990s. In this article, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the antischistosomal efficacy of different medication strategies including monotherapy or combination therapies of these drugs.
A number of 52 trials from 38 articles published in peer-reviewed journals before July 2011 were selected for analysis after searching the following literature databases: the Cochrane Library, PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Science, Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Our meta-analyses showed that a dosage of 30-60 mg/kg praziquantel compared with placebo produced a protection rate of about 76% (95% CI: 67%-83%) for treating human schistosomiasis, which varied from 70% to 76% with no significant differences among the subspecies S. haematobium, S. japonicum or S. mansoni. Protection rates were higher when praziquantel doses were elevated, as concluded from the nRCTs results: the protection rate of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg was 52% (95% CI: 49%-55%), and it increased to 91% (95% CI: 88%-92%) when the dosages were elevated to 60/80/100 mg/kg divided two or more doses. Multiple doses of artemether or artesunate over 1- or 2-week intervals resulted in protection rates of 65% to 97% for preventing schistosomiasis, and increased doses and shorter medication intervals improved their efficacies. Praziquantel and artemisinin derivatives (artemether or artesunate) in combination resulted in a higher protection rate of 84% (95% CI: 64%-91%) than praziquantel monotherapy for treatment. praziquantel and artesunate in combination had a great protection rate of 96% (95% CI: 78%-99%) for preventing schistosomes infection.
According to the results, praziquantel remains effective in schistosomiasis treatment, and multiple doses would improve its efficacy; meanwhile, praziquantel is also a good drug for preventing acute schistosomiasis morbidity. It's better to use multiple doses of artemether or artesunate with 1- or 2-week intervals for prevention against schistosome infection. Praziquantel and artemether or artesunate in combination perform better in treatment than praziquantel monotherapy, and they are especially suitable for treating the patients with repeated exposure to infected water.
PMCID: PMC3207908  PMID: 22004571
human schistosomiasis; praziquantel; artemether; artesunate; efficacy; meta-analysis
11.  The association between adjustment disorder diagnosed at psychiatric treatment facilities and completed suicide 
Clinical Epidemiology  2010;2:23-28.
Adjustment disorder is a diagnosis given following a significant psychosocial stressor from which an individual has difficulty recovering. The individual’s reaction to this event must exceed what would be observed among similar people experiencing the same stressor. Adjustment disorder is associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. However the association between adjustment disorder and completed suicide has yet to be examined. The current study is a population-based case control study examining this association in the population of Denmark aged 15 to 90 years. All suicides in Denmark from 1994 to 2006 were included, resulting in 9,612 cases. For each case, up to 30 controls were matched on gender, exact date of birth, and calendar time, yielding 199,306 controls. Adjustment disorder diagnosis was found in 7.6% of suicide cases and 0.52% of controls. Conditional logistic regression analyses revealed that those diagnosed with adjustment disorder had 12 times the rate of suicide as those without an adjustment disorder diagnosis, after controlling for history of depression diagnosis, marital status, income, and the matched factors.
PMCID: PMC2943177  PMID: 20865099
adjustment disorder; suicide; case-control study
12.  Distinct Genetic Diversity of Oncomelania hupensis, Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in Mainland China as Revealed by ITS Sequences 
Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis endemic in the Far East, and especially in mainland China. O. hupensis largely determines the parasite's geographical range. How O. hupensis's genetic diversity is distributed geographically in mainland China has never been well examined with DNA sequence data.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In this study we investigate the genetic variation among O. hupensis from different geographical origins using the combined complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. 165 O. hupensis isolates were obtained in 29 localities from 7 provinces across mainland China: lake/marshland and hill regions in Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Jiangsu provinces, located along the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, and mountainous regions in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses showed distinct genetic diversity and no shared haplotypes between populations from lake/marshland regions of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and populations from mountainous regions of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. The genetic distance between these two groups is up to 0.81 based on Fst, and branch time was estimated as 2–6 Ma. As revealed in the phylogenetic tree, snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were also clustered separately. Geographical separation appears to be an important factor accounting for the diversification of the two groups of O. hupensis in mainland China, and probably for the separate clades between snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. In lake/marshland and hill regions along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, three clades were identified in the phylogenetic tree, but without any obvious clustering of snails from different provinces.
O. hupensis in mainland China may have considerable genetic diversity, and a more complex population structure than expected. It will be of significant importance to consider the genetic diversity of O. hupensis when assessing co-evolutionary interactions with S. japonicum.
Author Summary
The intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in Asia is the snail Oncomelania hupensis, which can be separated phenotypically into ribbed- and smooth-shelled morphotypes. In China, the typical morphotype is ribbed-shelled, with its distribution restricted to mainland China. Smooth-shelled snails with varix are also distributed in China, which are considered to belong to the same subspecies as the ribbed-shelled snails. In this study we investigate the genetic variation among O. hupensis from different geographical origins using combined complete ITS1 and ITS2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Snails including ribbed-shelled and smooth-shelled (but with varix on the shell) from the lake/marshland region of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and smooth-shelled snails from mountainous regions of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, were genetically distinct with no shared haplotypes detected. Furtheremore, the snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were clustered in separate clades in the phylogenetic tree, and three clades were observed for snails from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The population diversity of O. hupensis in China is thus considered large, and evolutionary relationships in the host-parasite system of O. hupensis-S. japonicum may be of interest for further research.
PMCID: PMC2830461  PMID: 20209150
13.  Psychiatric illness, socioeconomic status, and marital status in people committing suicide: a matched case‐sibling‐control study 
Study objective
Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element of these factors.
Nested case‐control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers.
985 suicide cases, 1104 sex‐age (±3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls.
Main results
The suicide rate ratios obtained from the case‐sibling and the case‐control analysis, respectively, were of similar magnitude. For example, in the case‐sibling analysis the adjusted suicide rate ratios associated with discharge from a psychiatric hospital within the previous 365 days, being unemployed the previous year, having a postgraduate degree and being single were 42.13 (95% CI 17.75 to 100.02), 1.78 (1.35 to 2.36), 0.51 (0.21 to 1.26), and 2.69 (1.91 to 3.79), respectively. The corresponding rate ratios obtained from the case‐control analysis were 47.91 (35.41 to 64.83), 1.76 (1.49 to 2.08), 0.45 (0.26 to 0.76), and 2.39 (1.87 to 3.07). Moreover, the analogous ratios when comparing siblings and controls were 1.98 (1.08 to 3.63), 1.22 (1.06 to 1.41), 0.65 (0.44 to 0.95), and 0.89 (0.75 to 1.06).
People who commit suicide deviate similarly from siblings and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides.
PMCID: PMC2566026  PMID: 16905722
siblings; suicide
14.  Proteiomic patterns for endometrial cancer using SELDI-TOF-MS*  
Serum samples from endometrial cancer (EC) patients and healthy females were analyzed using surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) to discover the potential diagnostic biomarker for detection of EC. A preliminary training set of spectra derived from 40 EC patients and 30 healthy women were used to develop a proteomic model that effectively discriminated cancer patients from healthy women. The training set had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 92.5% in the EC detection. A blind test set, including 20 new cancer cases and 10 healthy women, was used to validate the sensitivity and specificity of this multivariate model, which had a corresponding results of 60% in specificity and 75% in sensitivity, respectively. The combination of SELDI-TOF-MS with bioinformatics tools could help find new biomarkers and establish the detection of EC with high sensitivity and specificity.
PMCID: PMC2276670  PMID: 18381802
Biomarkers; Surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS); Endometrial cancer (EC); Proteomics
15.  Risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy: population based cohort study 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2005;331(7507):23.
Objectives To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy.
Design Comparison of population based data.
Setting Danish longitudinal registers.
Subjects The cohort comprised 2.27 million people.
Main outcome measures Epilepsy, psychosis, personal birth data.
Results We found an increased risk of schizophrenia (relative risk 2.48, 95% confidence interval 2.20 to 2.80) and schizophrenia-like psychosis (2.93, 2.69 to 3.20) in people with a history of epilepsy. The effect of epilepsy was the same in men and in women and increased with age. Family history of psychosis and a family history of epilepsy were significant risk factors for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis, and the effect of epilepsy, both in cases and families, was greater among people with no family history of psychosis. In addition, the increased risk for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis did not differ by type of epilepsy but increased with increasing number of admissions to hospital and, particularly, was significantly greater for people first admitted for epilepsy at later ages.
Conclusions There is a strong association between epilepsy and schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. The two conditions may share common genetic or environmental causes.
PMCID: PMC558534  PMID: 15964859
16.  Change in suicide rates for patients with schizophrenia in Denmark, 1981-97: nested case-control study 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2004;329(7460):261.
Objective To study the change in risk of suicide among patients with schizophrenia and related disorders.
Design Nested case-control design with linked data.
Setting 4 longitudinal Danish registers.
Participants 18 744 people aged up to 75 years who committed suicide in 1981-97 individually matched with 20 controls.
Results Over the time studied the reduction in suicide rate among patients with schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorder was similar to that seen in the general population (incidence rate ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.03). The reduction among patients with other psychosis in the schizophrenia spectrum was faster than the reduction seen in the general population. Among people admitted to hospital with schizophrenia the risk of suicide was highest in the first year after first admission, and the excess risk was largest in the younger age groups—that is, the risk decreased per year for every additional year of age.
Conclusion The suicide rate among patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders has fallen. This may be due to better psychiatric treatment, reduced access to means of suicide, or improvements in treatment after suicide attempts.
PMCID: PMC498022  PMID: 15213108
17.  Evaluation of Clonorchis sinensis Recombinant 7-Kilodalton Antigen for Serodiagnosis of Clonorchiasis 
The diagnostic applicability of the Clonorchis sinensis recombinant 7-kDa protein was evaluated. In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunoblots, the protein showed high sensitivities (81.3 and 71.9%, respectively) and specificities (92.6 and 89.7%, respectively) for sera obtained from various helminthic infections. Some paragonimiasis sera showed cross-reactions. The antigen might be valuable in the serodiagnosis of human clonorchiasis.
PMCID: PMC440603  PMID: 15242967

Results 1-17 (17)