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1.  Circulating IGF-I and IGFBP3 levels control human colonic stem cell function and are disrupted in diabetic enteropathy 
Cell stem cell  2015;17(4):486-498.
The role of circulating factors in regulating colonic stem cells (CoSCs) and colonic epithelial homeostasis is unclear. Individuals with long-standing type 1 diabetes (T1D) frequently have intestinal symptoms, termed diabetic enteropathy (DE), though its etiology is unknown. Here, we report T1D patients with DE exhibit abnormalities in their intestinal mucosa and CoSCs, which fail to generate in vitro mini-guts. Proteomic profiling of T1D+DE patient serum revealed altered levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). IGFBP3 prevented in vitro growth of patient-derived organoids via binding its receptor TMEM219, in an IGF-1-independent manner, and disrupted in vivo CoSC function in a preclinical DE model. Restoration of normoglycemia in patients with long-standing T1D via kidney-pancreas transplantation or in diabetic mice by treatment with an ecto-TMEM219 recombinant protein normalized circulating IGF-1/IGFBP3 levels and reestablished CoSC homeostasis. These findings demonstrate that peripheral IGF-1/IGFBP3 control CoSCs and their dysfunction in DE.
PMCID: PMC4826279  PMID: 26431183
colonic stem cells; IGF-I; IGFBP3; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes; diabetic enteropathy; hyperglycemia; uremia; kidney transplantation; pancreas transplantation; diabetic nephropathy
2.  Inotuzumab Ozogamicin Murine Analog–Mediated B-Cell Depletion Reduces Anti-islet Allo- and Autoimmune Responses 
Diabetes  2011;61(1):155-165.
B cells participate in the priming of the allo- and autoimmune responses, and their depletion can thus be advantageous for islet transplantation. Herein, we provide an extensive study of the effect of B-cell depletion in murine models of islet transplantation. Islet transplantation was performed in hyperglycemic B-cell–deficient(μMT) mice, in a purely alloimmune setting (BALB/c into hyperglycemic C57BL/6), in a purely autoimmune setting (NOD.SCID into hyperglycemic NOD), and in a mixed allo-/autoimmune setting (BALB/c into hyperglycemic NOD). Inotuzumab ozogamicin murine analog (anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody conjugated with calicheamicin [anti-CD22/cal]) efficiently depleted B cells in all three models of islet transplantation examined. Islet graft survival was significantly prolonged in B-cell–depleted mice compared with control groups in transplants of islets from BALB/c into C57BL/6 (mean survival time [MST]: 16.5 vs. 12.0 days; P = 0.004), from NOD.SCID into NOD (MST: 23.5 vs. 14.0 days; P = 0.03), and from BALB/c into NOD (MST: 12.0 vs. 5.5 days; P = 0.003). In the BALB/c into B-cell–deficient mice model, islet survival was prolonged as well (MST: μMT = 32.5 vs. WT = 14 days; P = 0.002). Pathology revealed reduced CD3+ cell islet infiltration and confirmed the absence of B cells in treated mice. Mechanistically, effector T cells were reduced in number, concomitant with a peripheral Th2 profile skewing and ex vivo recipient hyporesponsiveness toward donor-derived antigen as well as islet autoantigens. Finally, an anti-CD22/cal and CTLA4-Ig–based combination therapy displayed remarkable prolongation of graft survival in the stringent model of islet transplantation (BALB/c into NOD). Anti-CD22/cal–mediated B-cell depletion promotes the reduction of the anti-islet immune response in various models of islet transplantation.
PMCID: PMC3237644  PMID: 22076927
3.  Ex vivo enrichment of circulating anti-tumor T cells from both cutaneous and ocular melanoma patients: clinical implications for adoptive cell transfer therapy 
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy  2011;61(8):1169-1182.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been successfully used for adoptive cell transfer (ACT) immunotherapy; however, due to their scarce availability, this therapy is possible for a limited fraction of cutaneous melanoma patients. We assessed whether an effective protocol for ex vivo T-cell expansion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), suitable for ACT of both cutaneous and ocular melanoma patients, could be identified. PBMCs from both cutaneous and ocular melanoma patients were stimulated in vitro with autologous, irradiated melanoma cells (mixed lymphocyte tumor cell culture; MLTCs) in the presence of IL-2 and IL-15 followed by the rapid expansion protocol (REP). The functional activity of these T lymphocytes was characterized and compared with that of TILs. In addition, the immune infiltration in vivo of ocular melanoma lesions was analyzed. An efficient in vitro MLTC expansion of melanoma reactive T cells was achieved from all PBMC’s samples obtained in 7 cutaneous and ocular metastatic melanoma patients. Large numbers of melanoma-specific T cells could be obtained when the REP protocol was applied to these MLTCs. Most MLTCs were enriched in non-terminally differentiated TEM cells homogeneously expressing co-stimulatory molecules (e.g., NKG2D, CD28, CD134, CD137). A similar pattern of anti-tumor activity, in association with a more variable expression of co-stimulatory molecules, was detected on short-term in vitro cultured TILs isolated from the same patients. In these ocular melanoma patients, we observed an immune infiltrate with suppressive characteristics and a low rate of ex vivo growing TILs (28.5% of our cases). Our MLTC protocol overcomes this limitation, allowing the isolation of T lymphocytes with effector functions even in these patients. Thus, anti-tumor circulating PBMC-derived T cells could be efficiently isolated from melanoma patients by our novel ex vivo enrichment protocol. This protocol appears suitable for ACT studies of cutaneous and ocular melanoma patients.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00262-011-1179-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC3401505  PMID: 22207316
Cutaneous melanoma; Ocular melanoma; T-cell responses; Immunotherapy
4.  A Novel Clinically Relevant Strategy to Abrogate Autoimmunity and Regulate Alloimmunity in NOD Mice 
Diabetes  2010;59(9):2253-2264.
To investigate a new clinically relevant immunoregulatory strategy based on treatment with murine Thymoglobulin mATG Genzyme and CTLA4-Ig in NOD mice to prevent allo- and autoimmune activation using a stringent model of islet transplantation and diabetes reversal.
Using allogeneic islet transplantation models as well as NOD mice with recent onset type 1 diabetes, we addressed the therapeutic efficacy and immunomodulatory mechanisms associated with a new immunoregulatory protocol based on prolonged low-dose mATG plus CTLA4-Ig.
BALB/c islets transplanted into hyperglycemic NOD mice under prolonged mATG+CTLA4-Ig treatment showed a pronounced delay in allograft rejection compared with untreated mice (mean survival time: 54 vs. 8 days, P < 0.0001). Immunologic analysis of mice receiving transplants revealed a complete abrogation of autoimmune responses and severe downregulation of alloimmunity in response to treatment. The striking effect on autoimmunity was confirmed by 100% diabetes reversal in newly hyperglycemic NOD mice and 100% indefinite survival of syngeneic islet transplantation (NOD.SCID into NOD mice).
The capacity to regulate alloimmunity and to abrogate the autoimmune response in NOD mice in different settings confirmed that prolonged mATG+CTLA4-Ig treatment is a clinically relevant strategy to translate to humans with type 1 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC2927948  PMID: 20805386
5.  Proteomics Reveals Novel Oxidative and Glycolytic Mechanisms in Type 1 Diabetic Patients' Skin Which Are Normalized by Kidney-Pancreas Transplantation 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(3):e9923.
In type 1 diabetes (T1D) vascular complications such as accelerated atherosclerosis and diffused macro-/microangiopathy are linked to chronic hyperglycemia with a mechanism that is not yet well understood. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) worsens most diabetic complications, particularly, the risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease is increased several fold.
Methods and Findings
We evaluated protein regulation and expression in skin biopsies obtained from T1D patients with and without ESRD, to identify pathways of persistent cellular changes linked to diabetic vascular disease. We therefore examined pathways that may be normalized by restoration of normoglycemia with kidney-pancreas (KP) transplantation. Using proteomic and ultrastructural approaches, multiple alterations in the expression of proteins involved in oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase 1, Hsp27, Hsp60, ATP synthase δ chain, and flavin reductase), aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis (ACBP, pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1), and intracellular signaling (stratifin-14-3-3, S100-calcyclin, cathepsin, and PPI rotamase) as well as endothelial vascular abnormalities were identified in T1D and T1D+ESRD patients. These abnormalities were reversed after KP transplant. Increased plasma levels of malondialdehyde were observed in T1D and T1D+ESRD patients, confirming increased oxidative stress which was normalized after KP transplant.
Our data suggests persistent cellular changes of anti-oxidative machinery and of aerobic/anaerobic glycolysis are present in T1D and T1D+ESRD patients, and these abnormalities may play a key role in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia-related vascular complications. Restoration of normoglycemia and removal of uremia with KP transplant can correct these abnormalities. Some of these identified pathways may become potential therapeutic targets for a new generation of drugs.
PMCID: PMC2848014  PMID: 20360867

Results 1-5 (5)