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1.  TGF-β Signaling Is Often Attenuated during Hepatotumorigenesis, but Is Retained for the Malignancy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e63436.
The role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling in hepatocarcinogenesis remains controversial. We aimed to reveal TGF-β signaling status in human and murine tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the mechanisms that mediate TGF-β’s role in regulating HCC malignancy. Here, TGF-β pathway component expression and activation in human and murine HCC tissues were measured with quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting assays. The role of TGF-β receptor and Smad signaling in the growth and survival of several HCC cell lines was determined with several in vitro and in vivo approaches. We found that TGF-β receptor II (TβRII) expression was downregulated in two different HCC patient cohorts. Consistently, Smad3 phosphorylation was also downregulated in HCC tissues in comparison to that in adjacent normal tissues. Interestingly, many HCC cell lines were sensitive to TGF-β and growth-inhibited by exogenous TGF-β. However, stable knockdown of TβRII inhibited cell growth on plastic and in soft agar, and induced apoptosis resulting in suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth and metastatic potential in vivo. Furthermore, knockdown of Smad4 also led to a significant inhibition of growth on plastic and in soft agar with concomitant increase of apoptosis, PTEN expression, and reduced nuclear accumulation of linker region-phosphorylated Smad3. Taken together, TGF-β signaling pathway plays a dichotomous role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. It appears to suppress HCC development, but is retained for HCC cell survival and malignancy. Furthermore, Smad4 can mediate both growth inhibitory activity induced by exogenous TGF-β and the survival activity induced by autocrine TGF-β revealing a delicate selection of the two opposing activities of TGF-β during HCC evolution.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063436
PMCID: PMC3660330  PMID: 23704908
2.  Coordinated Defects in Hepatic Long Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism and Triglyceride Accumulation Contribute to Insulin Resistance in Non-Human Primates 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e27617.
Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant.
Aims
To determine the TG content and long chain fatty acyl CoA composition profile in liver from obese non-diabetic insulin resistant (IR) and lean insulin sensitive (IS) baboons in relation with hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity.
Methods
Twenty baboons with varying grades of adiposity were studied. Hepatic (liver) and peripheral (mainly muscle) insulin sensitivity was measured with a euglycemic clamp and QUICKI. Liver biopsies were performed at baseline for TG content and LCFA profile by mass spectrometry, and histological analysis. Findings were correlated with clinical and biochemical markers of adiposity and insulin resistance.
Results
Obese IR baboons had elevated liver TG content compared to IS. Furthermore, the concentration of unsaturated (LC-UFA) was greater than saturated (LC-SFA) fatty acyl CoA in the liver. Interestingly, LC-FA UFA and SFA correlated with waist, BMI, insulin, NEFA, TG, QUICKI, but not M/I. Histological findings of NAFLD ranging from focal to diffuse hepatic steatosis were found in obese IR baboons.
Conclusion
Liver TG content is closely related with both hepatic and peripheral IR, whereas liver LC-UFA and LC-SFA are closely related only with hepatic IR in non-human primates. Mechanisms leading to the accumulation of TG, LC-UFA and an altered UFA: LC-SFA ratio may play an important role in the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in humans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027617
PMCID: PMC3220682  PMID: 22125617
4.  Sirolimus plus sorafenib in treating HCC recurrence after liver transplantation: A case report 
A case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with pulmonary recurrence after liver transplantation for HCC is presented in this report. The patient showed disease progression on sorafenib therapy demonstrated by computed tomography scans as well as serial serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) elevation. After his immunosuppression therapy was successfully transitioned to sirolimus and a continuation of sorafenib, he achieved partial remission based on RECIST criteria and normalization of AFP. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors including sirolimus alone or in conjunction with sorafenib may be useful in the treatment of post transplant HCC.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i43.5518
PMCID: PMC2988248  PMID: 21086573
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Liver transplantation; Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor; Sirolimus; Sorafenib

Results 1-4 (4)