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author:("colli, Franco")
1.  Islet Transplantation Stabilizes Hemostatic Abnormalities and Cerebral Metabolism in Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2013;37(1):267-276.
Islets after kidney transplantation have been shown to positively affect the quality of life of individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) by reducing the burden of diabetes complications, but fewer data are available for islet transplantation alone (ITA). The aim of this study was to assess whether ITA has a positive impact on hemostatic and cerebral abnormalities in individuals with T1D.
Prothrombotic factors, platelet function/ultrastructure, and cerebral morphology, metabolism, and function have been investigated over a 15-month follow-up period using ELISA/electron microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and neuropsychological evaluation (Profile of Mood States test and paced auditory serial addition test) in 22 individuals with T1D who underwent ITA (n = 12) or remained on the waiting list (n = 10). Patients were homogeneous with regard to metabolic criteria, hemostatic parameters, and cerebral morphology/metabolism/function at the time of enrollment on the waiting list.
At the 15-month follow-up, the group undergoing ITA, but not individuals with T1D who remained on the waiting list, showed 1) improved glucose metabolism; 2) near-normal platelet activation and prothrombotic factor levels; 3) near-normal cerebral metabolism and function; and 4) a near-normal neuropsychological test.
ITA, despite immunosuppressive therapy, is associated with a near-normalization of hemostatic and cerebral abnormalities.
PMCID: PMC3867995  PMID: 24026546
Obesity is associated to high insulin and glucagon plasma levels. Enhanced β–cell function and β–cell expansion are responsible for insulin hypersecretion. It is unknown whether hyperglucagonemia is due to α-cell hypersecretion or to an increase in α-cell mass. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the β-cell and α-cell function and mass in pancreas of obese normoglycemic baboons.
Pancreatic β- and α-cell volumes were measured in 51 normoglycemic baboons divided into 6 groups according to overweight severity or duration. Islets morphometric parameters were correlated to overweight and to diverse metabolic and laboratory parameters.
Relative α-cell volume (RαV) and relative islet α-cell volume (RIαV) increased significantly with both overweight duration and severity. Conversely, in spite of the induction of insulin resistance, overweight produced only modest effects on relative β-cell volume (RβV) and relative islet β-cell volume (RIβV). Of note, RIβV did not increase neither with overweight duration nor with overweight severity, supposedly because of the concomitant, greater, increase in RIαV. Baboons' body weights correlated with serum levels of Interleukin-6 and Tumour Necrosis Factor-α soluble Receptors (IL-6sR and sTNF-R1), demonstrating that overweight induces abnormal activation of the signaling of two cytokines known to impact differently β- and α-cell viability and replication.
In conclusion, overweight and insulin resistance induce in baboons a significant increase in α-cell volumes (RαV, RIαV) while have minimal effects on the β-cells. This study suggests that an increase in the α-cell mass may precede the loss of β-cells and the transition to overt hyperglycemia and diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3906680  PMID: 23229736
Obesity duration; obesity severity; α-cell volume; β-cells volume; pancreatic islet remodelling; insulin resistance
3.  The role of nateglinide and repaglinide, derivatives of meglitinide, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide, presenting a great challenge to the public health systems due to high morbidity and mortality, because of frequent micro-/macro-vascular complications. Many treatment options are now available, with different efficacy as well as mechanisms of action to improve deranged glucose metabolism. We review some of the available data on derivatives of meglitinide, namely nateglinide and repaglinide. These two compounds increase insulin secretion by a mechanism similar to the one of sulfonylureas, but with a shorter half-life. Nateglinide and repaglinide, derivatives of meglitinides, have characteristic pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties that, together with their proposed mechanism of action, make them useful for type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially when used in combination therapy.
PMCID: PMC3832818  PMID: 24273582
meglitinide; repaglinide; nateglinide; glycemic control; post-prandial glucose excursion; hypoglycemia
4.  Energy Expenditure Evaluation in Humans and Non-Human Primates by SenseWear Armband. Validation of Energy Expenditure Evaluation by SenseWear Armband by Direct Comparison with Indirect Calorimetry 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e73651.
The purpose of this study was to compare and validate the use of SenseWear Armband (SWA) placed on the arm (SWA ARM) and on the back (SWA BACK) in healthy humans during resting and a cycle-ergometer exercise and to evaluate the SWA to estimate Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) in healthy baboons.
We studied 26 (15F/11M) human subjects wearing SWA in two different anatomical sites (arm and back) during resting and a cycle-ergometer test and directly compared these results with indirect calorimetry evaluation (IC), performed at the same time. We then inserted the SWA in a metabolic jacket for baboons and evaluated the TEE and REE in free living condition for 6 days in 21 (8F/13M) non-human primates.
In humans we found a good correlation between SWA place on the ARM and on the BACK with IC during the resting experiment (1.1±0.3 SWAs, 1±0.2 IC kcal/min) and a slight underestimation in the SWAs data compared with IC during the cycle-ergometer exercise (5±1.9 SWA ARM, 4.5±1.5 SWA BACK and 5.4±2.1 IC kcal/min). In the non-human primate (baboons) experiment SWA estimated a TEE of 0.54±0.009 kcal/min during free living and a REE of 0.82±0.06 kcal/min.
SWA, an extremely simple and inexpensive apparatus, provides quite accurate measurements of energy expenditure in humans and in baboons. Energy expenditure data obtained with SWA are highly correlated with the data obtained with “gold standard”, IC, in humans.
PMCID: PMC3777938  PMID: 24069218
5.  The Ontogeny of the Endocrine Pancreas in the Fetal/Newborn Baboon 
The Journal of endocrinology  2012;214(3):289-299.
Erratic regulation of glucose metabolism including hyperglycemia is a common condition of premature infants and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.
To examine histological and ultra-structural differences in the endocrine pancreas in fetal (throughout gestation) and neonatal baboons.
Twelve fetal baboons were delivered at 125 days (d) gestational age (GA), 140dGA, or 175dGA. Eight animals were delivered at term (185dGA); half were fed for 5d. Seventy-three non-diabetic adult baboons were used for comparison. Pancreatic tissue was studied utilizing light microscopy, confocal imaging and electron microscopy.
The fetal and neonatal endocrine pancreas islet architecture became more organized as GA advanced. The percent areas of α-β-δ-cell type were similar within each fetal and newborn GA (NS), but were higher than the adults (P<0.05) regardless of GA. The ratio of β-cells within the islet (whole and core) increased with gestation (P<0.01). Neonatal baboons who survived for 5 days (feeding), had a 2.5-fold increase in pancreas weight compared to their counterparts euthanized at birth (P=0.01). Endocrine cells were found amongst exocrine ductal and acinar cells in 125,140 and 175dGA fetuses. Subpopulation of cells that co-expressed trypsin and glucagon/insulin show the presence of cells with mixed endo-exocrine lineage in fetuses.
The fetal endocrine pancreas has no prevalence of a of α-β-δ-cell type with larger endocrine cell percent areas than adults. Cells with mixed endocrine/exocrine phenotype occur during fetal development. Developmental differences may play a role in glucose homeostasis during the neonatal period and may have long term implications.
PMCID: PMC3686495  PMID: 22723715
Insulin; glucagon; fetus; islet cells; primates
6.  Effect of acute physiological hyperinsulinemia on gene expression in human skeletal muscle in vivo 
This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that short-term exposure (4 h) to physiological hyperinsulinemia in normal, healthy subjects without a family history of diabetes would induce a low grade inflammatory response independently of glycemic status. Twelve normal glucose tolerant subjects received a 4-h euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp with biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. Microarray analysis identified 121 probe sets that were significantly altered in response to physiological hyperinsulinemia while maintaining euglycemia. In normal, healthy human subjects insulin increased the mRNAs of a number of inflammatory genes (CCL2, CXCL2 and THBD) and transcription factors (ATF3, BHLHB2, HES1, KLF10, JUNB, FOS, and FOSB). A number of other genes were upregulated in response to insulin, including RRAD, MT, and SGK. CITED2, a known coactivator of PPARα, was significantly downregulated. SGK and CITED2 are located at chromosome 6q23, where we previously detected strong linkage to fasting plasma insulin concentrations. We independently validated the mRNA expression changes in an additional five subjects and closely paralleled the results observed in the original 12 subjects. A saline infusion in healthy, normal glucose-tolerant subjects without family history of diabetes demonstrated that the genes altered during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp were due to hyperinsulinemia and were unrelated to the biopsy procedure per se. The results of the present study demonstrate that insulin acutely regulates the levels of mRNAs involved in inflammation and transcription and identifies several candidate genes, including HES1 and BHLHB2, for further investigation.
PMCID: PMC3581328  PMID: 18334611
gene expression; muscle; insulin action; euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp; inflammation
Introduction: Obesity is a major worldwide health threat in Western World because of its high incidence and prevalence and its association with metabolic and cardiovascular disease as well as cancer. The reduction of food intake in obese patients can be achieved only transiently (generally for no longer than 6 months), in the absence of concomitant pharmacological therapy. Only bariatric surgery provides a mean to increase satiety and/or decrease nutrients absorption in obese patients, in the long term.Areas covered: The available pharmacological treatments for obesity, as well as the pharmacology and mechanisms of action of Exenatide in obese type 2 diabetic patients.Expert opinion: Exenatide is a potential new candidate treatment for obesity, possibly in combination with other hormones that increase satiety (leptin) and slow gastric emptying (amylin).
PMCID: PMC3495586  PMID: 22017240
GLP-1 analogues; exenatide; obesity; type 2 diabetes mellitus; medical treatment
8.  Altered Insulin Receptor Signalling and β-Cell Cycle Dynamics in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e28050.
Insulin resistance, reduced β-cell mass, and hyperglucagonemia are consistent features in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We used pancreas and islets from humans with T2DM to examine the regulation of insulin signaling and cell-cycle control of islet cells. We observed reduced β-cell mass and increased α-cell mass in the Type 2 diabetic pancreas. Confocal microscopy, real-time PCR and western blotting analyses revealed increased expression of PCNA and down-regulation of p27-Kip1 and altered expression of insulin receptors, insulin receptor substrate-2 and phosphorylated BAD. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these findings, we examined a mouse model of insulin resistance in β-cells – which also exhibits reduced β-cell mass, the β-cell-specific insulin receptor knockout (βIRKO). Freshly isolated islets and β-cell lines derived from βIRKO mice exhibited poor cell-cycle progression, nuclear restriction of FoxO1 and reduced expression of cell-cycle proteins favoring growth arrest. Re-expression of insulin receptors in βIRKO β-cells reversed the defects and promoted cell cycle progression and proliferation implying a role for insulin-signaling in β-cell growth. These data provide evidence that human β- and α-cells can enter the cell-cycle, but proliferation of β-cells in T2DM fails due to G1-to-S phase arrest secondary to defective insulin signaling. Activation of insulin signaling, FoxO1 and proteins in β-cell-cycle progression are attractive therapeutic targets to enhance β-cell regeneration in the treatment of T2DM.
PMCID: PMC3227614  PMID: 22140505
9.  Coordinated Defects in Hepatic Long Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism and Triglyceride Accumulation Contribute to Insulin Resistance in Non-Human Primates 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e27617.
Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant.
To determine the TG content and long chain fatty acyl CoA composition profile in liver from obese non-diabetic insulin resistant (IR) and lean insulin sensitive (IS) baboons in relation with hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity.
Twenty baboons with varying grades of adiposity were studied. Hepatic (liver) and peripheral (mainly muscle) insulin sensitivity was measured with a euglycemic clamp and QUICKI. Liver biopsies were performed at baseline for TG content and LCFA profile by mass spectrometry, and histological analysis. Findings were correlated with clinical and biochemical markers of adiposity and insulin resistance.
Obese IR baboons had elevated liver TG content compared to IS. Furthermore, the concentration of unsaturated (LC-UFA) was greater than saturated (LC-SFA) fatty acyl CoA in the liver. Interestingly, LC-FA UFA and SFA correlated with waist, BMI, insulin, NEFA, TG, QUICKI, but not M/I. Histological findings of NAFLD ranging from focal to diffuse hepatic steatosis were found in obese IR baboons.
Liver TG content is closely related with both hepatic and peripheral IR, whereas liver LC-UFA and LC-SFA are closely related only with hepatic IR in non-human primates. Mechanisms leading to the accumulation of TG, LC-UFA and an altered UFA: LC-SFA ratio may play an important role in the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in humans.
PMCID: PMC3220682  PMID: 22125617
10.  Effects of Weight Loss in Metabolically Healthy Obese Subjects after Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding and Hypocaloric Diet 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e17737.
Weight loss in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) subjects may result in deterioration of cardio-metabolic risk profile. We analyzed the effects of weight loss induced by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) on cardio-metabolic risk factors in MHO and insulin resistant obese (IRO) individuals. This study included 190 morbidly obese non-diabetic subjects. Obese individuals were stratified on the basis of their insulin sensitivity index (ISI), estimated from an OGTT, into MHO (ISI index in the upper quartile) and IRO (ISI in the three lower quartiles). Anthropometric and cardio-metabolic variables were measured at baseline and 6-months after LAGB. Six months after LAGB, anthropometric measures were significantly reduced in both MHO and IRO. Percent changes in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference did not differ between the two groups. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, triglycerides, AST, and ALT were significantly reduced, and HDL cholesterol significantly increased, in both MHO and IRO subjects with no differences in percent changes from baseline. Insulin sensitivity increased in both MHO and IRO group. Insulin secretion was significantly reduced in the IRO group only. However, the disposition index significantly increased in both MHO and IRO individuals with no differences in percent changes from baseline between the two groups. The change in insulin sensitivity correlated with the change in BMI (r = −0.43; P<0.0001). In conclusion, our findings reinforce the recommendation that weight loss in response to LAGB intervention should be considered an appropriate treatment option for morbidly obese individuals regardless of their metabolic status, i.e. MHO vs. IRO subjects.
PMCID: PMC3050899  PMID: 21408112
11.  Human Stiff-Person Syndrome IgG Induces Anxious Behavior in Rats 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e16775.
Anxiety is a heterogeneous behavioral domain playing a role in a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. While anxiety is the cardinal symptom in disorders such as panic disorder, co-morbid anxious behavior can occur in a variety of diseases. Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a CNS disorder characterized by increased muscle tone and prominent agoraphobia and anxiety. Most patients have high-titer antibodies against glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 65. The pathogenic role of these autoantibodies is unclear.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We re-investigated a 53 year old woman with SPS and profound anxiety for GABA-A receptor binding in the amygdala with (11)C-flumazenil PET scan and studied the potential pathogenic role of purified IgG from her plasma filtrates containing high-titer antibodies against GAD 65. We passively transferred the IgG fraction intrathecally into rats and analyzed the effects using behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological methods. In cell culture, we measured the effect of patient IgG on GABA release from hippocampal neurons. Repetitive intrathecal application of purified patient IgG in rats resulted in an anxious phenotype resembling the core symptoms of the patient. Patient IgG selectively bound to rat amygdala, hippocampus, and frontal cortical areas. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, patient IgG inhibited GABA release. In line with these experimental results, the GABA-A receptor binding potential was reduced in the patient's amygdala/hippocampus complex. No motor abnormalities were found in recipient rats.
The observations in rats after passive transfer lead us to propose that anxiety-like behavior can be induced in rats by passive transfer of IgG from a SPS patient positive for anti-GAD 65 antibodies. Anxiety, in this case, thus may be an antibody-mediated phenomenon with consecutive disturbance of GABAergic signaling in the amygdala region.
PMCID: PMC3035624  PMID: 21346811
12.  Spontaneous Pathology of the Baboon Endocrine System 
Journal of medical primatology  2009;38(6):383-389.
Study of endocrine pathology in animal models is critical to understanding endocrine pathology in humans.
We evaluated 434 endocrine-related diagnoses from 4,619 baboon necropsies, established the incidence of spontaneous endocrine pathology, and analyzed the clinical and biochemical data associated with the individual cases.
The most common diagnoses in descending order, were pancreatic islet cell amyloidosis (n=259), ovarian cysts (n=50), pituitary adenoma (n=37), pancreatic islet cell adenoma (n=20), granulosa cell tumor (n=15), thyroid adenoma (n=11), adrenal hyperplasia (n=10), thyroid carcinoma (n=8), and pheochromocytoma (n=6). The incidence of pancreatic islet cell amyloidosis progressively increased with age. Pheochromocytomas were associated with renal and heart failure. The incidence of pancreatic islet cell amyloidosis and adrenal pathology was similar to humans; the incidence of pituitary adenoma and thyroid pathology was lower than in humans.
Endocrine disease in baboons is common and shares clinical and biochemical characteristics with endocrine disease in humans.
PMCID: PMC2783813  PMID: 19793179
Papio; nonhuman primate; thyroid; pancreas; endocrine; disease; cancer
13.  TIMP3 Is Reduced in Atherosclerotic Plaques From Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes and Increased by SirT1 
Diabetes  2009;58(10):2396-2401.
Atherosclerosis is accelerated in subjects with type 2 diabetes by unknown mechanisms. We identified tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), the endogenous inhibitor of A disintegrin and metalloprotease domain 17 (ADAM17) and other matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as a gene modifier for insulin resistance and vascular inflammation in mice. We tested its association with atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes and identified Sirtuin 1 (SirT1) as a major regulator of TIMP3 expression.
We investigated ADAM10, ADAM17, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2, TIMP3, and TIMP4 expression levels in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques (n = 60) from subjects with and without diabetes. Human vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to several metabolic stimuli were used to identify regulators of TIMP3 expression. SirT1 small interference RNA, cDNA, and TIMP3 promoter gene reporter were used to study SirT1-dependent regulation of TIMP3.
Here, we show that in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, TIMP3 was significantly reduced in subjects with type 2 diabetes, leading to ADAM17 and MMP9 overactivity. Reduced expression of TIMP3 was associated in vivo with SirT1 levels. In smooth muscle cells, inhibition of SirT1 activity and levels reduced TIMP3 expression, whereas SirT1 overexpression increased TIMP3 promoter activity.
In atherosclerotic plaques from subjects with type 2 diabetes, the deregulation of ADAM17 and MMP9 activities is related to inadequate expression of TIMP3 via SirT1. Studies in vascular cells confirmed the role of SirT1 in tuning TIMP3 expression.
PMCID: PMC2750223  PMID: 19581416
14.  Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Is Elevated in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes and Correlates With Muscle and Hepatic Insulin Resistance 
Diabetes Care  2009;32(8):1542-1546.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is highly expressed in the liver and regulates hepatic glucose production and lipid metabolism in rodents. However, its role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in humans remains to be defined. The aim of this study was to quantitate circulating plasma FGF-21 levels and examine their relationship with insulin sensitivity in subjects with varying degrees of obesity and glucose tolerance.
Forty-one subjects (8 lean with normal glucose tolerance [NGT], 9 obese with NGT, 12 with impaired fasting glucose [IFG]/impaired glucose tolerance [IGT], and 12 type 2 diabetic subjects) received an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (80 mU/m2 per min) combined with 3-[3H] glucose infusion.
Subjects with type 2 diabetes, subjects with IGT, and obese subjects with NGT were insulin resistant compared with lean subjects with NGT. Plasma FGF-21 levels progressively increased from 3.9 ± 0.3 ng/ml in lean subjects with NGT to 4.9 ± 0.2 in obese subjects with NGT to 5.2 ± 0.2 in subjects with IGT and to 5.3 ± 0.2 in type 2 diabetic subjects. FGF-21 levels correlated inversely with whole-body (primarily reflects muscle) insulin sensitivity (r = −0.421, P = 0.007) and directly with the hepatic insulin resistance index (r = 0.344, P = 0.034). FGF-21 levels also correlated with measures of glycemia (fasting plasma glucose [r = 0.312, P = 0.05], 2-h plasma glucose [r = 0.414, P = 0.01], and A1C [r = 0.325, P = 0.04]).
Plasma FGF-21 levels are increased in insulin-resistant states and correlate with hepatic and whole-body (muscle) insulin resistance. FGF-21 may play a role in pathogenesis of hepatic and whole-body insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC2713625  PMID: 19487637
15.  Proteomics Reveals Novel Oxidative and Glycolytic Mechanisms in Type 1 Diabetic Patients' Skin Which Are Normalized by Kidney-Pancreas Transplantation 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(3):e9923.
In type 1 diabetes (T1D) vascular complications such as accelerated atherosclerosis and diffused macro-/microangiopathy are linked to chronic hyperglycemia with a mechanism that is not yet well understood. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) worsens most diabetic complications, particularly, the risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease is increased several fold.
Methods and Findings
We evaluated protein regulation and expression in skin biopsies obtained from T1D patients with and without ESRD, to identify pathways of persistent cellular changes linked to diabetic vascular disease. We therefore examined pathways that may be normalized by restoration of normoglycemia with kidney-pancreas (KP) transplantation. Using proteomic and ultrastructural approaches, multiple alterations in the expression of proteins involved in oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase 1, Hsp27, Hsp60, ATP synthase δ chain, and flavin reductase), aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis (ACBP, pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1), and intracellular signaling (stratifin-14-3-3, S100-calcyclin, cathepsin, and PPI rotamase) as well as endothelial vascular abnormalities were identified in T1D and T1D+ESRD patients. These abnormalities were reversed after KP transplant. Increased plasma levels of malondialdehyde were observed in T1D and T1D+ESRD patients, confirming increased oxidative stress which was normalized after KP transplant.
Our data suggests persistent cellular changes of anti-oxidative machinery and of aerobic/anaerobic glycolysis are present in T1D and T1D+ESRD patients, and these abnormalities may play a key role in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia-related vascular complications. Restoration of normoglycemia and removal of uremia with KP transplant can correct these abnormalities. Some of these identified pathways may become potential therapeutic targets for a new generation of drugs.
PMCID: PMC2848014  PMID: 20360867
16.  Biliary pancreatic diversion and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in morbid obesity: their long-term effects on metabolic syndrome and on cardiovascular parameters 
Bariatric surgery is able to improve glucose and lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular function in morbid obesity. Aim of this study was to compare the long-term effects of malabsorptive (biliary pancreatic diversion, BPD), and restrictive (laparoscopic gastric banding, LAGB) procedures on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters, as well as on metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese patients.
170 patients studied between 1989 and 2001 were called back after a mean period of 65 months. 138 patients undergoing BPD (n = 23) or LAGB (n = 78), and control patients (refusing surgery and treated with diet, n = 37) were analysed for body mass index (BMI), blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides, blood pressure, heart rate, and ECG indexes (QTc, Cornell voltage-duration product, and rate-pressure-product).
After a mean 65 months period, surgery was more effective than diet on all items under evaluation; diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome disappeared more in surgery than in control patients, and new cases appeared only in controls. BPD was more effective than LAGB on BMI, on almost all cardiovascular parameters, and on cholesterol, not on triglyceride and blood glucose. Disappearance of diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome was similar with BPD and with LAGB, and no new cases were observed.
These data indicate that BPD, likely due to a greater BMI decrease, is more effective than LAGB in improving cardiovascular parameters, and similar to LAGB on metabolic parameters, in obese patients. The greater effect on cholesterol levels is probably due to the different mechanism of action.
PMCID: PMC3224750  PMID: 19619292
17.  Predictive models of insulin resistance derived from simple morphometric and biochemical indices related to obesity and the metabolic syndrome in baboons 
Non-human primates are valuable models for the study of insulin resistance and human obesity. In baboons, insulin sensitivity levels can be evaluated directly with the euglycemic clamp and is highly predicted by adiposity, metabolic markers of obesity and impaired glucose metabolism (i.e. percent body fat by DXA and HbA1c). However, a simple method to screen and identify obese insulin resistant baboons for inclusion in interventional studies is not available.
We studied a population of twenty baboons with the euglycemic clamp technique to characterize a population of obese nondiabetic, insulin resistant baboons, and used a multivariate linear regression analysis (adjusted for gender) to test different predictive models of insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated glucose uptake = Rd) using abdominal circumference and fasting plasma insulin. Alternatively, we tested in a separate baboon population (n = 159), a simpler model based on body weight and fasting plasma glucose to predict the whole-body insulin sensitivity (Rd/SSPI) derived from the clamp.
In the first model, abdominal circumference explained 59% of total insulin mediated glucose uptake (Rd). A second model, which included fasting plasma insulin (log transformed) and abdominal circumference, explained 64% of Rd. Finally, the model using body weight and fasting plasma glucose explained 51% of Rd/SSPI. Interestingly, we found that percent body fat was directly correlated with the adipocyte insulin resistance index (r = 0.755, p < 0.0001).
In baboons, simple morphometric measurements of adiposity/obesity, (i.e. abdominal circumference), plus baseline markers of glucose/lipid metabolism, (i.e. fasting plasma glucose and insulin) provide a feasible method to screen and identify overweight/obese insulin resistant baboons for inclusion in interventional studies aimed to study human obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PMCID: PMC2674590  PMID: 19389241

Results 1-17 (17)