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1.  The GLP-1 receptor agonists exenatide and liraglutide activate Glucose transport by an AMPK-dependent mechanism 
Aims/hypothesis
Potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion is the main mechanism of exenatide (EXE) antidiabetic action, however, increased glucose utilization by peripheral tissues has been also reported. We here studied the effect of EXE on glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells.
Methods
2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) uptake and intracellular signal pathways were measured in rat L6 skeletal muscle myotubes exposed to 100 nmol/l EXE for up to 48 h. Mechanisms of EXE action were explored by inhibiting AMPK activity with compound C (CC, 40 μmol/l) or siRNAs (2 μmol/l).
Results
Time course experiments show that EXE increases glucose uptake up to 48 h achieving its maximal effect, similar to that induced by insulin, after 20 min (2- vs 2.5-fold-increase, respectively). Differently from insulin, EXE does not stimulate: (i) IR β-subunit- and IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation and binding to p85 regulatory subunit of PI-3kinase; (ii) AKT activation; and (iii) ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 phosphorylation. Conversely, EXE increases phosphorylation of α-subunit of AMPK at Thr172 by 2.5-fold (p < 0.01). Co-incubation of EXE and insulin does not induce additive effects on 2DG-uptake. Inhibition of AMPK with CC, and reduction of AMPK protein expression by siRNA, completely abolish EXE-induced 2DG-uptake. Liraglutide, another GLP-1 receptor agonist, also stimulates AMPK phosphorylation and 2DG-uptake. Moreover, EXE stimulates 2DG-uptake also by L6 myotubes rendered insulin-resistant with methylglyoxal. Finally, EXE also induces glucose transporter Glut-4 translocation to the plasma membrane.
Conclusions/interpretation
In L6 myotubes, EXE and liraglutide increase glucose uptake in an insulin-independent manner by activating AMPK.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12967-016-0985-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12967-016-0985-7
PMCID: PMC4967343  PMID: 27473212
Exenatide; Liraglutide; Glucose uptake; AMPK; Skeletal muscle cells; Insulin signaling
2.  Energy Expenditure Evaluation in Humans and Non-Human Primates by SenseWear Armband. Validation of Energy Expenditure Evaluation by SenseWear Armband by Direct Comparison with Indirect Calorimetry 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e73651.
Introduction
The purpose of this study was to compare and validate the use of SenseWear Armband (SWA) placed on the arm (SWA ARM) and on the back (SWA BACK) in healthy humans during resting and a cycle-ergometer exercise and to evaluate the SWA to estimate Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) in healthy baboons.
Methods
We studied 26 (15F/11M) human subjects wearing SWA in two different anatomical sites (arm and back) during resting and a cycle-ergometer test and directly compared these results with indirect calorimetry evaluation (IC), performed at the same time. We then inserted the SWA in a metabolic jacket for baboons and evaluated the TEE and REE in free living condition for 6 days in 21 (8F/13M) non-human primates.
Results
In humans we found a good correlation between SWA place on the ARM and on the BACK with IC during the resting experiment (1.1±0.3 SWAs, 1±0.2 IC kcal/min) and a slight underestimation in the SWAs data compared with IC during the cycle-ergometer exercise (5±1.9 SWA ARM, 4.5±1.5 SWA BACK and 5.4±2.1 IC kcal/min). In the non-human primate (baboons) experiment SWA estimated a TEE of 0.54±0.009 kcal/min during free living and a REE of 0.82±0.06 kcal/min.
Conclusion
SWA, an extremely simple and inexpensive apparatus, provides quite accurate measurements of energy expenditure in humans and in baboons. Energy expenditure data obtained with SWA are highly correlated with the data obtained with “gold standard”, IC, in humans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073651
PMCID: PMC3777938  PMID: 24069218
3.  Coordinated Defects in Hepatic Long Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism and Triglyceride Accumulation Contribute to Insulin Resistance in Non-Human Primates 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e27617.
Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant.
Aims
To determine the TG content and long chain fatty acyl CoA composition profile in liver from obese non-diabetic insulin resistant (IR) and lean insulin sensitive (IS) baboons in relation with hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity.
Methods
Twenty baboons with varying grades of adiposity were studied. Hepatic (liver) and peripheral (mainly muscle) insulin sensitivity was measured with a euglycemic clamp and QUICKI. Liver biopsies were performed at baseline for TG content and LCFA profile by mass spectrometry, and histological analysis. Findings were correlated with clinical and biochemical markers of adiposity and insulin resistance.
Results
Obese IR baboons had elevated liver TG content compared to IS. Furthermore, the concentration of unsaturated (LC-UFA) was greater than saturated (LC-SFA) fatty acyl CoA in the liver. Interestingly, LC-FA UFA and SFA correlated with waist, BMI, insulin, NEFA, TG, QUICKI, but not M/I. Histological findings of NAFLD ranging from focal to diffuse hepatic steatosis were found in obese IR baboons.
Conclusion
Liver TG content is closely related with both hepatic and peripheral IR, whereas liver LC-UFA and LC-SFA are closely related only with hepatic IR in non-human primates. Mechanisms leading to the accumulation of TG, LC-UFA and an altered UFA: LC-SFA ratio may play an important role in the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in humans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027617
PMCID: PMC3220682  PMID: 22125617

Results 1-3 (3)