In adults, the shape of the glucose response during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) prospectively and independently predicts type 2 diabetes. However, no reports have described the utility of this indicator in younger populations. The purpose of this study was to compare type 2 diabetes risk factors in Latino adolescents characterized by either a monophasic or biphasic glucose response during an OGTT.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 156 nondiabetic Latino adolescents completed a 2-h OGTT. Monophasic and biphasic groups were compared for the following type 2 diabetes risk factors: fasting and 2-h glucose, HbA1c, glucose area under the curve (AUC), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), insulin secretion (insulinogenic index), and β-cell function as measured by the disposition index (insulin sensitivity × insulin secretion).
Of the participants, 107 youth were categorized as monophasic and 49 were biphasic. Compared with the monophasic group, participants with a biphasic response exhibited lower HbA1c (5.4 ± 0.3 vs. 5.6 ± 0.3%, P < 0.01) and lower glucose AUC (14,205 ± 2,382 vs. 16,230 ± 2,537 mg ⋅ dL−1 ⋅ h−1, P < 0.001) with higher insulin sensitivity (5.4 ± 3.2 vs. 4.6 ± 3.4, P ≤ 0.05), higher insulin secretion (2.1 ± 1.3 vs. 1.8 ± 1.3, P = 0.05), and better β-cell function (10.3 ± 7.8 vs. 6.0 ± 3.6, P < 0.001). Differences persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI.
These data suggest that the glycemic response to an OGTT may differentiate risk for type 2 diabetes in youth. This response may be an early marker of type 2 diabetes risk among high-risk youth.