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1.  Liver Transplantation because of Acute Liver Failure due to Heme Arginate Overdose in a Patient with Acute Intermittent Porphyria 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2012;6(1):190-196.
In acute attacks of acute intermittent porphyria, the mainstay of treatment is glucose and heme arginate administration. We present the case of a 58-year-old patient with acute liver failure requiring urgent liver transplantation after erroneous 6-fold overdose of heme arginate during an acute attack. As recommended in the product information, albumin and charcoal were administered and hemodiafiltration was started, which could not prevent acute liver failure, requiring super-urgent liver transplantation after 6 days. The explanted liver showed no preexisting liver cirrhosis, but signs of subacute liver injury and starting regeneration. The patient recovered within a short time. A literature review revealed four poorly documented cases of potential hepatic and/or renal toxicity of hematin or heme arginate. This is the first published case report of acute liver failure requiring super-urgent liver transplantation after accidental heme arginate overdose. The literature and recommendations in case of heme arginate overdose are summarized. Knowledge of a potentially fatal course is important for the management of future cases. If acute liver failure in case of heme arginate overdose is progressive, super-urgent liver transplantation has to be evaluated.
PMCID: PMC3362186  PMID: 22649331
Heme arginate; Acute intermittent porphyria; Overdose; Acute liver failure; Liver transplantation
2.  Human Alveolar Echinococcosis after Fox Population Increase, Switzerland 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2007;13(6):878-882.
An increase in fox population has led to an increase in incidence of human alveolar echinococcosis.
We analyzed databases spanning 50 years, which included retrospective alveolar echinococcosis (AE) case-finding studies and databases of the 3 major centers for treatment of AE in Switzerland. A total of 494 cases were recorded. Annual incidence of AE per 100,000 population increased from 0.12– 0.15 during 1956–1992 and a mean of 0.10 during 1993–2000 to a mean of 0.26 during 2001–2005. Because the clinical stage of the disease did not change between observation periods, this increase cannot be explained by improved diagnosis. Swiss hunting statistics suggested that the fox population increased 4-fold from 1980 through 1995 and has persisted at these higher levels. Because the period between infection and development of clinical disease is long, the increase in the fox population and high Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence rates in foxes in rural and urban areas may have resulted in an emerging epidemic of AE 10–15 years later.
PMCID: PMC2792858  PMID: 17553227
Alveolar echinococcosis; Echinococcus multilocularis; epidemiology; fox (Vulpes vulpes); zoonosis; incidence; Switzerland; research
3.  Potential cellular receptors involved in hepatitis C virus entry into cells 
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects hepatocytes and leads to permanent, severe liver damage. Since the genomic sequence of HCV was determined, progress has been made towards understanding the functions of the HCV-encoded proteins and identifying the cellular receptor(s) responsible for adsorption and penetration of the virus particle into the target cells. Several cellular receptors for HCV have been proposed, all of which are associated with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. This article reviews the cellular receptors for HCV and suggests a general model for HCV entry into cells, in which lipoproteins play a crucial role.
PMCID: PMC1087871  PMID: 15836798
hepatitis C virus; HCV; low density lipoproteins; LDL; CD81; SR-B1; exosomes; receptor; dextran sulfate; infection; lipids; statins

Results 1-3 (3)