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author:("thorny, Per M")
1.  Differences in insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and inflammation between young adult Pakistani and Norwegian patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study 
Background
Immigrants from South Asia to Western countries have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We explored pathogenic factors that might contribute to the high risk of T2DM in Pakistani immigrants to Norway.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was performed in 18 Pakistani and 21 Norwegian men and women with T2DM (age 29 – 45 years), recruited from two hospital out-patient clinics. Anthropometrics and a two-step euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp with measurements of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) during clamp, was performed in all patients. Insulin sensitivity, given as the Glucose Infusion Rate (GIR) and Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI), was calculated from the two euglycemic clamp steps. Fasting adipokines and inflammatory mediators were measured. Continuous variables between groups were compared using Student’s t test or Mann–Whitney U test as appropriate. Spearman’s correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analyses were used.
Results
Despite having a lower BMI, Pakistani patients were more insulin resistant than Norwegian patients, during both low and high insulin infusion rates, after adjustment for sex and % body fat: median (interquartile range) GIR(low insulin): 339.8(468.0) vs 468.4(587.3) μmol/m2/min (p = 0.060), ISI(low insulin): 57.1(74.1) vs 79.7(137.9) μmol/m2/min (p = 0.012), GIR(high insulin): 1661.1(672.3) vs 2055.6(907.0) μmol/m2/min (p = 0.042), ISI(high insulin): 14.2(7.3) vs 20.7(17.2) μmol/m2/min (p = 0.014). Pakistani patients had lower percentage NEFA suppression 30 minutes into clamp hyperinsulinemia than Norwegians: 41.9(90.6)% vs 71.2(42.1)%, (p = 0.042). The relationship of ISI to BMI, leptin and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist also differed between Norwegians and Pakistanis.
Conclusions
Compared with Norwegian patients, Pakistani patients with T2DM had lower insulin sensitivity, affecting both glucose and lipid metabolism. The relation of insulin sensitivity to BMI and some adipokines also differed between the groups.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-13-49
PMCID: PMC4015764  PMID: 24148878
Ethnicity; South Asian; Insulin sensitivity; Anthropometry; NEFA; Adipokines; Inflammation
2.  Suggestive evidence of associations between liver X receptor β polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in three cohort studies: HUNT2 (Norway), MONICA (France) and HELENA (Europe) 
BMC Medical Genetics  2010;11:144.
Background
The liver X receptors (LXR) α and β regulate lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis and inflammation. Lxrβ-/- mice are glucose intolerant and at the same time lean. We aimed to assess the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LXRβ and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and related traits in 3 separate cohort studies.
Methods
Twenty LXRβ SNPs were identified by sequencing and genotyped in the HUNT2 adult nested case-control study for T2DM (n = 835 cases/1986 controls). Five tag-SNPs (rs17373080, rs2695121, rs56151148, rs2303044 and rs3219281), covering 99.3% of the entire common genetic variability of the LXRβ gene were identified and genotyped in the French MONICA adult study (n = 2318) and the European adolescent HELENA cross-sectional study (n = 1144). In silico and in vitro functionality studies were performed.
Results
We identified suggestive or significant associations between rs17373080 and the risk of (i) T2DM in HUNT2 (OR = 0.82, p = 0.03), (ii) obesity in MONICA (OR = 1.26, p = 0.05) and (iii) overweight/obesity in HELENA (OR = 1.59, p = 0.002). An intron 4 SNP (rs28514894, a perfect proxy for rs17373080) could potentially create binding sites for hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) and nuclear factor 1 (NF1). The C allele of rs28514894 was associated with ~1.25-fold higher human LXRβ basal promoter activity in vitro. However, no differences between alleles in terms of DNA binding and reporter gene transactivation by HNF4α or NF1 were observed.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that rs17373080 in LXRβ is associated with T2DM and obesity, maybe via altered LXRβ expression.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-11-144
PMCID: PMC2958901  PMID: 20939869

Results 1-2 (2)