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author:("schulz, exoy")
1.  The En Balance Spanish Diabetes Education Program Improves Apolipoproteins, Serum Glucose and Body Composition in Hispanic Diabetics 
Ethnicity & disease  2012;22(2):215-220.
Objective
We evaluated the changes in apolipoproteins, glycemic status, and body composition after 3 months using a culturally sensitive diabetes education program, En Balance, in diabetic Hispanics.
Methods
Thirty-four (9 males, 25 females) Hispanic diabetics participated in the En Balance program over three months. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), A1c, and apolipoproteins (Apo) measured after 3 months participation. Differences were analyzed using paired t testing and relationships between changes in Apo, A1c, total cholesterol, body mass index and body composition by Spearman correlations.
Results
Completion of En Balance resulted in a significant reduction in weight (80.31 ± 1.97 kg vs 81.25 ± 17.97 kg, P=.015), FPG (143.21 ± 57.8 mg/dL vs 166.41 ± 65.9 mg/dL P=.003), and A1c (7.08 ± 1.6% vs 7.87 ± 2.0%, P=<.001). DXA demonstrated reduction in total fat (29.54 ± 10.0 kg vs 30.24 ± 11.80 kg, P=<.001) and trunk fat (15.09 ± 5.6 kg vs 16.87 ± 5.4 kg, P=.001). High density lipoprotein significantly increased (48.85 ± 11.4 vs 44.65 ± 8.8, P=.002) and total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio decreased (3.87 ± .98 vs 4.35 ± 1.0, P=.001). There were significant correlations at three months between changes in Apo A1 and A2 (r=.559, P<.001), Apo E and total cholesterol (r=.746, P<.001), between A1c and FPG (r=.563, P=.001) and BMI and body weight (r=.732, P<.001).
Conclusions
The En Balance program improved body composition, A1c, FPG, total cholesterol/HDL ratio and HDL. If these trends can be sustained, En Balance may serve as a unique educational paradigm for improving type 2 diabetes in Hispanics.
PMCID: PMC3894418  PMID: 22764645
Hispanics; Type 2 Diabetes; Diabetes Education Programs
2.  En Balance 
The Diabetes educator  2012;38(5):10.1177/0145721712457249.
Purpose
This study was designed to assess the feasibility of culturally and language-sensitive diabetes education as a way to increase physical activity and to improve health/diabetes management in a group of Spanish-speaking Hispanics in the Inland Empire region of Southern California.
Methods
En Balance is a culturally sensitive diabetes education program designed for Spanish-speaking Hispanic adults. The 3-month educational intervention assessed 16 males and 23 females living in Riverside and San Bernardino counties of Southern California. Baseline and 3-month evaluations of physical activity were assessed using the validated Arizona Activity Frequency Questionnaire.
Results
After 3 months on the En Balance program, there was a significant increase in moderate intensity physical activity energy expenditure (M = 368 ± 894 kcal/day, P < 0.01) and high intensity physical activity energy expenditure (M = 405 ± 2569 kcal/day, P = 0.05) compared to baseline and significant reductions in A1C (−0.90%, P = 0.01), total cholesterol (−13.44 mg/dl, P = 0.01), LDL cholesterol (−10.28 mg/dl, P = 0.03), and waist circumference (−1.52 cm, P = 0.04).
Conclusion
En Balance program resulted in significant mean increases in both moderate and high intensity physical activity energy expenditure among this group of Hispanic diabetic participants, indicating that despite a general pattern of low physical activity in this group, an intervention that stresses both nutrition and exercise in culturally sensitive ways can positively impact participant’s physical activity levels as well as impact nutritional changes.
doi:10.1177/0145721712457249
PMCID: PMC3885415  PMID: 22968219
Hispanic; diabetes; education; physical activity; glucose control
3.  Impacting obesity and glycemic control using a culturally-sensitive diabetes education program in Hispanic patients with type 2 diabetes 
Objectives
Diabetes mellitus and obesity are prevalent in the Hispanic community. This group has not benefited greatly from diabetes interventions due to cultural, language and financial constraints. We designed a prospective cohort study to determine the clinical impact on adiposity and glycemic control in Hispanics with type 2 diabetes.
Research design and methods
The program conducted in Spanish by a multidisciplinary team of health care providers focused on improving glycemic control and complications through cultural lifestyle changes. Outcomes were changes in glycemic control by fasting insulin, glucose and HbA1c, body composition and selected adipokines, adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Changes from baseline at three months were compared using paired t-tests and with Spearman’s correlations.
Results
Glycemic control improved by HbA1c (7.9% ± 2.0% vs 7.1% ± 1.7%; P = <0.001), and fasting glucose (166.4 ± 66.0 mg/dl vs 143.2 ± 57.9 mg/dl; P = 0.003). Body weight (81.3 ± 17.9 kg vs 80.3 ± 18.0 kg; P = 0.002), waist circumference (101.6 ± 13.4 cm vs 99.1 ± 12.7 cm; P = 0.015), and truncal fat (16.5 ± 5.7 kg vs 15.9 ± 5.6 kg; P = 0.001) decreased. Only leptin (19.6 ± 15.0 ng/ml vs 16.3 ± 12.7 ng/ml; P = 0.002) was reduced and related to change in body weight (r = 0.392; P = 0.022).
Conclusions
Our program significantly improved glycemic control and decreased obesity in diabetic Hispanic subjects. The early benefits on glycemic control may be related to reductions in leptin through loss of adipose tissue. Success in impacting diabetes and related complications can occur in a culturally focused and multidisciplinary context.
PMCID: PMC3036541  PMID: 21318090
glycemic control; obesity; leptin; culture

Results 1-3 (3)