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1.  Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people: individual participant meta-analysis 
Wormser, David | Angelantonio, Emanuele Di | Kaptoge, Stephen | Wood, Angela M | Gao, Pei | Sun, Qi | Walldius, Göran | Selmer, Randi | Verschuren, WM Monique | Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas | Engström, Gunnar | Ridker, Paul M | Njølstad, Inger | Iso, Hiroyasu | Holme, Ingar | Giampaoli, Simona | Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh | Gaziano, J Michael | Brunner, Eric | Kee, Frank | Tosetto, Alberto | Meisinger, Christa | Brenner, Hermann | Ducimetiere, Pierre | Whincup, Peter H | Tipping, Robert W | Ford, Ian | Cremer, Peter | Hofman, Albert | Wilhelmsen, Lars | Clarke, Robert | de Boer, Ian H | Jukema, J Wouter | Ibañez, Alejandro Marín | Lawlor, Debbie A | D'Agostino, Ralph B | Rodriguez, Beatriz | Casiglia, Edoardo | Stehouwer, Coen DA | Simons, Leon A | Nietert, Paul J | Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth | Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B | Björkelund, Cecilia | Strandberg, Timo E | Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia | Blazer, Dan G | Meade, Tom W | Welin, Lennart | Svärdsudd, Kurt | Woodward, Mark | Nissinen, Aulikki | Kromhout, Daan | Jørgensen, Torben | Tilvis, Reijo S | Guralnik, Jack M | Rosengren, Annika | Taylor, James O | Kiechl, Stefan | Dagenais, Gilles R | Gerry, F | Fowkes, R | Wallace, Robert B | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Shaffer, Jonathan A | Visser, Marjolein | Kauhanen, Jussi | Salonen, Jukka T | Gallacher, John | Ben-Shlomo, Yoav | Kitamura, Akihiko | Sundström, Johan | Wennberg, Patrik | Kiyohara, Yutaka | Daimon, Makoto | de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez | Cooper, Jackie A | Onat, Altan | Devereux, Richard | Mukamal, Kenneth J | Dankner, Rachel | Knuiman, Matthew W | Crespo, Carlos J | Gansevoort, Ron T | Goldbourt, Uri | Nordestgaard, Børge G | Shaw, Jonathan E | Mussolino, Michael | Nakagawa, Hidaeki | Fletcher, Astrid | Kuller, Lewis H | Gillum, Richard F | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Assmann, Gerd | Wald, Nicholas | Jousilahti, Pekka R | Greenland, Philip | Trevisan, Maurizio | Ulmer, Hanno | Butterworth, Adam S | Folsom, Aaron R | Davey-Smith, George | Hu, Frank B | Danesh, John | Tipping, Robert W | Ford, Charles E | Simpson, Lara M | Walldius, Göran | Jungner, Ingmar | Folsom, Aaron R | Demerath, Ellen W | Franceschini, Nora | Lutsey, Pamela L | Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B | Pitsavos, Christos | Chrysohoou, Christina | Stefanadis, Christodoulos | Shaw, Jonathan E | Atkins, Robert | Zimmet, Paul Z | Barr, Elizabeth LM | Knuiman, Matthew W | Whincup, Peter H | Wannamethee, S Goya | Morris, Richard W | Willeit, Johann | Kiechl, Stefan | Weger, Siegfried | Oberhollenzer, Friedrich | Wald, Nicholas | Ebrahim, Shah | Lawlor, Debbie A | Gallacher, John | Ben-Shlomo, Yoav | Yarnell, John WG | Casiglia, Edoardo | Tikhonoff, Valérie | Greenland, Philip | Shay, Christina M | Garside, Daniel B | Nietert, Paul J | Sutherland, Susan E | Bachman, David L | Keil, Julian E | de Boer, Ian H | Kizer, Jorge R | Psaty, Bruce M | Mukamal, Kenneth J | Nordestgaard, Børge G | Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne | Jensen, Gorm B | Schnohr, Peter | Giampaoli, Simona | Palmieri, Luigi | Panico, Salvatore | Pilotto, Lorenza | Vanuzzo, Diego | de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez | Simons, Leon A | Simons, Judith | McCallum, John | Friedlander, Yechiel | Gerry, F | Fowkes, R | Price, Jackie F | Lee, Amanda J | Taylor, James O | Guralnik, Jack M | Phillips, Caroline L | Wallace, Robert B | Kohout, Frank J | Cornoni-Huntley, Joan C | Guralnik, Jack M | Blazer, Dan G | Guralnik, Jack M | Phillips, Caroline L | Phillips, Caroline L | Guralnik, Jack M | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Wareham, Nicholas J | Brenner, Hermann | Schöttker, Ben | Müller, Heiko | Rothenbacher, Dietrich | Wennberg, Patrik | Jansson, Jan-Håkan | Nissinen, Aulikki | Donfrancesco, Chiara | Giampaoli, Simona | Woodward, Mark | Vartiainen, Erkki | Jousilahti, Pekka R | Harald, Kennet | Salomaa, Veikko | D'Agostino, Ralph B | Vasan, Ramachandran S | Fox, Caroline S | Pencina, Michael J | Daimon, Makoto | Oizumi, Toshihide | Kayama, Takamasa | Kato, Takeo | Bladbjerg, Else-Marie | Jørgensen, Torben | Møller, Lars | Jespersen, Jørgen | Dankner, Rachel | Chetrit, Angela | Lubin, Flora | Svärdsudd, Kurt | Eriksson, Henry | Welin, Lennart | Lappas, Georgios | Rosengren, Annika | Lappas, Georgios | Welin, Lennart | Svärdsudd, Kurt | Eriksson, Henry | Lappas, Georgios | Bengtsson, Calle | Lissner, Lauren | Björkelund, Cecilia | Cremer, Peter | Nagel, Dorothea | Strandberg, Timo E | Salomaa, Veikko | Tilvis, Reijo S | Miettinen, Tatu A | Tilvis, Reijo S | Strandberg, Timo E | Kiyohara, Yutaka | Arima, Hisatomi | Doi, Yasufumi | Ninomiya, Toshiharu | Rodriguez, Beatriz | Dekker, Jacqueline M | Nijpels, Giel | Stehouwer, Coen DA | Hu, Frank B | Sun, Qi | Rimm, Eric B | Willett, Walter C | Iso, Hiroyasu | Kitamura, Akihiko | Yamagishi, Kazumasa | Noda, Hiroyuki | Goldbourt, Uri | Vartiainen, Erkki | Jousilahti, Pekka R | Harald, Kennet | Salomaa, Veikko | Kauhanen, Jussi | Salonen, Jukka T | Kurl, Sudhir | Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka | Poppelaars, Jan L | Deeg, Dorly JH | Visser, Marjolein | Meade, Tom W | De Stavola, Bianca Lucia | Hedblad, Bo | Nilsson, Peter | Engström, Gunnar | Verschuren, WM Monique | Blokstra, Anneke | de Boer, Ian H | Shea, Steven J | Meisinger, Christa | Thorand, Barbara | Koenig, Wolfgang | Döring, Angela | Verschuren, WM Monique | Blokstra, Anneke | Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas | Wilhelmsen, Lars | Rosengren, Annika | Lappas, Georgios | Fletcher, Astrid | Nitsch, Dorothea | Kuller, Lewis H | Grandits, Greg | Tverdal, Aage | Selmer, Randi | Nystad, Wenche | Mussolino, Michael | Gillum, Richard F | Hu, Frank B | Sun, Qi | Manson, JoAnn E | Rimm, Eric B | Hankinson, Susan E | Meade, Tom W | De Stavola, Bianca Lucia | Cooper, Jackie A | Bauer, Kenneth A | Davidson, Karina W | Kirkland, Susan | Shaffer, Jonathan A | Shimbo, Daichi | Kitamura, Akihiko | Iso, Hiroyasu | Sato, Shinichi | Holme, Ingar | Selmer, Randi | Tverdal, Aage | Nystad, Wenche | Nakagawa, Hidaeki | Miura, Katsuyuki | Sakurai, Masaru | Ducimetiere, Pierre | Jouven, Xavier | Bakker, Stephan JL | Gansevoort, Ron T | van der Harst, Pim | Hillege, Hans L | Crespo, Carlos J | Garcia-Palmieri, Mario R | Kee, Frank | Amouyel, Philippe | Arveiler, Dominique | Ferrières, Jean | Schulte, Helmut | Assmann, Gerd | Jukema, J Wouter | de Craen, Anton JM | Sattar, Naveed | Stott, David J | Cantin, Bernard | Lamarche, Benoît | Després, Jean-Pierre | Dagenais, Gilles R | Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth | Bergstrom, Jaclyn | Bettencourt, Richele R | Buisson, Catherine | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Aspelund, Thor | Sigurdsson, Gunnar | Thorsson, Bolli | Trevisan, Maurizio | Hofman, Albert | Ikram, M Arfan | Tiemeier, Henning | Witteman, Jacqueline CM | Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh | Tavendale, Roger | Lowe, Gordon DO | Woodward, Mark | Devereux, Richard | Yeh, Jeun-Liang | Ali, Tauqeer | Calhoun, Darren | Ben-Shlomo, Yoav | Davey-Smith, George | Onat, Altan | Can, Günay | Nakagawa, Hidaeki | Sakurai, Masaru | Nakamura, Koshi | Morikawa, Yuko | Njølstad, Inger | Mathiesen, Ellisiv B | Løchen, Maja-Lisa | Wilsgaard, Tom | Sundström, Johan | Ingelsson, Erik | Michaëlsson, Karl | Cederholm, Tommy | Gaziano, J Michael | Buring, Julie | Ridker, Paul M | Gaziano, J Michael | Ridker, Paul M | Ulmer, Hanno | Diem, Günter | Concin, Hans | Rodeghiero, Francesco | Tosetto, Alberto | Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia | Manson, JoAnn E | Marmot, Michael | Clarke, Robert | Fletcher, Astrid | Brunner, Eric | Shipley, Martin | Kivimaki, Mika | Ridker, Paul M | Buring, Julie | Ford, Ian | Robertson, Michele | Ibañez, Alejandro Marín | Feskens, Edith | Geleijnse, Johanna M | Kromhout, Daan | Walker, Matthew | Watson, Sarah | Alexander, Myriam | Butterworth, Adam S | Angelantonio, Emanuele Di | Franco, Oscar H | Gao, Pei | Gobin, Reeta | Haycock, Philip | Kaptoge, Stephen | Seshasai, Sreenivasa R Kondapally | Lewington, Sarah | Pennells, Lisa | Rapsomaniki, Eleni | Sarwar, Nadeem | Thompson, Alexander | Thompson, Simon G | Walker, Matthew | Watson, Sarah | White, Ian R | Wood, Angela M | Wormser, David | Zhao, Xiaohui | Danesh, John
Background The extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain.
Methods We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual–participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies.
Results For people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5–1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96–0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93–0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03–1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90–0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12–1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80–0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators.
Conclusion Adult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases.
doi:10.1093/ije/dys086
PMCID: PMC3465767  PMID: 22825588
Height; cardiovascular disease; cancer; cause-specific mortality; epidemiological study; meta-analysis
2.  A prospective cohort study of depression in pregnancy, prevalence and risk factors in a multi-ethnic population 
Background
Depression in pregnancy increases the risk of complications for mother and child. Few studies are done in ethnic minorities. We wanted to identify the prevalence of depression in pregnancy and associations with ethnicity and other risk factors.
Method
Population-based, prospective cohort of 749 pregnant women (59% ethnic minorities) attending primary antenatal care during early pregnancy in Oslo between 2008 and 2010. Questionnaires covering demographics, health problems and psychosocial factors were collected through interviews. Depression in pregnancy was defined as a sum score ≥ 10 by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at gestational week 28.
Results
The crude prevalence of depression was; Western Europeans: 8.6% (95% CI: 5.45-11.75), Middle Easterners: 19.5% (12.19-26.81), South Asians: 17.5% (12.08-22.92), and other groups: 11.3% (6.09-16.51). Median EPDS score was 6 in Middle Easterners and 3 in all other groups.
Middle Easterners (OR = 2.81; 95% CI (1.29-6.15)) and South Asians (2.72 (1.35-5.48)) had significantly higher risk for depression than other minorities and Western Europeans in logistic regression models. When adjusting for socioeconomic position and family structure, the ORs were reduced by 16-18% (OR = 2.44 (1.07-5.57) and 2.25 (1.07-4.72). Other significant risk factors were the number of recent adverse life events, self-reported history of depression and poor subjective health three months before conception.
Conclusion
The prevalence of depression in pregnancy was higher in ethnic minorities from the Middle East and South Asia. The increased risk persisted after adjustment for risk factors.
doi:10.1186/s12884-014-0420-0
PMCID: PMC4310137  PMID: 25616717
Depression; Mental health; Risk factors; EPDS; Pregnancy; Ethnic groups
3.  Diabetes Mellitus, Fasting Glucose, and Risk of Cause-Specific Death 
The New England journal of medicine  2011;364(9):829-841.
BACKGROUND
The extent to which diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia is related to risk of death from cancer or other nonvascular conditions is uncertain.
METHODS
We calculated hazard ratios for cause-specific death, according to baseline diabetes status or fasting glucose level, from individual-participant data on 123,205 deaths among 820,900 people in 97 prospective studies.
RESULTS
After adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, and body-mass index, hazard ratios among persons with diabetes as compared with persons without diabetes were as follows: 1.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71 to 1.90) for death from any cause, 1.25 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.31) for death from cancer, 2.32 (95% CI, 2.11 to 2.56) for death from vascular causes, and 1.73 (95% CI, 1.62 to 1.85) for death from other causes. Diabetes (vs. no diabetes) was moderately associated with death from cancers of the liver, pancreas, ovary, colorectum, lung, bladder, and breast. Aside from cancer and vascular disease, diabetes (vs. no diabetes) was also associated with death from renal disease, liver disease, pneumonia and other infectious diseases, mental disorders, nonhepatic digestive diseases, external causes, intentional self-harm, nervous-system disorders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Hazard ratios were appreciably reduced after further adjustment for glycemia measures, but not after adjustment for systolic blood pressure, lipid levels, inflammation or renal markers. Fasting glucose levels exceeding 100 mg per deciliter (5.6 mmol per liter), but not levels of 70 to 100 mg per deciliter (3.9 to 5.6 mmol per liter), were associated with death. A 50-year-old with diabetes died, on average, 6 years earlier than a counterpart without diabetes, with about 40% of the difference in survival attributable to excess nonvascular deaths.
CONCLUSIONS
In addition to vascular disease, diabetes is associated with substantial premature death from several cancers, infectious diseases, external causes, intentional self-harm, and degenerative disorders, independent of several major risk factors. (Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1008862
PMCID: PMC4109980  PMID: 21366474
4.  Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors in a 40- to 42-year-old rural Norwegian population from 1975–2010: repeated cross-sectional surveys 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:569.
Background
Geographical differences in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been observed among Norwegian counties. Better long-term health status and higher physical activity (PA) levels have been documented in the county of Sogn & Fjordane compared with other counties. However, recent trends in CVD risk factors have not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the secular trends in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and other CVD risk factors over a 35-year period in a rural population of 40- to 42-year-olds in western Norway and to compare these trends with national trends.
Methods
Data from eight cross-sectional studies from 1975–2010 (n = 375,682) were obtained from questionnaires and physical examinations and were analyzed using mixed model regression analyses.
Results
Decreasing trends were observed for sedentary behavior (for women), moderate PA, smoking, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c) and total cholesterol (TC), whereas increasing trends were observed for body mass index (BMI), triglycerides (TG), light PA, vigorous PA and sedentary behavior for men. Compared to the national trends, the trends in the 40-42-year-olds from Sogn & Fjordane were more beneficial in terms of TG, HDL-c and BMI but less beneficial in terms of SBP and DBP.
Conclusions
Over a 35-year-period, this study indicates that the LTPA level has been relatively stable in the county of Sogn & Fjordane. Upward trends were observed in light and vigorous PA, whereas a downward trend was observed in moderate PA. For sedentary behavior, an upward trend was observed in men, whereas a downward trend was observed in women. For smoking, BP and cholesterol decreasing trends were found, but increasing trends were observed in BMI and TG. Compared with the national data, the trends in Sogn & Fjordane were more beneficial for TG, HDL-c and BMI but less beneficial for BP.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-569
PMCID: PMC4064500  PMID: 24906521
Physical activity; Cardiovascular disease; Risk factors; Trends; Geographic variation
5.  Ethnic Differences in Neonatal Body Composition in a Multi-Ethnic Population and the Impact of Parental Factors: A Population-Based Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e73058.
Background
Neonates from low and middle income countries (LAMIC) tend to have lower birth weight compared with Western European (WE) neonates. Parental height, BMI and maternal parity, age and educational level often differ according to ethnic background, and are associated with offspring birth weight. Less is known about how these factors affect ethnic differences in neonatal body composition.
Objectives
To explore differences in neonatal body composition in a multi-ethnic population, and the impact of key parental factors on these differences.
Methods
A population-based cohort study of pregnant mothers, fathers and their offspring, living in Oslo, Norway. Gender- and gestational-specific z-scores were calculated for several anthropometric measurements, with the neonates of WE ethnic origin as reference. Mean z-scores for neonates with LAMIC origin, and their parents, are presented as outcome variables.
Results
537 singleton, term neonates and their parents were included. All anthropometric measurements were smaller in neonates with LAMIC origin. Abdominal circumference and ponderal index differed the most from WE (mean z-score: −0.57 (95% CI:−0.69 to −0.44) and −0.54 (−0.66 to −0.44), and remained so after adjusting for parental size. Head circumference and skin folds differed less, and length the least (−0.21 (−0.35 to −0.07)). These measures became comparable to WEs when adjusted for parental factors.
Conclusions
LAMIC origin neonates were relatively “thin-fat”, as indicated by reduced AC and ponderal index and relatively preserved length and skin folds, compared with neonates with WE origin. This phenotype may predispose to type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073058
PMCID: PMC3756946  PMID: 24009731
6.  Patterns of Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese Individuals (20–85 Years): A Cross-Sectional Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e53044.
Background
The magnitude of the association between physical activity (PA) and obesity has been difficult to establish using questionnaires. The aim of the study was to evaluate patterns of PA across BMI-defined weight categories and to examine the independent contribution of PA on weight status, using accelerometers.
Methods
The study was a cross-sectional population-based study of 3,867 adults and older people aged 20–85 years, living in Norway. PA was assessed for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer. Anthropometrical data was self-reported and overweight and obesity was defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of 25–<30 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively.
Results
Overweight and obese participants performed less overall PA and PA of at least moderate intensity and took fewer steps, compared to normal weight participants. Although overall PA did not differ between weekdays and weekends, an interaction between BMI category and type of day was present, indicating a larger difference in overall PA between BMI categories on weekends compared to weekdays. Obese participants displayed 19% and 25% lower overall physical activity compared to normal weight participants, on weekdays and weekends, respectively. Participants in the most active quintile of overall PA had a 53% lower risk (OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.60) for having a BMI above or below 25 kg/m2, and a 71% lower risk (OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.44) for having a BMI above or below 30 kg/m2.
Conclusions
Overweight and obese participants engaged in less overall PA and moderate and vigorous PA compared with normal weight individuals. The weight related differences in overall PA were most pronounced on the weekend and the risk of being overweight or obese decreases across quintiles of PA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053044
PMCID: PMC3538675  PMID: 23308135
7.  Intervention Effects on Physical Activity and Insulin Levels in Men of Pakistani Origin Living in Oslo: A Randomised Controlled Trial 
High prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is seen in some immigrant groups in Western countries, particularly in those from the Indian subcontinent. Our aims were to increase the physical activity (PA) level in a group of Pakistani immigrant men, and to see whether any increase was associated with reduced serum glucose and insulin concentrations. The intervention was developed in collaboration with the Pakistani community. It used a social cognitive theory framework and consisted of structured supervised group exercises, group lectures, individual counselling and telephone follow-up. One- hundred and fifty physically inactive Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, Norway, were randomised to either a control group or an intervention group. The 5-month intervention focused on increasing levels of PA, which were assessed by use of accelerometer (Actigraph MTI 7164) recordings. Risk of diabetes was assessed by serum glucose and insulin concentrations determined in a fasted state, and after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). ANCOVA was used to assess differences between groups. There was a mean difference in PA between the two groups of 49 counts per minute per day, representing a 15 % (95 % CI = 8.7–21.2; P = 0.01) higher increase in total PA level in the intervention group than in the control group. Insulin values taken 2 h after an OGTT were reduced in the intervention group by 27 % (95 % CI = 18.9–35.0; P = 0.02) more than those in the control group. There were no differences in fasting or postprandial glucose values between the groups at the follow-up test. This type of intervention can increase PA and reduce serum insulin in Pakistani immigrant men, thereby presumably reducing their risk of T2D.
doi:10.1007/s10903-012-9686-3
PMCID: PMC3543607  PMID: 22828963
Minority group; Glucose; Insulin; Physical activity
8.  Diabetes susceptibility in ethnic minority groups from Turkey, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Pakistan compared with Norwegians - the association with adiposity is strongest for ethnic minority women 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:150.
Background
The difference in diabetes susceptibility by ethnic background is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the association between adiposity and diabetes in four ethnic minority groups compared with Norwegians, and take into account confounding by socioeconomic position.
Methods
Data from questionnaires, physical examinations and serum samples were analysed for 30-to 60-year-olds from population-based cross-sectional surveys of Norwegians and four immigrant groups, comprising 4110 subjects born in Norway (n = 1871), Turkey (n = 387), Vietnam (n = 553), Sri Lanka (n = 879) and Pakistan (n = 420). Known and screening-detected diabetes cases were identified. The adiposity measures BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were categorized into levels of adiposity. Gender-specific logistic regression models were applied to estimate the risk of diabetes for the ethnic minority groups adjusted for adiposity and income-generating work, years of education and body height used as a proxy for childhood socioeconomic position.
Results
The age standardized diabetes prevalence differed significantly between the ethnic groups (women/men): Pakistan: 26.4% (95% CI 20.1-32.7)/20.0% (14.9-25.2); Sri Lanka: 22.5% (18.1-26.9)/20.7% (17.3-24.2), Turkey: 11.9% (7.2-16.7)/12.0% (7.6-16.4), Vietnam: 8.1% (5.1-11.2)/10.4% (6.6-14.1) and Norway: 2.7% (1.8-3.7)/6.4% (4.6-8.1). The prevalence increased more in the minority groups than in Norwegians with increasing levels of BMI, WHR and waist circumference, and most for women. Highly significant ethnic differences in the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes were found for both genders in all categories of all adiposity measures (p < 0.001). The Odds Ratio (OR) for diabetes adjusted for age, WHR, body height, education and income-generating work with Norwegians as reference was 2.9 (1.30-6.36) for Turkish, 2.7 (1.29-5.76) for Vietnamese, 8.0 (4.19-15.14) for Sri Lankan and 8.3 (4.37-15.58) for Pakistani women. Men from Sri Lanka and Pakistan had identical ORs (3.0 (1.80-5.12)).
Conclusions
A high prevalence of diabetes was found in 30-to 60-year-olds from ethnic minority groups in Oslo, with those from Sri Lanka and Pakistan at highest risk. For all levels of adiposity, a higher susceptibility for diabetes was observed for ethnic minority groups compared with Norwegians. The association persisted after adjustment for socioeconomic position for all minority women and for men from Sri Lanka and Pakistan.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-150
PMCID: PMC3315409  PMID: 22380873
Diabetes; Ethnicity; Adiposity; Socioeconomic position; Life course
10.  Impact of ethnicity on gestational diabetes identified with the WHO and the modified International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria: a population-based cohort study 
European Journal of Endocrinology  2012;166(2):317-324.
Objective
The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) recently proposed new criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We compared prevalence rates, risk factors, and the effect of ethnicity using the World Health Organization (WHO) and modified IADPSG criteria.
Methods
This was a population-based cohort study of 823 (74% of eligible) healthy pregnant women, of whom 59% were from ethnic minorities. Universal screening was performed at 28±2 weeks of gestation with the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Venous plasma glucose (PG) was measured on site. GDM was diagnosed as per the definition of WHO criteria as fasting PG (FPG) ≥7.0 or 2-h PG ≥7.8 mmol/l; and as per the modified IADPSG criteria as FPG ≥5.1 or 2-h PG ≥8.5 mmol/l.
Results
OGTT was performed in 759 women. Crude GDM prevalence was 13.0% with WHO (Western Europeans 11%, ethnic minorities 15%, P=0.14) and 31.5% with modified IADPSG criteria (Western Europeans 24%, ethnic minorities 37%, P< 0.001). Using the WHO criteria, ethnic minority origin was an independent predictor (South Asians, odds ratio (OR) 2.24 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26–3.97); Middle Easterners, OR 2.13 (1.12–4.08)) after adjustments for age, parity, and prepregnant body mass index (BMI). This increased OR was unapparent after further adjustments for body height (proxy for early life socioeconomic status), education and family history of diabetes. Using the modified IADPSG criteria, prepregnant BMI (1.09 (1.05–1.13)) and ethnic minority origin (South Asians, 2.54 (1.56–4.13)) were independent predictors, while education, body height and family history had little impact.
Conclusion
GDM prevalence was overall 2.4-times higher with the modified IADPSG criteria compared with the WHO criteria. The new criteria identified many subjects with a relatively mild increase in FPG, strongly associated with South Asian origin and prepregnant overweight.
doi:10.1530/EJE-11-0866
PMCID: PMC3260695  PMID: 22108914
11.  6-year follow-up of 84 patients with cartilage defects in the knee 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(5):611-618.
Background and purpose
The natural history of focal cartilage injury is largely unknown. In this study we investigated 6-year outcomes in patients with arthroscopically verified, focal, full-thickness cartilage injuries of the knee.
Methods
In a previous report (baseline study) of 993 knee arthroscopies, 98 patients were less than 50 years old at baseline and showed grade 3–4 focal cartilage injury, as assessed with the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scale. In the present study, 84 of the 98 patients completed follow-ups at median 6.1 (5.3–7.8) years after baseline assessments. At baseline, the patients had undergone different types of cartilage repair (n = 34) or had no treatment or only debridement (n = 64) for their cartilage injury. The follow-up included evaluations with the ICRS knee evaluation form, the Lysholm score, and other knee evaluation tests. 68 patients underwent radiographic assessments with weight bearing.
Results
Improvements compared to baseline were noted in the average ICRS functional score, visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, and the patients' rating of the function in the affected knee compared to the contra-lateral knee. However, the average ICRS activity level had decreased from baseline. The average Lysholm score was 76 (SD 21). 19 patients had Kellgren-Lawrence grades 2–3 in the affected knee and 6 patients had grades 2–3 in the contralateral knee. There was a statistically significant difference between affected and contralateral knees.
Interpretation
Patients with arthroscopically diagnosed ICRS grade 3–4 cartilage injuries in the knee may show improvement in knee function over the following 5–8 years, with or without cartilage repair. However, knee function remains substantially affected. Further studies are needed to determine whether cartilage surgery can yield better functional outcomes than non-surgical or less invasive surgical treatments.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2010.519166
PMCID: PMC3214752  PMID: 20860448
12.  Secular trends in adiposity in Norwegian 9-year-olds from 1999-2000 to 2005 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:389.
Background
Due to the negative health consequences of childhood obesity monitoring trends in body mass and adiposity is essential. The purpose of this study was to describe secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among 9-year-old children, and to study changes in adiposity and fat distribution by investigating changes in waist circumference (WC) and skinfold thicknesses.
Methods
A total of 859 9-year-olds were included in two cross-sectional studies conducted in 1999-2000 and 2005. Measurements of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), WC and skinfold thicknesses were taken by trained investigators. The International Obesity Task Force cut-offs were used to define overweight and obese subjects.
Results
The overall prevalence of overweight (including obesity) did not change over the five year period. However, a shift may have occurred as the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) increased by 6.4% in girls and 5.5% in boys over the five year period. In both study periods, logistic regression analyses revealed that children of non-Western origin had 2 times higher odds of being overweight/obese than those of Western origin. However, neither the children of Western origin nor the children of non-Western origin showed a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight over the five-year period. No changes were observed for mean BMI, while a significant increase in WC was reported for both girls and boys, and an increase in all skinfold measurements was observed in girls only. Shifts in percentile distribution were observed for BMI, WC and sum of 4 skinfold thickness, however, the shift appeared to be faster in the upper end of the population distribution (p < 0.001 for interactions).
Conclusion
From 1999-2000 to 2005, there have been increases in 9-year-olds measures of adiposity even though the BMI did not change. The results indicate the need of a large-scale monitoring of adiposity, in addition to BMI, in children.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-389
PMCID: PMC2765441  PMID: 19828037
13.  Comprehensive warm-up programme to prevent injuries in young female footballers: cluster randomised controlled trial 
Objective To examine the effect of a comprehensive warm-up programme designed to reduce the risk of injuries in female youth football.
Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation.
Setting 125 football clubs from the south, east, and middle of Norway (65 clusters in the intervention group; 60 in the control group) followed for one league season (eight months).
Participants 1892 female players aged 13-17 (1055 players in the intervention group; 837 players in the control group).
Intervention A comprehensive warm-up programme to improve strength, awareness, and neuromuscular control during static and dynamic movements.
Main outcome measure Injuries to the lower extremity (foot, ankle, lower leg, knee, thigh, groin, and hip).
Results During one season, 264 players had relevant injuries: 121 players in the intervention group and 143 in the control group (rate ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.03). In the intervention group there was a significantly lower risk of injuries overall (0.68, 0.48 to 0.98), overuse injuries (0.47, 0.26 to 0.85), and severe injuries (0.55, 0.36 to 0.83).
Conclusion Though the primary outcome of reduction in lower extremity injury did not reach significance, the risk of severe injuries, overuse injuries, and injuries overall was reduced. This indicates that a structured warm-up programme can prevent injuries in young female football players.
Trial registration ISRCTN10306290.
doi:10.1136/bmj.a2469
PMCID: PMC2600961  PMID: 19066253
14.  Leisure time physical activity in middle age predicts the metabolic syndrome in old age: results of a 28-year follow-up of men in the Oslo study 
BMC Public Health  2007;7:154.
Background
Data are scarce on the long term relationship between leisure time physical activity, smoking and development of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We wanted to investigate the relationship between leisure time physical activity and smoking measured in middle age and the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in men that participated in two cardiovascular screenings of the Oslo Study 28 years apart.
Methods
Men residing in Oslo and born in 1923–32 (n = 16 209) were screened for cardiovascular diseases and risk factors in 1972/3. Of the original cohort, those who also lived in same area in 2000 were invited to a repeat screening examination, attended by 6 410 men. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to a modification of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Leisure time physical activity, smoking, educational attendance and the presence of diabetes were self-reported.
Results
Leisure time physical activity decreased between the first and second screening and tracked only moderately between the two time points (Spearman's ρ = 0.25). Leisure time physical activity adjusted for age and educational attendance was a significant predictor of both the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in 2000 (odds ratio for moderately vigorous versus sedentary/light activity was 0.65 [95% CI, 0.54–0.80] for the metabolic syndrome and 0.68 [0.52–0.91] for diabetes) (test for trend P < 0.05). However, when adjusted for more factors measured in 1972/3 including glucose, triglycerides, body mass index, treated hypertension and systolic blood pressure these associations were markedly attenuated. Smoking was associated with the metabolic syndrome but not with diabetes in 2000.
Conclusion
Physical activity during leisure recorded in middle age prior to the current waves of obesity and diabetes had an independent predictive association with the presence of the metabolic syndrome but not significantly so with diabetes 28 years later in life, when the subjects were elderly.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-154
PMCID: PMC1947967  PMID: 17625024
15.  The "Romsås in Motion" community intervention: program exposure and psychosocial mediated relationships to change in stages of change in physical activity 
Background
Conducting process evaluations of health promoting interventions, and measuring the effectiveness of specific intervention components, may help in the understanding of program failure or success. The purposes of the present study were to examine adults' exposure to and involvement in specific components of a three year long pseudo-experimental community-based physical activity intervention, and to examine the relationship between such exposure and participation and changes in stages of change in physical activity and psychosocial mediators.
Methods
1497 persons in the intervention group attended the baseline survey in 2000 (50.6%) and 1204 (80.4 of baseline attendees) provided data on the outcome variables of the present study. In 2003, 1089 were still living in the area, and were re-invited to follow-up assessments. Current analyses are based on the 603 persons (mean age 49 ± 10 years) who provided baseline and follow-up data for the current purposes (56.6% follow-up rate). Process data, stages of change in physical activity, and potential psychosocial mediators of change in physical activity were assessed by questionnaires. The theory-based intervention was composed of communication, physical activity, environmental and participatory components. Data were analysed using frequency and descriptive statistics, Chi-square and t-tests, and regression analyses.
Results
Exposure and participation rates in the various intervention components varied greatly (1.5–92.7%). Participation in walking groups and aerobic exercise groups, as well as having seen the "Walk the stairs"-poster were significantly and positively related to change in stages of change in physical activity (β = .12, p = .011; β = .211, p < .001; β = .105, p = .014, respectively). Additionally, having used the walk path was significantly and positively related to change in stages in women (β = .209, p = .001) but not in men (β = -.011, p = .879), and in Western people (β = .149, p = .003) but not in non-Westerners (β = -.293, p = .092). Observed significant relations were partly mediated by positive changes in psychosocial factors as social support from friends, perceived control, and physical activity identity.
Conclusion
Findings revealed that particular intervention components, such as participation in physical activity groups, were more strongly related to forward transition in stages of change in physical activity than others. These findings together with results indicating that such transitions were mediated by specific psychosocial influences may improve theory and help to prioritize among specific intervention components in future programs.
doi:10.1186/1479-5868-4-15
PMCID: PMC1871604  PMID: 17466077
16.  An adapted version of the long International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-L): construct validity in a low-income, multiethnic population study from Oslo, Norway 
Background
The aim was to assess the construct validity characteristics of an adapted version of the long International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-L) and report seasonal variations in physical activity (PA).
Methods
In two multiethnic suburbs of Oslo, Norway, all men and women aged 31–67 years (N = 6140) were invited to a survey in 2000, and participants (N = 2950) were re-invited in 2003. Complete IPAQ-L forms were delivered by 2274 baseline participants. We used the first IPAQ-L version, which asks for PA in a usual week with separate answering alternatives for summer and winter. Baseline energy expenditure calculated from IPAQ-L was compared with anthropometrical and biological measurements including maximal aerobic power in a subgroup, and individual changes in PA were compared with changes in these measurements.
Results
Vigorous PA within all domains, leisure-time PA (LPA), total PA, and in men occupational PA correlated with waist-to-hip ratio (rho around -0.1, p < 0.05). For vigorous PA and LPA similar correlations were found with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (rho 0.1, p < 0.05). LPA was correlated with maximal aerobic power in both sexes with rho 0.2 for total LPA and 0.4 for vigorous LPA (p < 0.01). In men, similar correlations were found for changes in total vigorous PA.
The overall energy expenditure reported was 18% higher in summer than in winter. The amount of total and commuting PA in the two seasons were highly correlated with rho values of 0.9 and 0.7, respectively (p < 0.01).
Conclusion
Weak, but consistent correlations with baseline biological and anthropometrical measurements were found in both sexes, but for changes in PA such a pattern was seen in men only. The total energy expenditure in summer and winter were highly correlated although the absolute volume was higher in summer than in winter.
doi:10.1186/1479-5868-4-13
PMCID: PMC1866242  PMID: 17448225
17.  Exercises to prevent lower limb injuries in youth sports: cluster randomised controlled trial 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2005;330(7489):449.
Objective To investigate the effect of a structured warm-up programme designed to reduce the incidence of knee and ankle injuries in young people participating in sports.
Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation.
Setting 120 team handball clubs from central and eastern Norway (61 clubs in the intervention group, 59 in the control group) followed for one league season (eight months).
Participants 1837 players aged 15-17 years; 958 players (808 female and 150 male) in the intervention group; 879 players (778 female and 101 male) in the control group.
Intervention A structured warm-up programme to improve running, cutting, and landing technique as well as neuromuscular control, balance, and strength.
Main outcome measure The rate of acute injuries to the knee or ankle.
Results During the season, 129 acute knee or ankle injuries occurred, 81 injuries in the control group (0.9 (SE 0.09) injuries per 1000 player hours; 0.3 (SE 0.17) in training v 5.3 (SE 0.06) during matches) and 48 injuries in the intervention group (0.5 (SE 0.11) injuries per 1000 player hours; 0.2 (SE 0.18) in training v 2.5 (SE 0.06) during matches). Fewer injured players were in the intervention group than in the control group (46 (4.8%) v (76 (8.6%); relative risk intervention group v control group 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.35 to 0.81).
Conclusion A structured programme of warm-up exercises can prevent knee and ankle injuries in young people playing sports. Preventive training should therefore be introduced as an integral part of youth sports programmes.
doi:10.1136/bmj.38330.632801.8F
PMCID: PMC549653  PMID: 15699058
18.  Urban air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Norwegian men. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2004;112(5):610-615.
We investigated the association between total and cause-specific mortality and individual measures of long-term air pollution exposure in a cohort of Norwegian men followed from 1972-1973 through 1998. Data from a follow-up study on cardiovascular risk factors among 16,209 men 40-49 years of age living in Oslo, Norway, in 1972-1973 were linked with data from the Norwegian Death Register and with estimates of average yearly air pollution levels at the participants' home addresses from 1974 to 1998. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to estimate associations between exposure and total and cause-specific mortality. During the follow-up time 4,227 men died from a disease corresponding to an ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, Revision 9) code < 800. Controlling for a number of potential confounders, the adjusted risk ratio for dying was 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.11] for a 10- microg/m3 increase in average exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the home address from 1974 through 1978. Corresponding adjusted risk ratios for dying from a respiratory disease other than lung cancer were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.06-1.26); from lung cancer, 1.11 (95% CI, 1.03-1.19); from ischemic heart diseases, 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.12); and from cerebrovascular diseases, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.94-1.15). The findings indicate that urban air pollution may increase the risk of dying. The effect seemed to be strongest for deaths from respiratory diseases other than lung cancer.
PMCID: PMC1241929  PMID: 15064169
19.  Single blind, randomised controlled trial of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no treatment in management of genuine stress incontinence in women 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1999;318(7182):487-493.
Objective
To compare the effect of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no treatment for genuine stress incontinence.
Design
Stratified, single blind, randomised controlled trial.
Setting
Multicentre.
Participants
107 women with clinically and urodynamically proved genuine stress incontinence. Mean (range) age was 49.5 (24-70) years, and mean (range) duration of symptoms 10.8 (1-45) years.
Interventions
Pelvic floor exercise (n=25) comprised 8-12 contractions 3 times a day and exercise in groups with skilled physical therapists once a week. The electrical stimulation group (n=25) used vaginal intermittent stimulation with the MS 106 Twin at 50 Hz 30 minutes a day. The vaginal cones group (n=27) used cones for 20 minutes a day. The untreated control group (n=30) was offered the use of a continence guard. Muscle strength was measured by vaginal squeeze pressure once a month.
Main outcome measures
Pad test with standardised bladder volume, and self report of severity.
Results
Improvement in muscle strength was significantly greater (P=0.03) after pelvic floor exercises (11.0 cm H2O (95% confidence interval 7.7 to 14.3) before v 19.2 cm H2O (15.3 to 23.1) after) than either electrical stimulation (14.8 cm H2O (10.9 to 18.7) v 18.6 cm H2O (13.3 to 23.9)) or vaginal cones (11.8 cm H2O (8.5 to 15.1) v 15.4 cm H2O (11.1 to 19.7)). Reduction in leakage on pad test was greater in the exercise group (−30.2 g; −43.3 to 16.9) than in the electrical stimulation group (−7.4 g; −20.9 to 6.1) and the vaginal cones group (−14.7 g; −27.6 to −1.8). On completion of the trial one participant in the control group, 14 in the pelvic floor exercise group, three in the electrical stimulation group, and two in the vaginal cones group no longer considered themselves as having a problem.
Conclusion
Training of the pelvic floor muscles is superior to electrical stimulation and vaginal cones in the treatment of genuine stress incontinence.
Key messagesTraining to increase the strength of pelvic floor muscles was superior to electrical stimulation and vaginal cones in treatment of genuine stress incontinenceAdverse effects were reported with use of electrical stimulation and vaginal cones but not with exercisesPatients’ tolerance for electrical stimulation and vaginal cones was lowPelvic floor exercise should be first choice of treatment for genuine stress incontinence
PMCID: PMC27740  PMID: 10024253
21.  Neopterin is associated with cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in renal transplant patients 
Clinical Transplantation  2013;28(1):111-119.
Background
Inflammatory markers show significant associations with cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality after kidney transplantation. Neopterin, reflecting interferon-γ-release, may better reflect the proinflammatory state of recipients than less specific markers.
Methods
Kidney transplant recipients in the Assessment of LEscol in Renal Transplant (ALERT) trial were examined and investigated for an association between serum neopterin and subsequent clinical events: graft loss, major cardiovascular events (MACE) and all-cause mortality.
Results
After adjustment for established and emerging risk factors neopterin expressed as neopterin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly associated with MACE (p = 0.009) and all-cause mortality (p = 0.002). Endpoints were more frequent with increasing quartiles of neopterin-to-creatinine ratio. The incidence rates of MACE and all-cause mortality were significantly increased in the upper quartiles compared with the first.
Conclusions
This long-term prospective analysis in stable kidney allograft recipients suggests that neopterin is associated with long-term risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, but not renal outcomes.
doi:10.1111/ctr.12285
PMCID: PMC4204514  PMID: 24372612
inflammatory marker; kidney transplantation; long-term; neopterin; outcomes
22.  Symmetric Dimethylarginine as Predictor of Graft loss and All-Cause Mortality in Renal Transplant Recipients 
Transplantation  2014;98(11):1219-1225.
Supplemental digital content is available in the text.
Background
Elevated symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been shown to predict cardiovascular events and all cause mortality in diverse populations. The potential role of SDMA as a risk marker in renal transplant recipients (RTR) has not been investigated.
Methods
We analyzed SDMA in the placebo arm of the Assessment of Lescol in Renal Transplantation study, a randomized controlled trial of fluvastatin in RTR. Mean follow-up was 5.1 years. Patients were grouped into quartiles based on SDMA levels at study inclusion. Relationships between SDMA and traditional risk factors for graft function and all-cause mortality were analyzed in 925 RTR using univariate and multivariate survival analyses.
Results
In univariate analysis, SDMA was significantly associated with renal graft loss, all-cause death, and major cardiovascular events. After adjustment for established risk factors including estimated glomerular filtration rate, an elevated SDMA-level (4th quartile, >1.38 μmol/L) was associated with renal graft loss; hazard ratio (HR), 5.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.95–15.57; P=0.001, compared to the 1st quartile. Similarly, SDMA in the 4th quartile was independently associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 4.56; 95% CI, 2.15–9.71; P<0.001), and there was a strong borderline significant trend for an association with cardiovascular mortality (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 0.99–8.21; P=0.051).
Conclusion
In stable RTR, an elevated SDMA level is independently associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and renal graft loss.
doi:10.1097/TP.0000000000000205
PMCID: PMC4240460  PMID: 24999963
Symmetric dimethylarginine; Renal transplantation; Survival; Graft loss

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