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author:("fire, Anthony")
1.  The Role of Dendritic Cells in Tissue-Specific Autoimmunity 
Journal of Immunology Research  2014;2014:857143.
In this review, we explore the role of dendritic cell subsets in the development of tissue-specific autoimmune diseases. From the increasing list of dendritic cell subclasses, it is becoming clear that we are only at the beginning of understanding the role of these antigen presenting cells in mediating autoimmunity. Emerging research areas for the study of dendritic cell involvement in the onset and inhibition of tissue-specific autoimmunity are presented. Further, we compare tissue specific to systemic autoimmunity to demonstrate how development of dendritic cell-based therapies may be broadly applicable to both classes of autoimmunity. Continued development of these research areas will lead us closer to clinical assessment of novel immunosuppressive therapy for the reversal and prevention of tissue-specific autoimmunity. Through description of dendritic cell functions in the modulation of tissue-specific autoimmunity, we hope to stimulate a greater appreciation and understanding of the role dendritic cells play in the development and treatment of autoimmunity.
PMCID: PMC4022068  PMID: 24877157
2.  The En Balance Spanish Diabetes Education Program Improves Apolipoproteins, Serum Glucose and Body Composition in Hispanic Diabetics 
Ethnicity & disease  2012;22(2):215-220.
We evaluated the changes in apolipoproteins, glycemic status, and body composition after 3 months using a culturally sensitive diabetes education program, En Balance, in diabetic Hispanics.
Thirty-four (9 males, 25 females) Hispanic diabetics participated in the En Balance program over three months. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), A1c, and apolipoproteins (Apo) measured after 3 months participation. Differences were analyzed using paired t testing and relationships between changes in Apo, A1c, total cholesterol, body mass index and body composition by Spearman correlations.
Completion of En Balance resulted in a significant reduction in weight (80.31 ± 1.97 kg vs 81.25 ± 17.97 kg, P=.015), FPG (143.21 ± 57.8 mg/dL vs 166.41 ± 65.9 mg/dL P=.003), and A1c (7.08 ± 1.6% vs 7.87 ± 2.0%, P=<.001). DXA demonstrated reduction in total fat (29.54 ± 10.0 kg vs 30.24 ± 11.80 kg, P=<.001) and trunk fat (15.09 ± 5.6 kg vs 16.87 ± 5.4 kg, P=.001). High density lipoprotein significantly increased (48.85 ± 11.4 vs 44.65 ± 8.8, P=.002) and total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio decreased (3.87 ± .98 vs 4.35 ± 1.0, P=.001). There were significant correlations at three months between changes in Apo A1 and A2 (r=.559, P<.001), Apo E and total cholesterol (r=.746, P<.001), between A1c and FPG (r=.563, P=.001) and BMI and body weight (r=.732, P<.001).
The En Balance program improved body composition, A1c, FPG, total cholesterol/HDL ratio and HDL. If these trends can be sustained, En Balance may serve as a unique educational paradigm for improving type 2 diabetes in Hispanics.
PMCID: PMC3894418  PMID: 22764645
Hispanics; Type 2 Diabetes; Diabetes Education Programs
3.  En Balance 
The Diabetes educator  2012;38(5):10.1177/0145721712457249.
This study was designed to assess the feasibility of culturally and language-sensitive diabetes education as a way to increase physical activity and to improve health/diabetes management in a group of Spanish-speaking Hispanics in the Inland Empire region of Southern California.
En Balance is a culturally sensitive diabetes education program designed for Spanish-speaking Hispanic adults. The 3-month educational intervention assessed 16 males and 23 females living in Riverside and San Bernardino counties of Southern California. Baseline and 3-month evaluations of physical activity were assessed using the validated Arizona Activity Frequency Questionnaire.
After 3 months on the En Balance program, there was a significant increase in moderate intensity physical activity energy expenditure (M = 368 ± 894 kcal/day, P < 0.01) and high intensity physical activity energy expenditure (M = 405 ± 2569 kcal/day, P = 0.05) compared to baseline and significant reductions in A1C (−0.90%, P = 0.01), total cholesterol (−13.44 mg/dl, P = 0.01), LDL cholesterol (−10.28 mg/dl, P = 0.03), and waist circumference (−1.52 cm, P = 0.04).
En Balance program resulted in significant mean increases in both moderate and high intensity physical activity energy expenditure among this group of Hispanic diabetic participants, indicating that despite a general pattern of low physical activity in this group, an intervention that stresses both nutrition and exercise in culturally sensitive ways can positively impact participant’s physical activity levels as well as impact nutritional changes.
PMCID: PMC3885415  PMID: 22968219
Hispanic; diabetes; education; physical activity; glucose control
4.  En Balance Participants Decrease Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Intake as Part of a Culturally Sensitive Hispanic Diabetes Education Program 
The Diabetes educator  2011;37(2):239-253.
The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake habits of Mexican American Hispanic adults participating in the En Balance diabetes education program.
En Balance is a 3-month culturally sensitive diabetes education intervention for Spanish-speaking Hispanics. Of the 46 participants enrolled, 39 mainly Mexican American Hispanic adults with type 2 diabetes completed the En Balance program. Participants lived in the Riverside and San Bernardino counties of California, and all participants completed the program by June 2008. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and at 3 months using the validated Southwest Food Frequency Questionnaire.
Clinically important decreases in glycemic control and serum lipid levels were observed at the end of the 3-month program. The baseline diet was characterized by a high intake of energy (2478 ± 1140 kcal), total fat (87 ± 44 g/day), saturated fat (28 ± 15 g/day), dietary cholesterol (338 ± 217 mg/day), and sodium (4236 ± 2055 mg/day). At 3 months, the En Balance group mean intake of dietary fat (P = .045) and dietary cholesterol (P = .033) decreased significantly. Low dietary intakes of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and vitamin E were also observed in these adults with type 2 diabetes.
The En Balance program improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in a group of Hispanic diabetic participants. En Balance also promoted decreases in dietary fat and dietary cholesterol intake.
PMCID: PMC3062643  PMID: 21343598
5.  Impacting obesity and glycemic control using a culturally-sensitive diabetes education program in Hispanic patients with type 2 diabetes 
Diabetes mellitus and obesity are prevalent in the Hispanic community. This group has not benefited greatly from diabetes interventions due to cultural, language and financial constraints. We designed a prospective cohort study to determine the clinical impact on adiposity and glycemic control in Hispanics with type 2 diabetes.
Research design and methods
The program conducted in Spanish by a multidisciplinary team of health care providers focused on improving glycemic control and complications through cultural lifestyle changes. Outcomes were changes in glycemic control by fasting insulin, glucose and HbA1c, body composition and selected adipokines, adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Changes from baseline at three months were compared using paired t-tests and with Spearman’s correlations.
Glycemic control improved by HbA1c (7.9% ± 2.0% vs 7.1% ± 1.7%; P = <0.001), and fasting glucose (166.4 ± 66.0 mg/dl vs 143.2 ± 57.9 mg/dl; P = 0.003). Body weight (81.3 ± 17.9 kg vs 80.3 ± 18.0 kg; P = 0.002), waist circumference (101.6 ± 13.4 cm vs 99.1 ± 12.7 cm; P = 0.015), and truncal fat (16.5 ± 5.7 kg vs 15.9 ± 5.6 kg; P = 0.001) decreased. Only leptin (19.6 ± 15.0 ng/ml vs 16.3 ± 12.7 ng/ml; P = 0.002) was reduced and related to change in body weight (r = 0.392; P = 0.022).
Our program significantly improved glycemic control and decreased obesity in diabetic Hispanic subjects. The early benefits on glycemic control may be related to reductions in leptin through loss of adipose tissue. Success in impacting diabetes and related complications can occur in a culturally focused and multidisciplinary context.
PMCID: PMC3036541  PMID: 21318090
glycemic control; obesity; leptin; culture
6.  Improved Clinical Outcomes Using a Culturally Sensitive Diabetes Education Program in a Hispanic Population 
The Diabetes educator  2008;34(4):698-706.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a culturally sensitive diabetes education program for Hispanics with type 2 diabetes.
This study is a prospective cohort study to test the impact of a comprehensive diabetes education program on blood glucose control on Hispanics with type 2 diabetes. The educational program focused on maintaining glycemic control and general aspects of managing diabetes and complications. The study participants were recruited by flyers placed in Hispanic markets and in ambulatory care clinics. A total of 34 Hispanic male and female subjects with type 2 diabetes participated in the study. The concentrations of glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were analyzed at baseline and at 3 months.
A significant mean change was observed for HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol/HDL ratio, and HDL after 3 months of education compared with baseline. There were significant reductions in weight, total fat, percent fat, trunk fat, and waist-to-hip ratio compared with baseline. After 3 months, subjects showed a significant positive correlation between changes in body mass index and insulin and weight, total fat, trunk fat, and fat free mass and insulin.
A culturally sensitive program conducted in Spanish had a significant impact on important clinical parameters in Hispanic subjects with diabetes in a relatively short time period. The study demonstrates the importance of designing education intervention studies that are sensitive to cultural diversity, particularly in at-risk diabetic subjects.
PMCID: PMC2779017  PMID: 18669812
7.  Initial Experience with Patient-Clinician Secure Messaging at a VA Medical Center 
The authors implemented what is possibly the first secure messaging system in a VA Medical Center. Since reimbursement for secure messaging is not of great concern and clinical data systems are fully computerized, several evaluation strategies were used to assess clinical adoption. To address known concerns of clinicians, the authors analyzed secure messaging use and performed a content analysis. Message volumes were low and content analysis demonstrated that messages were appropriate. Despite this, a clinician survey showed that clinical adoption was impeded by several factors including the introduction of secure messaging to selected patients, workload concerns, and clinician communication preferences. In addition, the authors believe that clinicians experienced clinical adoption inertia resulting from the overload of information in a highly computerized clinical environment. The authors learned that to promote clinician adoption they must demonstrate workload benefits from secure messaging and more fully analyze the clinical computing workload that clinicians experience.
PMCID: PMC2649318  PMID: 19074303
8.  Combined Insulin Pump Therapy with Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring Significantly Improves Glycemic Control Compared to Multiple Daily Injection Therapy in Pump Naïve Patients with Type 1 Diabetes; Single Center Pilot Study Experience 
This study assessed the safety and clinical effectiveness of the training protocol for initiating insulin pump therapy with real-time continuous glucose monitoring (MiniMed Paradigm REAL-Time System) in a stepwise approach on pump naive subjects with type 1 diabetes compared to a control group who remained on multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy.
This was a 15-week treat-to-target pilot study of 16 adult subjects (n = 50% male, age 45.9 ± 16 years) with type 1 diabetes (duration of diabetes 21.9 ± 11 years) on MDI therapy with hemoglobin A1c levels at or above 7.5% at baseline. Subjects were randomized to either the study arm (using a combined insulin pump and real-time continuous glucose monitoring system) or the control arm [which continued on MDI therapy with self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) only]. All subjects dosed insulin according to results of SMBG by finger stick and uploaded data into the CareLink data management software.
Significant improvements in glycemic control were observed from baseline in both study groups—study arm: pre-A1c 9.45 ± 0.55 and post-A1c 7.4 ± 0.66 (p = 0.00037); control arm: pre-A1c 8.58 ± 1.30 and post-A1c 7.5 ±1.01 (p = 0.04). Both arms had no incidence of severe hypoglycemia.
In this pilot study, the Paradigm REAL-Time System was initiated safely and effectively in type 1 diabetes patients who were pump naïve using a stepwise educational protocol.
PMCID: PMC2769585  PMID: 19885096
augmented; diabetes; sensor; pump; real time; paradigm

Results 1-8 (8)