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1.  STAT5 Is an Ambivalent Regulator of Neutrophil Homeostasis 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(8):e727.
Background
Although STAT5 promotes survival of hematopoietic progenitors, STAT5−/− mice develop mild neutrophilia.
Methodology/Principal findings
Here, we show that in STAT5−/− mice, liver endothelial cells (LECs) autonomously secrete high amounts of G-CSF, allowing myeloid progenitors to overcompensate for their intrinsic survival defect. However, when injected with pro-inflammatory cytokines, mutant mice cannot further increase neutrophil production, display a severe deficiency in peripheral neutrophil survival, and are therefore unable to maintain neutrophil homeostasis. In wild-type mice, inflammatory stimulation induces rapid STAT5 degradation in LECs, G-CSF production by LECs and other cell types, and then sustained mobilization and expansion of long-lived neutrophils.
Conclusion
We conclude that STAT5 is an ambivalent factor. In cells of the granulocytic lineage, it exerts an antiapoptotic function that is required for maintenance of neutrophil homeostasis, especially during the inflammatory response. In LECs, STAT5 negatively regulates granulopoiesis by directly or indirectly repressing G-CSF expression. Removal of this STAT5-imposed brake contributes to induction of emergency granulopoiesis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000727
PMCID: PMC1939728  PMID: 17710127
2.  Normal Thyroid Structure and Function in Rhophilin 2-Deficient Mice 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2005;25(7):2846-2852.
Rhophilin 2 is a Rho GTPase binding protein initially isolated by differential screening of a chronically thyrotropin (TSH)-stimulated dog thyroid cDNA library. In thyroid cell culture, expression of rhophilin 2 mRNA and protein is enhanced following TSH stimulation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) transduction cascade. Yeast two-hybrid screening and coimmunoprecipitation have revealed that the GTP-bound form of RhoB and components of the cytoskeleton are protein partners of rhophilin 2. These results led us to suggest that rhophilin 2 could play an important role downstream of RhoB in the control of endocytosis during the thyroid secretory process which follows stimulation of the TSH/cAMP pathway. To validate this hypothesis, we generated rhophilin 2-deficient mice and analyzed their thyroid structure and function. Mice lacking rhophilin 2 develop normally, have normal life spans, and are fertile. They have no visible goiter and no obvious clinical signs of hyper- or hypothyroidism. The morphology of thyroid cells and follicles in these mice were normal, as were the different biological tests performed to investigate thyroid function. Our results indicate that rhophilin 2 does not play an essential role in thyroid physiology.
doi:10.1128/MCB.25.7.2846-2852.2005
PMCID: PMC1061632  PMID: 15767687
3.  Amastigote Load and Cell Surface Phenotype of Infected Cells from Lesions and Lymph Nodes of Susceptible and Resistant Mice Infected with Leishmania major  
Infection and Immunity  2003;71(5):2704-2715.
Cells of the dendritic cell (DC) lineage, by their unique ability to stimulate naive T cells, may be of crucial importance in the development of protective immune responses to Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of L. major infection on DCs in BALB/c (susceptible, developing Th2 responses), C57BL/6 (resistant, developing Th1 responses), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)−/− C57BL/6 mice (susceptible, developing delayed and reduced Th1 responses). We analyzed by immunohistochemistry the phenotype of infected cells in vivo. Granulocytes (GR1+) and macrophages (CD11b+) appear as the mainly infected cells in primary lesions. In contrast, cells expressing CD11c, a DC specific marker, are the most frequently infected cells in draining lymph nodes of all mice tested. These infected CD11c+ cells harbored a particular morphology and cell surface phenotype in infected C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. CD11c+ infected cells from C57BL/6 and TNF−/− C57BL/6 mice displayed a weak parasitic load and a dendritic morphology and frequently expressed CD11b or F4/80 myeloid differentiation markers. In contrast, some CD11c+ infected cells from BALB/c mice were multinucleated giant cells. Giant cells presented a dramatic accumulation of parasites and differentiation markers were not detectable at their surface. In all mice, lymph node CD11c+ infected cells expressed a low major histocompatibility complex II level and no detectable CD86 expression. Our results suggest that infected CD11c+ DC-like cells might constitute a reservoir of parasites in lymph nodes.
doi:10.1128/IAI.71.5.2704-2715.2003
PMCID: PMC153240  PMID: 12704145
4.  CD8α+ and CD8α− Subclasses of Dendritic Cells Direct the Development of Distinct T Helper Cells In Vivo  
Cells of the dendritic family display some unique properties that confer to them the capacity to sensitize naive T cells in vitro and in vivo. In the mouse, two subclasses of dendritic cells (DCs) have been described that differ by their CD8α expression and their localization in lymphoid organs. The physiologic function of both cell populations remains obscure. Studies conducted in vitro have suggested that CD8α+ DCs could play a role in the regulation of immune responses, whereas conventional CD8α− DCs would be more stimulatory. We report here that both subclasses of DCs efficiently prime antigen-specific T cells in vivo, and direct the development of distinct T helper (Th) populations. Antigen-pulsed CD8α+ and CD8α− DCs are separated after overnight culture in recombinant granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and injected into the footpads of syngeneic mice. Administration of CD8α− DCs induces a Th2-type response, whereas injection of CD8α+ DCs leads to Th1 differentiation. We further show that interleukin 12 plays a critical role in Th1 development by CD8α+ DCs. These findings suggest that the nature of the DC that presents the antigen to naive T cells may dictate the class selection of the adaptative immune response.
PMCID: PMC2192907  PMID: 9927520
primary response; T helper cell type 1/type 2 balance; interleukin 12; tolerance; memory

Results 1-4 (4)