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Acta Naturae (1)
Journal of Internal Medicine (1)
Kaprelyants, A.S. (1)
Kaufmann, S H E (1)
Kaufmann, S.H.E. (1)
Mollenkopf, H.J. (1)
Salina, E.G. (1)
Weiner, J (1)
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Recent advances towards tuberculosis control: vaccines and biomarkers
Journal of Internal Medicine
Weiner 3rd J, Kaufmann SHE (Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany). Recent advances towards tuberculosis control: vaccines and biomarkers. (Review). J Intern Med 2014; 275: 467–480.
Of all infectious diseases, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in understanding the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and the immune response of the infected host have led to the development of several new vaccines, a number of which are already undergoing clinical trials. These include pre-exposure prime vaccines, which could replace bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG), and pre-exposure booster vaccines given in addition to BCG. Infants are the target population of these two types of vaccines. In addition, several postexposure vaccines given during adolescence or adult life, in addition to BCG as a priming vaccine during infancy, are undergoing clinical testing. Therapeutic vaccines are currently being assessed for their potential to cure active TB as an adjunct to chemotherapy. BCG replacement vaccines are viable recombinant BCG or double-deletion mutants of Mtb. All booster vaccines are composed of one or several antigens, either expressed by viral vectors or formulated with adjuvants. Therapeutic vaccines are killed mycobacterial preparations. Finally, multivariate biomarkers and biosignatures are being generated from high-throughput data with the aim of providing better diagnostic tools to specifically determine TB progression. Here, we provide a technical overview of these recent developments as well of the relevant computational approaches and highlight the obstacles that still need to be overcome.
bacille Calmette–Guérin; biomarker; biosignature; tuberculosis; vaccine
M. tuberculosis Gene Expression during Transition to the "Non-Culturable" State
We analyzed the gene expression profile under specific conditions during reversible transition of M. tuberculosis cells to the "non-culturable" (NC) state in a prolonged stationary phase. More than 500 genes were differentially regulated, while 238 genes were upregulated over all time points during NC cell formation. Approximately a quarter of these upregulated genes belong to insertion and phage sequences indicating a possible high intensity of genome modification processes taking place under transition to the NC state. Besides the high proportion of hypothetical/conserved hypothetical genes in the cohort of upregulated genes, there was a significant number of genes belonging to intermediary metabolism, respiration, information pathways, cell wall and cell processes, and genes encoding regulatory proteins. We conclude that NC cell formation is an active process involved in the regulation of many genes of different pathways. A more detailed analysis of the experimental data will help to understand the precise molecular mechanisms of dormancy/latency/persistence of M. tuberculosis in the future. The list of upregulated genes obtained in this study includes many genes found to be upregulated in other models of M. tuberculosis persistence. Thirteen upregulated genes, which are common for different models, can be considered as potential targets for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs directed mainly against latent tuberculosis.
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