The versatility and plasticity of myeloid cell polarization/differentiation has turned out to be crucial in health and disease, and has become the subject of intense investigation during the last years. On one hand, myeloid cells provide a critical contribution to tissue homeostasis and repair. On the other hand, myeloid cells not only play an important role as first line defense against pathogens but also they are involved in a broad array of inflammation-related diseases such as cancer. Recent studies show that macrophages can exist in different activation states within the same tumor, underlining their plasticity and heterogeneity. In this review, we will discuss recent evidence on how the tumor microenvironment, as it evolves, shapes the recruitment, function, polarization and differentiation of the myeloid cell compartment, leading to the selection of myeloid cells with immunosuppressive and angiogenic functions that facilitate tumor progression and dissemination.
ER stress; exosomes; hypoxia; myeloid cell plasticity; myeloid cells; myeloid-derived suppressor cells; tumor-associated dendritic cells; tumor-associated macrophages; tumor-associated neutrophils
Sodalis glossinidius, a gram-negative bacterial endosymbiont of the tsetse fly, has been proposed as a potential in vivo drug delivery vehicle to control trypanosome parasite development in the fly, an approach known as paratransgenesis. Despite this interest of S. glossinidius as a paratransgenic platform organism in tsetse flies, few potential effector molecules have been identified so far and to date none of these molecules have been successfully expressed in this bacterium.
In this study, S. glossinidius was transformed to express a single domain antibody, (Nanobody®) Nb_An33, that efficiently targets conserved cryptic epitopes of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Next, we analyzed the capability of two predicted secretion signals to direct the extracellular delivery of significant levels of active Nb_An33. We show that the pelB leader peptide was successful in directing the export of fully functional Nb_An33 to the periplasm of S. glossinidius resulting in significant levels of extracellular release. Finally, S. glossinidius expressing pelBNb_An33 exhibited no significant reduction in terms of fitness, determined by in vitro growth kinetics, compared to the wild-type strain.
These data are the first demonstration of the expression and extracellular release of functional trypanosome-interfering Nanobodies® in S. glossinidius. Furthermore, Sodalis strains that efficiently released the effector protein were not affected in their growth, suggesting that they may be competitive with endogenous microbiota in the midgut environment of the tsetse fly. Collectively, these data reinforce the notion for the potential of S. glossinidius to be developed into a paratransgenic platform organism.
Sodalis glossinidius; Symbiont; Glossina; Paratransgenesis; Expression; Nanobody; Functional
During HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART), monocytes and macrophages exhibit a wide range of dysfunctions which contribute significantly to HIV pathogenesis and therapy-associated complications. Nevertheless, the molecular components which contribute to these dysfunctions remain elusive. We therefore applied a parallel approach of genome-wide microarray analysis and focused gene expression profiling on monocytes from patients in different stages of HIV infection and/or ART to further characterise these dysfunctions.
Processes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, lipid metabolism, proteasome function, protein trafficking and transcriptional regulation were identified as areas of monocyte dysfunction during HIV infection. Individual genes potentially contributing to these monocyte dysfunctions included several novel factors. One of these is the adipocytokine NAMPT/visfatin, which we show to be capable of inhibiting HIV at an early step in its life cycle. Roughly half of all genes identified were restored to control levels under ART, while the others represented a persistent dysregulation. Additionally, several candidate biomarkers (in particular CCL1 and CYP2C19) for the development of the abacavir hypersensitivity reaction were suggested.
Previously described areas of monocyte dysfunction during HIV infection were confirmed, and novel themes were identified. Furthermore, individual genes associated with these dysfunctions and with ART-associated disorders were pinpointed. These genes form a useful basis for further functional studies concerning the contribution of monocytes/macrophages to HIV pathogenesis. One such gene, NAMPT/visfatin, represents a possible novel restriction factor for HIV.
Tsetse flies are the notorious transmitters of African trypanosomiasis, a disease caused by the Trypanosoma parasite that affects humans and livestock on the African continent. Metacyclic infection rates in natural tsetse populations with Trypanosoma brucei, including the two human-pathogenic subspecies, are very low, even in epidemic situations. Therefore, the infected fly/host contact frequency is a key determinant of the transmission dynamics. As an obligate blood feeder, tsetse flies rely on their complex salivary potion to inhibit host haemostatic reactions ensuring an efficient feeding. The results of this experimental study suggest that the parasite might promote its transmission through manipulation of the tsetse feeding behavior by modifying the saliva composition. Indeed, salivary gland Trypanosoma brucei-infected flies display a significantly prolonged feeding time, thereby enhancing the likelihood of infecting multiple hosts during the process of a single blood meal cycle. Comparison of the two major anti-haemostatic activities i.e. anti-platelet aggregation and anti-coagulation activity in these flies versus non-infected tsetse flies demonstrates a significant suppression of these activities as a result of the trypanosome-infection status. This effect was mainly related to the parasite-induced reduction in salivary gland gene transcription, resulting in a strong decrease in protein content and related biological activities. Additionally, the anti-thrombin activity and inhibition of thrombin-induced coagulation was even more severely hampered as a result of the trypanosome infection. Indeed, while naive tsetse saliva strongly inhibited human thrombin activity and thrombin-induced blood coagulation, saliva from T. brucei-infected flies showed a significantly enhanced thrombinase activity resulting in a far less potent anti-coagulation activity. These data clearly provide evidence for a trypanosome-mediated modification of the tsetse salivary composition that results in a drastically reduced anti-haemostatic potential and a hampered feeding performance which could lead to an increase of the vector/host contact and parasite transmission in field conditions.
Human African Trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is a devastating parasitic disease that is fatal if left untreated. Infections are acquired via the bite of an obligate blood feeding fly, the tsetse fly, that is exclusively present on the African continent. In this insect vector, the trypanosome parasite has a complex development ending in the salivary glands. In this experimental study we demonstrate that the Trypanosoma brucei parasites change the composition of the tsetse fly saliva making it less efficient to keep the blood fluid at the biting site in the mammalian host. This results in a more difficult blood feeding process and favors the fly biting activity on multiple hosts, thereby promoting the survival and circulation of the parasite within the natural host population. These findings give us a better understanding of how trypanosome infections in the human population can be maintained given the fact that only very few tsetse flies are actually carrying the parasite.
Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.), the African trypanosome vectors, rely on anti-hemostatic compounds for efficient blood feeding. Despite their medical importance, very few salivary proteins have been characterized and functionally annotated.
Here we report on the functional characterisation of a 5′nucleotidase-related (5′Nuc) saliva protein of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans. This protein is encoded by a 1668 bp cDNA corresponding at the genomic level with a single-copy 4 kb gene that is exclusively transcribed in the tsetse salivary gland tissue. The encoded 5′Nuc protein is a soluble 65 kDa glycosylated compound of tsetse saliva with a dual anti-hemostatic action that relies on its combined apyrase activity and fibrinogen receptor (GPIIb/IIIa) antagonistic properties. Experimental evidence is based on the biochemical and functional characterization of recombinant protein and on the successful silencing of the 5′nuc translation in the salivary gland by RNA interference (RNAi). Refolding of a 5′Nuc/SUMO-fusion protein yielded an active apyrase enzyme with Km and Vmax values of 43±4 µM and 684±49 nmol Pi/min×mg for ATPase and 49±11 µM and 177±37 nmol Pi/min×mg for the ADPase activity. In addition, recombinant 5′Nuc was found to bind to GPIIb/IIIa with an apparent KD of 92±25 nM. Consistent with these features, 5′Nuc potently inhibited ADP-induced thrombocyte aggregation and even caused disaggregation of ADP-triggered human platelets. The importance of 5′Nuc for the tsetse fly hematophagy was further illustrated by specific RNAi that reduced the anti-thrombotic activities in saliva by approximately 50% resulting in a disturbed blood feeding process.
These data show that this 5′nucleotidase-related apyrase exhibits GPIIb/IIIa antagonistic properties and represents a key thromboregulatory compound of tsetse fly saliva.
African trypanosomes are extracellular parasitic protozoa, predominantly transmitted by the bite of the haematophagic tsetse fly. The main mechanism considered to mediate parasitemia control in a mammalian host is the continuous interaction between antibodies and the parasite surface, covered by variant-specific surface glycoproteins. Early experimental studies have shown that B-cell responses can be strongly protective but are limited by their VSG-specificity. We have used B-cell (µMT) and IgM-deficient (IgM−/−) mice to investigate the role of B-cells and IgM antibodies in parasitemia control and the in vivo induction of trypanosomiasis-associated anemia. These infection studies revealed that that the initial setting of peak levels of parasitemia in Trypanosoma brucei–infected µMT and IgM−/− mice occurred independent of the presence of B-cells. However, B-cells helped to periodically reduce circulating parasites levels and were required for long term survival, while IgM antibodies played only a limited role in this process. Infection-associated anemia, hypothesized to be mediated by B-cell responses, was induced during infection in µMT mice as well as in IgM−/− mice, and as such occurred independently from the infection-induced host antibody response. Antigenic variation, the main immune evasion mechanism of African trypanosomes, occurred independently from host antibody responses against the parasite's ever-changing antigenic glycoprotein coat. Collectively, these results demonstrated that in murine experimental T. brucei trypanosomiasis, B-cells were crucial for periodic peak parasitemia clearance, whereas parasite-induced IgM antibodies played only a limited role in the outcome of the infection.
African trypanosomiasis is a disease caused by different species of extracellular flagellated protozoan trypanosome parasites. Trypanosomes have developed a mechanism of regular antigenic variation of their variant-specific surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat which allows chronic infection. Replacement of this coat occurs at rapid regular time intervals, allowing the parasite to escape from an effective host antibody responses. So far, primary T-cell independent antibody responses have been described to constitute the main host defense mechanism, relying largely on IgM antibody induction. Using genetically engineered B lymphocyte- or IgM-deficient mouse strains, we show that lack of B-cells or IgM did not prevent infection-associated anemia. More importantly, we show that in the absence of IgM, parasitemia was controlled almost as well as in wild-type mice, with only slightly increased mortality. In addition, we show in vivo that antigenic variation is not affected by the lack of IgM.
Mononuclear phagocytes often function as control switches of the immune system, securing the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory reactions. For this purpose and depending on the activating stimuli, these cells can develop into different subsets: proinflammatory classically activated (M1) or anti-inflammatory alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. The expression of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) is regulated by M1- or M2-inducing stimuli, and these receptors are generally considered to counteract inflammatory M1 macrophages, while actively promoting M2 activation. This is of importance in a tumor context, where M1 are important initiators of inflammation-driven cancers. As a consequence, PPAR agonists are potentially usefull for inhibiting the early phases of tumorigenesis through their antagonistic effect on M1. In more established tumors, the macrophage phenotype is more diverse, making it more difficult to predict the outcome of PPAR agonism. Overall, in our view current knowledge provides a sound basis for the clinical evaluation of PPAR ligands as chemopreventive agents in chronic inflammation-associated cancer development, while cautioning against the unthoughtful application of these agents as cancer therapeutics.
Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are the vectors that transmit African trypanosomes, protozoan parasites that cause human sleeping sickness and veterinary infections in the African continent. These blood-feeding dipteran insects deposit saliva at the feeding site that enables the blood-feeding process. Here we demonstrate that tsetse fly saliva also accelerates the onset of a Trypanosoma brucei infection. This effect was associated with a reduced inflammatory reaction at the site of infection initiation (reflected by a decrease of interleukin-6 [IL-6] and IL-12 mRNA) as well as lower serum concentrations of the trypanocidal cytokine tumor necrosis factor. Variant-specific surface glycoprotein-specific antibody isotypes immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG2a, implicated in trypanosome clearance, were not suppressed. We propose that tsetse fly saliva accelerates the onset of trypanosome infection by inhibiting local and systemic inflammatory responses involved in parasite control.
Several reports describe regulatory interactions between NK cells and CTLs. We addressed the issue of NK participation in the early anti-tumor defense by inoculating α-ASGM-1 treated mice with BW-Sp3 T lymphoma. Rejection of BW-Sp3 depends on strong CTL responses. Our results demonstrated that (i) NK cells are a prerequisite for efficient CTL generation and (ii) the absence of NK cells favors the outgrowth of alternatively activated macrophages that can suppress CTL restimulation. In vitro studies demonstrate that in splenic cultures from NK-deficient, tumor-bearing mice, the presence of alternatively activated macrophages correlates with a lack of Type 1 cytokines, while the production of Type 2 cytokines is promoted. Provision of the Type 1 cytokine, IFN-γ can boost overall CTL activity but does not revert the dominance of arginase producing adherent cells in the NK-deficient CTL cultures. The role of NK effector functions in the efficient switch of the immune system towards Type 1 activation was evaluated in cytotoxicity assays. The results indicate that the accessory function of NK can depend at least partially on their ability to preferentially engage arginase-producing cells, suggesting that NK/macrophage lytic interactions might be involved in the switch from Type 2 to Type 1-dependent immune responses.
Cells of the dendritic cell (DC) lineage, by their unique ability to stimulate naive T cells, may be of crucial importance in the development of protective immune responses to Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of L. major infection on DCs in BALB/c (susceptible, developing Th2 responses), C57BL/6 (resistant, developing Th1 responses), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)−/− C57BL/6 mice (susceptible, developing delayed and reduced Th1 responses). We analyzed by immunohistochemistry the phenotype of infected cells in vivo. Granulocytes (GR1+) and macrophages (CD11b+) appear as the mainly infected cells in primary lesions. In contrast, cells expressing CD11c, a DC specific marker, are the most frequently infected cells in draining lymph nodes of all mice tested. These infected CD11c+ cells harbored a particular morphology and cell surface phenotype in infected C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. CD11c+ infected cells from C57BL/6 and TNF−/− C57BL/6 mice displayed a weak parasitic load and a dendritic morphology and frequently expressed CD11b or F4/80 myeloid differentiation markers. In contrast, some CD11c+ infected cells from BALB/c mice were multinucleated giant cells. Giant cells presented a dramatic accumulation of parasites and differentiation markers were not detectable at their surface. In all mice, lymph node CD11c+ infected cells expressed a low major histocompatibility complex II level and no detectable CD86 expression. Our results suggest that infected CD11c+ DC-like cells might constitute a reservoir of parasites in lymph nodes.
Although it is well-established that macrophages can occur in distinct activation states, the molecular characteristics of differentially activated macrophages, and particularly those of alternatively activated macrophages (aaMφ), are still poorly unraveled. Recently, we demonstrated that the expression of FIZZ1 and Ym is induced in aaMφ as compared with classically activated macrophages (caMφ), elicited in vitro or developed in vivo during infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of FIZZ1 and Ym in caMφ and aaMφ elicited during Trypanosoma congolense infection and show that the use of FIZZ1 and Ym for the identification of aaMφ is not limited to T. b. brucei infection and is independent of the organ sources from which macrophages are obtained. We also demonstrate that FIZZ1 can be used to discriminate between different populations of aaMφ. Furthermore, we studied the effects of various stimuli, and combinations thereof, on the expression of FIZZ1 and Ym in macrophages from different mouse strains and demonstrate that regulation of the expression of FIZZ1 and Ym in macrophages is not dependent on the mouse strain. Finally, we show that these genes can be used to monitor the macrophage activation status without the need to obtain pure macrophage populations.
Immunity against Leishmania major requires rapid induction of a type 1 immune response in which tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays an essential role. Hence, vaccination strategies that simulate the protective immune response found in hosts that have recovered from natural infection provide a rational approach to combat leishmaniasis. One method for optimizing the qualitative and quantitative immune responses after vaccination is to use an adjuvant. In this study we demonstrate that the OprI lipoprotein (L-OprI) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces a long-term cellular (gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and humoral (immunoglobulin G2a) type 1 immune response against a truncated 32-kDa version (COOHgp63) of the 63-kDa major cell surface glycoprotein gp63. By contrast, immunization with COOHgp63 either fused to OprI nonlipoprotein or with no adjuvant did not result in the induction of type 1 immune responses. The adjuvanticity of L-OprI is strongly dependent on its capacity to induce TNF-α, since generation of type 1 immune responses is clearly delayed and impaired in TNF-α−/− mice. Vaccination with L-OprICOOHgp63 fusion protein protected BALB/c mice against L. major infection for at least 19 weeks. Vaccinated mice were largely free of lesions or clearly controlled lesion size on termination of the experiment. The control of disease progression in mice vaccinated with L-OprICOOHgp63 was associated with enhancement of antigen-specific IFN-γ production. These data indicate that bacterial lipoproteins constitute appropriate adjuvants to include in vaccines against diseases in which type 1 immune responses are important for protection.
To better understand the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) during Trypanosoma cruzi infection in BALB/c mice, we have investigated the kinetics of circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF), soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNR1), and sTNFR2 levels, as well as the interactions between such factors, in relation to parasitemia, cachexia, and mortality of acutely infected animals. Our data show that the parasitemic phase of T. cruzi infection in mice is associated with high levels of circulating TNF and sTNFR2, resulting in the formation of cytokine-receptor complexes and some degree of neutralization of TNF bioactivity. Although sTNR2 levels always exceeded TNF levels, low sTNFR/TNF circulating ratios were associated with cachexia in all infected mice, whereas the lowest ratios were observed in dying animals harboring the highest parasitemia. We also studied the modulation of sTNFR/TNF ratios induced by anti-TNF antibodies administered to infected animals and their consequences on the outcome of the infection. The injection of anti-TNF monoclonal antibody (MAb) TN3 into infected mice resulted in a paradoxical overproduction of TNF (associated with a higher parasitemia), lowered the sTNFR/TNF circulating ratios, and considerably worsened cachexia and mortality of animals. Another anti-TNF MAb (1F3F3) decreased the in vivo availability of TNF as well as parasite levels and reduced cachexia. Altogether, such results highlight that, besides playing a beneficial role early in infection, TNF also triggers harmful effects in the parasitemic phase, which are limited by the in vivo simultaneous endogenous production of soluble receptors.
In order to evaluate during experimental Trypanosoma brucei infections the potential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the host-parasite interrelationship, C57BL/6 TNF-α knockout mice (TNF-α−/−) as well as C57BL/6 wild-type mice were infected with pleomorphic T. brucei AnTat 1.1 E parasites. In the TNF-α−/− mice, the peak levels of parasitemia were strongly increased compared to the peak levels recorded in wild-type mice. The increased parasite burden did not reflect differences in clearance efficacy or in production of T. brucei-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies. Trypanosome-mediated immunopathological features, such as lymph node-associated immunosuppression and lipopolysaccharide hypersensitivity, were found to be greatly reduced in infected TNF-α−/− mice. These results demonstrate that, during trypanosome infections, TNF-α is a key mediator involved in both parasitemia control and infection-associated pathology.
We have previously shown that the addition of exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to nonactivated mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) limits Trypanosoma cruzi infections in vitro (E. Olivares Fontt and B. Vray, Parasite Immunol. 17:135–141, 1995). Lower levels of infection were correlated with a higher level of production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the absence of nitric oxide (NO) release. These data suggested that GM-CSF and/or TNF-α might have a direct parasitocidal effect on T. cruzi trypomastigotes, independently of NO release. To address this question, T. cruzi trypomastigotes were treated with recombinant murine GM-CSF (rmGM-CSF), recombinant murine TNF-α (rmTNF-α), or both cytokines in a cell-free system. Treatment with rmGM-CSF but not rmTNF-α caused morphological changes in the parasites, and most became spherical after 7 h of incubation. Both cytokines exerted a cytolytic activity on the trypomastigotes, yet the trypanolytic activity of rmTNF-α was more effective than that of rmGM-CSF. Viable rmGM-CSF- and rmTNF-α-treated parasites were less able to infect MPM than untreated parasites, and this reduction in infectivity was greatest for rmGM-CSF. Treatments with both cytokines resulted in more lysis and almost complete inhibition of infection. The direct parasitocidal activity of rmTNF-α was inhibited by carbohydrates and monoclonal antibodies specific for the lectin-like domain of TNF-α. Collectively, these results suggest that cytokines such as GM-CSF and TNF-α may directly control the level of T. cruzi trypomastigotes at least in vitro and so could determine the outcome of infection in vivo.
The discovery of Nanobodies (Nbs) with a direct toxic activity against African trypanosomes is a recent advancement towards a new strategy against these extracellular parasites. The anti-trypanosomal activity relies on perturbing the highly active recycling of the Variant-specific Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) that occurs in the parasite's flagellar pocket.
Here we expand the existing panel of Nbs with anti-Trypanosoma brucei potential and identify four categories based on their epitope specificity. We modified the binding properties of previously identified Nanobodies Nb_An05 and Nb_An33 by site-directed mutagenesis in the paratope and found this to strongly affect trypanotoxicity despite retention of antigen-targeting properties. Affinity measurements for all identified anti-trypanosomal Nbs reveal a strong correlation between trypanotoxicity and affinity (KD), suggesting that it is a crucial determinant for this activity. Half maximal effective (50%) affinity of 57 nM was calculated from the non-linear dose-response curves. In line with these observations, Nb humanizing mutations only preserved the trypanotoxic activity if the KD remained unaffected.
This study reveals that the binding properties of Nanobodies need to be compatible with achieving an occupancy of >95% saturation of the parasite surface VSG in order to exert an anti-trypanosomal activity. As such, Nb-based approaches directed against the VSG target would require binding to an accessible, conserved epitope with high affinity.
Nanobodies, antigen binding fragments derived from a non-conventional class of antibodies in camelids, were previously shown to exert a direct activity against African trypanosomes without the need of a toxin. Their mode-of-action relies on interference with the highly active recycling of the Variant-specific Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) that occurs in the flagellar pocket of the parasite. By expanding the panel of anti-trypanosomal Nanobodies and by modification of their binding properties through site-directed mutagenesis, we have been able to show a strong correlation between their trypanotoxic activity and affinity for the cognate antigen. From these studies it was calculated that the parasite surface saturation needs to exceed 95% in order to achieve this anti-trypanosomal effect of Nanobodies, which can be considered as a critical cut-off value for future Nanobody-based or other small molecule drug approaches against the VSG target.
Analysis of the tsetse fly salivary gland EST database revealed the presence of a highly enriched cluster of putative endonuclease genes, including tsal1 and tsal2. Tsal proteins are the major components of tsetse fly (G. morsitans morsitans) saliva where they are present as monomers as well as high molecular weight complexes with other saliva proteins. We demonstrate that the recombinant tsetse salivary gland proteins 1&2 (Tsal1&2) display DNA/RNA non-specific, high affinity nucleic acid binding with KD values in the low nanomolar range and a non-exclusive preference for duplex. These Tsal proteins exert only a residual nuclease activity with a preference for dsDNA in a broad pH range. Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents.
The immune system exerts a diversifying selection pressure on HIV through cellular, humoral and innate mechanisms. This pressure drives viral evolution throughout infection. A better understanding of the natural immune pressure on the virus during infection is warranted, given the clinical interest in eliciting and sustaining an immune response to HIV which can help to control the infection. We undertook to evaluate the potential of the novel HIV-induced, monocyte-derived factor visfatin to modulate viral infection, as part of the innate immune pressure on viral populations.
We show that visfatin is capable of selectively inhibiting infection by R5 HIV strains in macrophages and resting PBMC in vitro, while at the same time remaining indifferent to or even favouring infection by X4 strains. Furthermore, visfatin exerts a direct effect on the relative fitness of R5 versus X4 infections in a viral competition setup. Direct interaction of visfatin with the CCR5 receptor is proposed as a putative mechanism for this differential effect. Possible in vivo relevance of visfatin induction is illustrated by its association with the dominance of CXCR4-using HIV in the plasma.
As an innate factor produced by monocytes, visfatin is capable of inhibiting infections by R5 but not X4 strains, reflecting a potential selective pressure against R5 viruses.
Research involving gene expression profiling and clinical applications, such as diagnostics and prognostics, often require a DNA array platform that is flexibly customisable and cost-effective, but at the same time is highly sensitive and capable of accurately and reproducibly quantifying the transcriptional expression of a vast number of genes over the whole transcriptome dynamic range using low amounts of RNA sample. Hereto, a set of easy-to-implement practical optimisations to the design of cDNA-based nylon macroarrays as well as sample 33P-labeling, hybridisation protocols and phosphor screen image processing were analysed for macroarray performance.
The here proposed custom macroarray platform had an absolute sensitivity as low as 50,000 transcripts and a linear range of over 5 log-orders. Its quality of identifying differentially expressed genes was at least comparable to commercially available microchips. Interestingly, the quantitative accuracy was found to correlate significantly with corresponding reversed transcriptase - quantitative PCR values, the gold standard gene expression measure (Pearson's correlation test p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the assay has low cost and input RNA requirements (0.5 μg and less) and has a sound reproducibility.
Results presented here, demonstrate for the first time that self-made cDNA-based nylon macroarrays can produce highly reliable gene expression data with high sensitivity and covering the entire mammalian dynamic range of mRNA abundances. Starting off from minimal amounts of unamplified total RNA per sample, a reasonable amount of samples can be assayed simultaneously for the quantitative expression of hundreds of genes in an easily customisable and cost-effective manner.
The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei, which persists within the bloodstream of the mammalian host, has evolved potent mechanisms for immune evasion. Specifically, antigenic variation of the variant-specific surface glycoprotein (VSG) and a highly active endocytosis and recycling of the surface coat efficiently delay killing mediated by anti-VSG antibodies. Consequently, conventional VSG-specific intact immunoglobulins are non-trypanocidal in the absence of complement. In sharp contrast, monovalent antigen-binding fragments, including 15 kDa nanobodies (Nb) derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) recognizing variant-specific VSG epitopes, efficiently lyse trypanosomes both in vitro and in vivo. This Nb-mediated lysis is preceded by very rapid immobilisation of the parasites, massive enlargement of the flagellar pocket and major blockade of endocytosis. This is accompanied by severe metabolic perturbations reflected by reduced intracellular ATP-levels and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, culminating in cell death. Modification of anti-VSG Nbs through site-directed mutagenesis and by reconstitution into HCAbs, combined with unveiling of trypanolytic activity from intact immunoglobulins by papain proteolysis, demonstrates that the trypanolytic activity of Nbs and Fabs requires low molecular weight, monovalency and high affinity. We propose that the generation of low molecular weight VSG-specific trypanolytic nanobodies that impede endocytosis offers a new opportunity for developing novel trypanosomiasis therapeutics. In addition, these data suggest that the antigen-binding domain of an anti-microbial antibody harbours biological functionality that is latent in the intact immunoglobulin and is revealed only upon release of the antigen-binding fragment.
Haemoparasites, such as African trypanosomes, have developed potent immune evasion mechanisms to avoid antibody-mediated elimination. Consequently, trypanosome surface antigen-specific immunoglobulins in the absence of complement are non-trypanocidal. In contrast, certain monovalent nanobodies (Nb), monomeric antigen-binding domains derived from camelid Heavy-Chain Antibodies (HCAb) and which have a much lower molecular weight (15 kDa) than classical antibodies (150 kDa), efficiently lyse trypanosomes both in vitro and in vivo. This is surprising as classically immunoglobulin effector functions are mediated via the Fc-domain, which is absent from the Nb. We demonstrate that the Nb-mediated trypanolysis depends on the low molecular weight, monovalency and high affinity and is associated with loss of motility, a major block to endocytosis, energy depletion and cell death. Overall, targeting the parasite surface with low molecular weight, high affinity Nbs is sufficient to exert a direct therapeutic action. Therefore, the exploitation of Nbs against African trypanosomiasis represents a novel therapeutic strategy. Furthermore, demonstration that a high affinity antigen-binding Nb or Fab fragment lacking an effector domain (i.e., Fc-domain or an attached toxin) can exert a direct biological function, suggests that intact antibodies likely harbour latent functionality which only become revealed upon removal of the Fc-domain.
The development of classically activated monocytic cells (M1) is a prerequisite for effective elimination of parasites, including African trypanosomes. However, persistent activation of M1 that produce pathogenic molecules such as TNF and NO contributes to the development of trypanosome infection-associated tissue injury including liver cell necrosis in experimental mouse models. Aiming to identify mechanisms involved in regulation of M1 activity, we have recently documented that during Trypanosoma brucei infection, CD11b+Ly6C+CD11c+ TNF and iNOS producing DCs (Tip-DCs) represent the major pathogenic M1 liver subpopulation. By using gene expression analyses, KO mice and cytokine neutralizing antibodies, we show here that the conversion of CD11b+Ly6C+ monocytic cells to pathogenic Tip-DCs in the liver of T. brucei infected mice consists of a three-step process including (i) a CCR2-dependent but CCR5- and Mif-independent step crucial for emigration of CD11b+Ly6C+ monocytic cells from the bone marrow but dispensable for their blood to liver migration; (ii) a differentiation step of liver CD11b+Ly6C+ monocytic cells to immature inflammatory DCs (CD11c+ but CD80/CD86/MHC-IIlow) which is IFN-γ and MyD88 signaling independent; and (iii) a maturation step of inflammatory DCs to functional (CD80/CD86/MHC-IIhigh) TNF and NO producing Tip-DCs which is IFN-γ and MyD88 signaling dependent. Moreover, IL-10 could limit CCR2-mediated egression of CD11b+Ly6C+ monocytic cells from the bone marrow by limiting Ccl2 expression by liver monocytic cells, as well as their differentiation and maturation to Tip-DCs in the liver, showing that IL-10 works at multiple levels to dampen Tip-DC mediated pathogenicity during T. brucei infection. A wide spectrum of liver diseases associates with alteration of monocyte recruitment, phenotype or function, which could be modulated by IL-10. Therefore, investigating the contribution of recruited monocytes to African trypanosome induced liver injury could potentially identify new targets to treat hepatic inflammation in general, and during parasite infection in particular.
Most infections are associated with host inflammatory responses that can result in multiple organ failure and death. It is therefore essential to understand the mechanisms balancing host immune response and tissue damage. Mouse models of African trypanosome infection represent valuable tools to study the mechanisms contributing to the inflammatory (pathogenic) or anti-inflammatory (anti-pathogenic) immune response. We recently identified TNF and NO producing DCs (Tip-DCs) as major contributors to liver pathogenicity in Trypanosoma brucei infected mice. Herein, the role of different chemokine and cytokines in the generation of Tip-DCs was investigated. Tip-DCs originated from bone marrow derived monocytes that egressed to the blood in a CCR2 chemokine receptor dependent manner. Then, monocytes extravasated to inflamed liver where IFN-γ and MyD88 signaling promoted their maturation to Tip-DCs. Both the egression of monocytes from bone marrow and their IFN-γ/MyD88 dependent maturation to Tip-DCs was counteracted by IL-10, hereby reducing liver pathogenicity. Liver injury, affecting millions of persons worldwide with often lethal consequences, frequently results from uncontrolled activation of recruited monocyte-derived cells that can be modulated by IL-10. Thus, the mechanisms regulating liver immunopathogenicity during parasitic infection identified herein could lead to new therapeutic policies in the field of hepatic inflammation.