The vir genes are antigenic genes and are considered to be possible vaccine targets. Since India is highly endemic to Plasmodium vivax, we sequenced 5 different vir genes and investigated DNA sequence variations in 93 single-clonal P. vivax isolates. High variability was observed in all the 5 vir genes; the vir 1/9 gene was highly diverged across Indian populations. The patterns of genetic diversity do not follow geographical locations, as geographically distant populations were found to be genetically similar. The results in general present complex genetic diversity patterns in India, requiring further in-depth population genetic and functional studies.
Plasmodium vivax; vir gene; DNA sequence polymorphism; India
Actinorhizal plants contain numerous antioxidants that may play a crucial role in preventing the formation of tumors. H-Ras p21, a member of the Ras-GTPase family, is a promising target to treat various kinds of cancers. An in silico docking study was carried out to identify the inhibitory potential of compounds of these plants against H-Ras by using Discovery Studio 3.5 and by using Autodock 4.2. Docking studies revealed that four compounds, isorhamnetin-7-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-glucoside-7-rhamnoside (present in H. rhamnoides), zeaxanthin, and translutein (present in H. salicifolia) significantly bind with binding energies −17.1534, −14.7936, −10.2105 and −17.2217 Kcal/mol, respectively, even though they slightly deviate from Lipinski's rule. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/tox) analyses of these compounds and their stereoisomers showed that they were less toxic and non-mutagenic. Amongst them, isorhamntein-7-rhamnoside showed hepatotoxicity. Hence, these compounds can be further investigated in vivo to optimize their formulation and concentration and to develop potential chemical entities for the prevention and treatment of cancers.
Hippophae; H-Ras; cancer; docking; Discovery Studio 3.5; H. rhamnoides; H. salicifolia
We have analysed the whole mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences (each
~6 kilo nucleotide base pairs in length) of four field isolates of the malaria
parasite Plasmodium falciparum collected from different locations
in India. Comparative genomic analyses of mt genome sequences
revealed three novel India-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms. In general, high
mt genome diversity was found in Indian P.
falciparum, at a level comparable to African isolates. A population
phylogenetic tree placed the presently sequenced Indian P. falciparum
with the global isolates, while a previously sequenced Indian isolate was an
outlier. Although this preliminary study is limited to a few numbers of isolates, the
data have provided fundamental evidence of the mt genome diversity
and evolutionary relationships of Indian P. falciparum with that of
malaria; Plasmodium falciparum; mitochondrial genome; evolution; India
Mitochondrial genome sequence of malaria parasites has served as a potential marker for inferring evolutionary history of the Plasmodium genus. In Plasmodium falciparum, the mitochondrial genome sequences from around the globe have provided important evolutionary understanding, but no Indian sequence has yet been utilized. We have sequenced the whole mitochondrial genome of a single P. falciparum field isolate from India using novel primers and compared with the 3D7 reference sequence and 1 previously reported Indian sequence. While the 2 Indian sequences were highly divergent from each other, the presently sequenced isolate was highly similar to the reference 3D7 strain.
Plasmodium falciparum; malaria; whole genome sequencing; mitochondrial genome; India
Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry.
Feather degradation; keratinase; PM2 strain; phosphate solubilization; rhizobacteria; solid waste management
This study revealed polyphenolic content, nutritive content, antioxidant activity, and phenolic profile of methanol and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum peel extract. For this, extracts were screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The total phenolics and flavonoid recovered by methanolic (MPE) and the water extract (AQPE) were ranged from 185 ± 12.45 to 298.00 ± 24.86 mg GAE
(gallic acid equivalents)/gm and 23.05 ± 1.54 to 49.8 ± 2.14 quercetin (QE) mg/g, respectively. The EC50 of herbal extracts ranged from 100 µg/ml (0.38 quercetin equivalents), for AQPE, 168 µg/ml (0.80 quercetin equivalents), for MPE. The phenolic profile in the methanolic extracts was investigated by chromatographic (HPLC) method. About 5 different flavonoids, phenolic acids, and their derivatives including quercetin (1), rutin (2), gallic acid (3), ellagic acid (4), and punicalagin as a major ellagitannin (5) have been identified. Among both extracts, methanolic extract was the most effective. This report may be the first to show nutritive content and correlation analysis to suggest that phenols and flavonoids might contribute the high antioxidant activity of this fruit peel and establish it as a valuable natural antioxidant source applicable in the health food industry.
Over the past decade, pomegranate (Punica granatum) is entitled as a wonder fruit because of its voluminous pharmacological properties. In 1830, P. granatum fruit was first recognized in United States Pharmacopeia; the Philadelphia edition introduced the rind of the fruit, the New York edition the bark of the root and further 1890 edition the stem bark was introduced. There are significant efforts and progress made in establishing the pharmacological mechanisms of peel (pericarp or rind) and the individual constituents responsible for them. This review provides an insight on the phytochemical components that contribute too antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic effect, and numerous other effects of wonderful, economic, and eco-friendly pomegranate peel extract (PP).
A thermophilic fungal strain producing polygalacturonase was isolated after primary screening of 40 different isolates. The fungus was identified as Rhizomucor pusilis by Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC), Chandigarh, India. An extracellular polygalacturonase (PGase) from R. pusilis was purified to homogeneity by two chromatographic steps using Sephadex G-200 and Sephacryl S-100. The purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular weight of 32 kDa. The PGase was optimally active at 55°C and at pH 5.0. It was stable up to 50°C for 120 min of incubation and pH condition between 4.0 and 5.0. The stability of PGase decreases rapidly above 60°C and above pH 5.0. The apparent Km and Vmax values were 0.22 mg/mL and 4.34 U/mL, respectively. It was the first time that a polygalacturonase enzyme was purified in this species. It would be worthwhile to exploit this strain for polygalacturonase production. Polygalacturonase from this strain can be recommended for the commercial production because of its constitutive and less catabolically repressive nature, thermostability, wide range of pH, and lower Km properties. However, scale-up studies are needed for the better output for commercial production.
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have revolutionized the diagnosis of malaria. Among the various factors affecting RDTs sensitivity is genetic variation of the antigen used. The genetic variation in PfHRP2 and PfHRP3 proteins was studied among the Indian Plasmodium falciparum isolates.
One hundred and forty isolates of P. falciparum were collected from six geographical regions of India. Target genes encoding PfHRP2 and PfHRP3 antigens were sequenced to study genetic polymorphism. Minimum detection limit giving a positive rapid diagnostic test was also determined.
Extensive variations were observed in amino acid repeat types of PfHRP2 and PfHRP3. PfHRP2 exhibited more polymorphism than PfHRP3. Significant relation was observed between type 2 and type 7 repeats and RDT detection rate as higher number of these repeats showed better sensitivity with RDTs.
The results provide insights into the genetic diversity of Pfhrp2 and Pfhrp3 genes among Indian P. falciparum population and its relation to RDT sensitivity.
Plasmodium falciparum Histidine rich protein 2; Plasmodium falciparum Histidine rich protein 3; Rapid Diagnostic Tests; Genetic polymorphism; India
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species, a “Symbiotic” relationship between tress and fungi in forest has a great ecological and
economic importance. Here is an attempt to describe database named “EctomycorrhizalDB”, addressing ECM diversity of Central
Himalaya (Kumaun region), with special emphasis on their characterization, physical properties and morphological features along
with specifications. This database would help the scientific community to draw a better understanding of the environmental factors
that affects species diversity.
The database is available for free at http://www.kubic.nic.in/ectomychorhiza
Ectomycorrhiza; fungi; Himalayan; HTML; Pubmed; Real time; Database; MeSH; Symbiotic
Traditionally, drugs are discovered by testing compounds synthesized in time consuming multi-step processes against a battery of invivo biological screens.
Promising compounds are then further studied in development, where their pharmacokinetic properties, metabolism and potential toxicity were investigated. Here,
we present a study on herbal lead compounds and their potential binding affinity to the effectors molecules of major disease like Prostate Cancer. Clinical studies
demonstrate a positive correlation between the extent of 5-α reductase type 2 (isoform 2) and malignant progression of precancerous lesions in prostate. Therefore,
identification of effective, well-tolerated 5-α reductase inhibitors represents a rational chemo preventive strategy. This study has investigated the effects of
naturally occurring nonprotein compounds berberine and monocaffeyltartaric acid that inhibits 5-α reductase type 2. Our results reveal that these compounds use
less energy to bind to 5-α reductase and inhibit its activity. Their high ligand binding affinity to 5-α reductase introduces the prospect for their use in
chemopreventive applications. In addition, they are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent prostate cancer.
5-α reductase type 2; Prostate Cancer; Berberine; Monocaffeyltartaric acid; Docking; ADMET; Homology modeling
We have analyzed 7137 samples from 125 different caste, tribal and religious groups of India and 99 samples from three populations of Nepal for the length variation in the COII/tRNALys region of mtDNA. Samples showing length variation were subjected to detailed phylogenetic analysis based on HVS-I and informative coding region sequence variation. The overall frequencies of the 9-bp deletion and insertion variants in South Asia were 1.8% and 0.5%, respectively. We have also defined a novel deep-rooting haplogroup M43 and identified the rare haplogroup H14 in Indian populations carrying the 9bp-deletion by complete mtDNA sequencing. Moreover, we redefined haplogroup M6 and dissected it into two well-defined subclades. The presence of haplogroups F1 and B5a in Uttar Pradesh suggests minor maternal contribution from Southeast Asia to Northern India. The occurrence of haplogroup F1 in the Nepalese sample implies that Nepal might have served as a bridge for the flow of eastern lineages to India. The presence of R6 in the Nepalese, on the other hand, suggests that the gene flow between India and Nepal has been reciprocal.
South Asia; 9bp indel; mtDNA; Haplogroup
We have analyzed 7,137 samples from 125 different caste, tribal and religious groups of India and 99 samples from three populations of Nepal for the length variation in the COII/tRNALys region of mtDNA. Samples showing length variation were subjected to detailed phylogenetic analysis based on HVS-I and informative coding region sequence variation. The overall frequencies of the 9-bp deletion and insertion variants in South Asia were 1.9 and 0.6%, respectively. We have also defined a novel deep-rooting haplogroup M43 and identified the rare haplogroup H14 in Indian populations carrying the 9-bp deletion by complete mtDNA sequencing. Moreover, we redefined haplogroup M6 and dissected it into two well-defined subclades. The presence of haplogroups F1 and B5a in Uttar Pradesh suggests minor maternal contribution from Southeast Asia to Northern India. The occurrence of haplogroup F1 in the Nepalese sample implies that Nepal might have served as a bridge for the flow of eastern lineages to India. The presence of R6 in the Nepalese, on the other hand, suggests that the gene flow between India and Nepal has been reciprocal.
South Asia; 9bp indel; mtDNA; Haplogroup