Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease of the heart muscle, with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. It is also known as the ‘disease of the sarcomere’, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mutations in the sarcomeric genes have been largely implicated in the manifestation of HCM. Modifier genes and environmental factors, along with causative mutation, add to the cumulative effect of the disease.
In the present study, the role of the cardiac actin gene and the cardiac muscle LIM protein as contributors to HCM – through genetic variation – has been elucidated by screening the entire coding region in 100 control and 100 HCM subjects through polymerase chain reaction-based single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing.
The authors could not find any novel or reported exonic variations in any of the genes in the studied population; however, intronic variations were revealed in the cardiac actin gene through direct sequencing. A case of compound heterozygosity was observed in a patient with a variation in intron 1, along with a novel heterozygous mutation in exon 7 (S215L) of α-tropomyosin.
The particular genes are highly conserved, and account for only 1.5% of HCM cases. They do not seem to play a major role in the genesis of HCM in the present population, thus confirming earlier reports of conserved sequences and ethnicity.
Alpha-tropomyosin; Cardiac actin; Cardiac muscle LIM protein; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is the progressive and irreversible destruction of the pancreas characterized by the permanent loss of endocrine and exocrine function. Trypsin, the most important digestive enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of all other digestive enzymes. Chymotrypsin, an endopeptidase hydrolyzes peptides at amino acids with aromatic side chains. Alpha-1-antitrypsin is a principal antiprotease which protects the mucosal tissue from the proteolytic effects of trypsin and chymotrypsin by the formation of molar complexes. The present study is aimed at examining the role of proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and anti-protease (α1-anti-trypsin) in the etiopathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis.
Patients and Methods:
A total of 90 CP patients and 110 age and sex matched controls were considered for the study. Serum trypsin, chymotrypsin and α1-anti-trypsin levels were determined prospectively in CP patients and compared to healthy controls as described previously.
The mean activity of trypsin were found to be increased in CP patients (X ± SD = 0.82 ± 0.838) in comparison to normal control group (X ± SD = 0.55 ± 0.328), (P = 0.001). Chymotrypsin activity were also found to be elevated in CP patients (X ± SD = 0.63 ± 0.278) in comparison to control group (X ± SD = 0.39 ± 0.295), (P = 0.0001). The mean α-1-anti-trypsin activity were found to be lowered in CP patients (X ± SD = 0.42 ± 0.494) in comparison to control group (X ± SD = 0.67 ± 0.465), with the variation being significant (P = 0.0003).
The findings suggest an imbalance in the synthesis and degradation of proteolytic enzymes and antiprotease indicating an altered aggressive and defensive role in the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis.
Alpha 1 anti-trypsin; chronic pancreatitis; chymotrypsin; trypsin
Troponin I (TNNI3) is the inhibitory subunit of the thin filament regulatory complex Troponin, which confers calcium-sensitivity to striated muscle actomyosin ATPase activity. Mutations (2-7%) in this gene had been reported in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients (HCM). However, the frequencies of mutations and associated clinical presentation have not been established in cardiomyopathy patients of Indian origin, hence we have undertaken this study.
We have sequenced all the exons, including the exon-intron boundaries of TNNI3 gene in 101 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients (HCM), along with 160 healthy controls, inhabited in the same geographical region of southern India.
Our study revealed a total of 16 mutations. Interestingly, we have observed Arginine to Glutamine (R to Q) mutation at 3 positions 98, 141 and 162, exclusively in HCM patients with family history of sudden cardiac death. The novel R98Q was observed in a severe hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy patient (HOCM). The R141Q mutation was observed in two familial cases of severe asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH++). The R162Q mutation was observed in a ASH++ patient with mean septal thickness of 29 mm, and have also consists of allelic heterogeneity by means of having one more synonymous (E179E) mutation at g.4797: G → A: in the same exon 7, which replaces a very frequent codon (GAG: 85%) with a rare codon (GAA: 14%). Screening for R162Q mutation in all the available family members revealed its presence in 9 individuals, including 7 with allelic heterogeneity (R162Q and E179E) of which 4 were severely affected. We also found 2 novel SNPs, (g.2653; G → A and g.4003 C → T) exclusively in HCM, and in silico analysis of these SNPs have predicted to cause defect in recognition/binding sites for proteins responsible for proper splicing.
Our study has provided valuable information regarding the prevalence of TNNI3 mutations in Indian HCM patients and its risk assessment, these will help in genetic counseling and to adopt appropriate treatment strategies.
TNNI3-Troponin I; Cardiomyopathy; SNPs; HCM; Indians; Mutations
Turner's syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality in females, affecting 1 in 2,500 live female births. It is a result of absence of an X chromosome or the presence of a structurally abnormal X chromosome. Its most consistent clinical features are short stature and ovarian failure.
The aim of the study was to report a rare case of mosaic triple X syndrome in a female with primary amenorrhea.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The chromosomal analysis using GTG banding was carried out, which revealed a mosaicism with 45,XO/47,XXX chromosomal constitution. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was also carried out to further confirm the observation made in the study.
The physical features presented by the female could be due to the 45,XO/47,XXX mosaicism and the karyotype analysis was consistent with the diagnosis and clinical symptoms. Triple X mosaicism was confirmed with conventional and molecular cytogenetic analysis.
Fluorescent in situ hybridization; karyotype; primary amenorrhea; Turner's syndrome
Premature ovarian failure is defined as the loss of functional follicles below the age of 40 years and the incidence of this abnormality is 0.1% among the 30–40 years age group. Unexplained POF is clinically recognized as amenorrhoea (>6 months) with low level of oestrogen and raised level of Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH > 20 IU/l) occurring before the age of 40. It has been studied earlier that chromosomal defects can impair ovarian development and its function. Since there is paucity of data on chromosomal defects in Indian women, an attempt is made to carry out cytogenetic evaluation in patients with ovarian failure. Cytogenetic analysis of women with ovarian defects revealed the chromosome abnormalities to be associated with 14% of the cases analyzed. Interestingly, majority of the abnormalities involved the X-chromosome and we report two unique abnormalities, (46,XXdel(Xq21-22) and q28) and (mos,45XO/46,X+ringX) involving X chromosome in association with ovarian failure. This study revealed novel X chromosome abnormalities associated with ovarian defects and these observations would be helpful in genetic counseling and apart from, infertility clinics using the information to decide suitable strategies to help such patients.
Pancreatic fibrosis is a key pathological feature in the etiology of chronic pancreatitis that leads to obliteration of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic tissues and its replacement by fibrous tissue resulting in clinical manifestations. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 is a member of the MMP family that is also known as gelatinase B, degrades type IV collagen of extracellular matrix and basal membrane. The present study is aimed at evaluating the clinical significance of plasma concentration of MMP-9 in chronic pancreatitis. The samples were obtained from 112 chronic pancreatitis patients and an equal number of age and sex matched healthy controls. MMP-9 levels were quantitatively measured by ELISA assay. Statistical analysis was applied to test the significance of results. The present study revealed a significant increase of plasma MMP 9 levels in chronic pancreatitis patients compared to control subjects. Elevated levels were also observed in all the patient groups compared to control subjects with regard to sex, age, addictions etc. MMP-9 degrades the type IV collagens in normal basement membrane, which in turn activates the pancreatic stellate cells which promote the development of pancreatitic fibrosis. Thus, elevated plasma levels of MMP-9 may act as a susceptibility factor for the development of chronic pancreatitis.
Chronic pancreatitis; Pancreatic stellate cells; Extracellular matrix
An 8-year-old boy was referred to our institute with dysmorphic features such as mild lupus, micrognathia, low hair line, hypoplasia, hemi atrophy of left side of the face, abnormal size of ears, hypothenar, hypoplasia of chin, and tongue tie. MRI scan was found to be normal and EEG suggestive of generalized seizure disorder. Cytogenetic evaluation of the proband revealed a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8 with 46, XY, and inv 8 (p11.2; q21.2) karyotype.
Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a poorly understood complex disorder, which results in progressive remodeling of the pulmonary artery that ultimately leads to right ventricular failure. A two-hit hypothesis has been implicated in pathogenesis of IPAH, according to which the vascular abnormalities characteristic of PAH are triggered by the accumulation of genetic and/or environmental insults in an already existing genetic background. The multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis is a statistical method used to identify gene–gene interaction or epistasis and gene–environment interactions that are associated with a particular disease. The MDR method collapses high-dimensional genetic data into a single dimension, thus permitting interactions to be detected in relatively small sample sizes.
To identify and characterize polymorphisms/genes that increases the susceptibility to IPAH using MDR analysis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A total of 77 IPAH patients and 100 controls were genotyped for eight polymorphisms of five genes (5HTT, EDN1, NOS3, ALK-1, and PPAR-γ2). MDR method was adopted to determine gene–gene interactions that increase the risk of IPAH.
With MDR method, the single-locus model of 5HTT (L/S) polymorphism and the combination of 5HTT(L/S), EDN1(K198N), and NOS3(G894T) polymorphisms in the three-locus model were attributed to be the best models for predicting susceptibility to IPAH, with a P value of 0.05.
MDR method can be useful in understanding the role of epistatic and gene–environmental interactions in pathogenesis of IPAH.
Gene–gene interactions; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; multifactor dimensionality reduction; multilocus genotypes; polymorphisms
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a progressive condition with right ventricular myocardium being replaced by fibro-fatty tissue. The spectrum of the expression may range from benign palpitations to the most malignant sudden death. Most of the mutations identified for the condition are localized in desmosomal proteins although three other nondesmosomal genes (cardiac ryanodine receptor-2, TGF-β3, and TMEM43) have also been implicated in ARVC. Both desmosomal and nondesmosomal genes were screened in a set of patients from local population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A set of 34 patients from local population were included in this study. Diagnosis was based on the criteria proposed by task force of European Society of Cardiology/International Society and Federation of Cardiology. Polymerase chain reaction-based single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis was carried out, and samples with abnormal band pattern were commercially sequenced.
Screening of cardiac ryanodine receptor revealed an insertion of a base in the intronic region of exon-28 in a patient, leading to a creation of a cryptic splice site. Screening of plakohilin-2 for mutations revealed an abnormal band pattern in three patients. Two of them had similar abnormal band pattern for exon-3.1. Sequencing revealed a novel 2 base pair deletion (433_434 delCT), which would lead to premature truncation of the protein (L145EfsX8). Another patient showed abnormal band pattern for exon-3.2 and sequencing revealed a missense mutation C792T leading to amino acid change P244L, in N-terminal, and this substitution may cause disturbances in the various protein–protein interactions.
This study reports novel cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR-2) mutations and Pkp-2 for the first time from Indian population.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy; fibro-fatty tissue; palpitations; sudden death
Idiopathic Pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a debilitating disease associated with very poor prognosis. The disease is characterised by endothelial dysfunction, smooth muscle proliferation and insitu thrombosis in the pulmonary artery, eventually leading to right ventricular failure. Two of the key endothelial mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of IPAH are endothelin-1 (EDN1) and nitric oxide (NO). EDN1 is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor whereas NO is a vasodilator. In the present study screening of the EDN1 gene (EDN1) and NOS3 polymorphisms was taken up, to evaluate their association with IPAH. A significant association of EDN1 3A/4A polymorphism (+138 A; rs10478694) (OR-3.485; CI-1.254, 9.999; p=0.013) and EDN1 Lys198Asn polymorphism (G/T, rs5370) (OR-3.378, CI-1.104, 10.582; p=0.03) with IPAH was observed. Our results indicate that EDN1 polymorphisms in interaction with other genetic markers may play a significant role in individual's susceptibility to the disease and its clinical progression.
IPAH; endothelial dysfunction; EDN1; NOS3; polymorphism; Linkage Disequilibrium
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is known to be manifested by mutations in 12 sarcomeric genes and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is known to manifest due to cytoskeletal mutations. Studies have revealed that sarcomeric mutations can also lead to DCM. Therefore, in the present study, we have made an attempt to compare and analyze the genetic variations of beta-myosin heavy chain gene (β-MYH7), which are interestingly found to be common in both HCM and DCM. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism leading to two different phenotypes has been discussed in this study. Till date, about 186 and 73 different mutations have been reported in HCM and DCM, respectively, with respect to this gene.
The screening of β-MYH7 gene in both HCM and DCM has revealed some common genetic variations. The aim of the present study is to understand the pathophysiological mechanism underlying the manifestation of two different phenotypes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
100 controls, 95 HCM and 97 DCM samples were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted following rapid nonenzymatic method as described by Lahiri and Nurnberger (1991), and the extracted DNA was later subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)s/mutations associated with the diseased phenotypes.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:
Similar variations were observed in β-MYH7 exons 7, 12, 19 and 20 in both HCM and DCM. This could be attributed to impaired energy compromise, or to dose effect of the mutant protein, or to even environmental factors/modifier gene effects wherein an HCM could progress to a DCM phenotype affecting both right and left ventricles, leading to heart failure.
Diastolic dysfunction; dose effect; dilated cardiomyopathy; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; single nucleotide polymorphism; systolic dysfunction
The common cause of mental impairment and the wide range of physical abnormalities is balanced chromosome rearrangement. As such, it is difficult to interpret, posing as a diagnostic challenge in human development. We present a unique familial case report with the paternally inherited autosomal-balanced reciprocal translocation involving chromosomal regions 8q and 18q. The etiology of the translocation, i.e. 46,XX,t(8;18)(q22.1;q22) was detected by conventional high-resolution Giemsa–Trypsin–Giemsa-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques. The father was found to be the carrier of the chromosome defect and also the same was observed in the first female child referred with a history of delayed milestone development. However, the second female child showed normal 46, XX karyotype. This is the first report of reciprocal translocation involving 8q and 18q associated with the delayed milestone development. The reason likely may be due to the rearrangement of genetic material at these breakpoints having a crucial relationship and thus manifesting developmental delay in the progeny. Accordingly, this paper also shows genetic counseling discussion for the cause.
Balanced reciprocal translocation; chromosomes 8 and 18; delayed milestones; Giemsa–Trypsin–Giemsa banding and FISH; translocation carrier
Arrythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a primary myocardial disorder morphologically characterized by subtle to severe replacement of the right ventricular myocardium by fatty and fibrous tissue. ARVC is known to be highly prevalent in European population with recent reports implicating it to be a major cause of sudden death in young individuals even from American and Asian population.
To implicate or exclude TMEM43 (ARVC-5), DSP(ARVC-8) genes and the yet to be identified gene at ARVC-6 locus in the pathogenesis in three families affected with ARVC from India.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Three families comprising of 42 affected/unaffected members were included in the study. Three microsatellite markers, D3S3613 (ARVC5) D10S1664 (ARVC6), D6S309 (ARVC8) were genotyped by PCR-based native PAGE. Two-point Linkage analysis was performed using LINKAGE program version 5.2
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
LOD scores from linkage analysis for the microsatellite marker D10S1664 (ARVC-6) in families KS and REV have shown positive value hinting the involvement of this locus in the etiology of ARVC, while linkage analysis in the SB family ruled out involvement of DSP, TMEM43 and ARVC-6, as negative LOD scores were obtained with all three loci. Therefore, linkage analysis carried out in the present study indicates that ARVC-6 (cumulative LOD score is equal to plus 1.203376 at θ is equal to 0.05) could be the locus harboring the mutated gene in two out of three families.
Arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy; linkage analysis; LOD; sudden death
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a complex cardiac muscular disorder, inherited as an autosomal dominant disease with variable penetrance. Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MyBPC) is the predominant myosin-binding protein isoform in the heart muscle. One hundred forty-seven mutations have been detected in MYBPC3, accounting for 15% of all HCM cases.
To screen exons 16, 18, 19, 22, 24, 28, 30, 31 and 34 in the MYBPC3 gene in Indian HCM patients.
Sixty control and 95 HCM samples were collected from cardiology units of the CARE Hospital (Nampally, Banjara Hills, Secunderabad, India) for genomic DNA isolation followed by polymerase chain reaction and single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis.
Screening of the exons revealed two variations – one novel frame shift mutation in exon 19 at the nucleotide position 11577^11578 and one novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in codon 1093 of exon 31, coding for glycine with a C>T transition (GGC/GGT), in addition to the seven known SNPs mainly in the intronic region and one known missense mutation D770N in this population.
The novel frame shift mutation identified in exon 19, D570fs, with the insertion of an adenine residue in codon 570 coding for aspartate, results in a premature termination codon that produces a truncated protein lacking myosin- and titin-binding sites, explaining the role of the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. A novel SNP identified in codon 1093 of exon 31 was found to be a synonymous codon, which may have a regulatory effect at the translational level, attributing to affinity differences between codon-anticodon interactions. The screening of this gene may be relevant in the Indian context.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; MYBPC3; Nonsense-mediated decay pathway; Novel mutation
Among the inherited cardiomyopathies, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy is unique with a peculiar pathology of fibro-fatty replacement. Studies have been carried out all over the world and several groups have reported clinical heterogeneity in manifestation of ARVD/C related symptoms. Present study is an attempt to identify the clinical profile of ARVD/C patients from Asian Indian origin.
31 patients in the span of three years were diagnosed with ARVD/C. Diagnosis was based on proposed task force criteria.
The mean age at diagnosis was 32.9 ± 16.4 years with slight tilt in male to female ratio (1.46). About 80% cases had palpitations, syncope in 45.16% and dyspnea in 22.5%, whereas 16% of patients were asymptomatic. About 50% of patients revealed a family history of confirmed ARVD/C or sudden death of a family member without any known cause. ECG showed T-wave inversion in about 60% cases, prolongation of QRS was observed in 20% cases. RV dilatation was observed in 80% of patients and 66.7% showed systolic dysfunction. RV free wall motion abnormalities were found in 33% patients. Most of the early onset cases with less than 30 years of age showed family history indicative of ARVD/C. Familial study in three patients indicated early onset of condition in younger generations in two families.
ARVD/C in India shows relatively early age at onset when compared with other Asian populations with more than half of patients showing the disease below the age of 30 years. History in most of the early onset cases revealed family history indicating strong genetic influence.
Cardiomyopathies; ARVD/C; Clinical heterogeneity
The aim of the present study was to identify the possible genotypic association of 3’UTR Hind III polymorphism of Plasminogen activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH).
IPAH is a disorder with abnormally raised mean pulmonary arterial pressure and increase in the resistance to blood flow in pulmonary artery. One of the pathological features seen is development of intraluminal thrombin deposition leading to thrombosis. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is an important inhibitor of the fibrinolytic system; its up-regulation may suppress fibrinolysis and result in an increased risk of thrombosis.
Blood samples from 54 IPAH patients and 100 healthy voluntary donors were analyzed by PCR-RFLP method for 3’UTR Hind III polymorphism.
RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION:
A significant association of Hd2 allele with the disease was observed. Raised mean level of right ventricular systolic pressure was observed in the Hd2/Hd2 genotypic patients, strengthening the role of Hd2 allele in the disease progression. Our data suggests an association of Hd2/Hd2 genotype, which may lead to the up-regulation of PAI-1 gene leading to increased levels of PAI-1, which is seen in IPAH. PAI-1 competes with plasminogen activators and hinders the normal mechanism of plasminogen activation system and leads to thrombosis and formation of plexiform lesions in the lung tissue, further strengthening its role in tissue remodeling and disease progression.
Fibrinolytic pathway; idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; thrombosis; tissue remodelingIntroduction
Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle disorders and are classified as 1) Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) 2) Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) 3) Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) and 4) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) as per WHO classification, of which HCM and DCM are common. HCM is a complex but relatively common form of inherited heart muscle disease with prevalence of 1 in 500 individuals and is commonly associated with sarcomeric gene mutations. Cardiac muscle troponin I (TNNI-3) is one such sarcomeric protein and is a subunit of the thin filament-associated troponin-tropomyosin complex involved in calcium regulation of skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. Mutations in this gene were found to be associated with a history of sudden cardiac death in HCM patients.
Therefore the present study aims to identify for mutations associated with troponin I gene in a set of HCM patients from Indian population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Mutational analyses of 92 HCM cases were carried out following PCR based SSCP analysis.
The study revealed band pattern variation in 3 cases from a group of 92 HCM patients. This band pattern variation, on sequencing revealed base changes, one at nt 2560 with G>T transversion in exon-5 region with a wobble and others at nt 2479 and nt 2478 with G>C and C>G transversions in the intronic region upstream of the exon 5 on sequencing. Further analysis showed that one of the probands showed apical form of hypertrophy, two others showing asymmetric septal hypertrophy. Two of these probands showed family history of the condition.
Hence, the study supports earlier reports of involvement of TNNI-3 in the causation of apical and asymmetrical forms of hypertrophy.
Genetic variation; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; sudden cardiac death; troponin-I